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Open Access Articles- Top Results for 1-Propanol

1-Propanol

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1-Propanol

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IUPAC name
Propan-1-ol[1]
Other names
  • n-Propyl alcohol
  • n-Propanol
  • n-PrOH
  • Ethylcarbinol
  • 1-Hydroxypropane
  • Propionic alcohol
  • Propionyl alcohol
  • Propionylol
  • Propyl alcohol
  • Propylic alcohol
  • Propylol
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This page is a soft redirect. Identifiers

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3DMet B00883 ATC code D08AX03 1098242 71-23-8 7pxY ChEBI CHEBI:28831 7pxY ChEMBL ChEMBL14687 7pxY ChemSpider 1004 7pxY DrugBank DB03175 7pxY EC number 200-746-9 25616 Jmol-3D images Image KEGG C05979 7pxN MeSH 1-Propanol PubChem Template:Chembox PubChem/format RTECS number UH8225000 Template:Chembox UNII UN number 1274 colspan=2 style="background:#f8eaba; border-top:2px solid transparent; border-bottom:2px solid transparent; text-align:center;" #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. Properties

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C3H8O Molar mass Lua error in Module:Math at line 495: attempt to index field 'ParserFunctions' (a nil value). g·mol−1 Appearance Colorless liquid Odor mild, alcohol-like[2] Density .803 g/mL Melting point Script error: No such module "convert". Boiling point Script error: No such module "convert". miscible log P 0.329 Vapor pressure 1.99 kPa (at 20 °C) Acidity (pKa) 16 Basicity (pKb) −2 1.387 Viscosity 1.959 mPa×s (at 25°C) [3] Dipole moment 1.68 D colspan=2 style="background:#f8eaba; border-top:2px solid transparent; border-bottom:2px solid transparent; text-align:center;" #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. Thermochemistry

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143.96 J K−1 mol−1 192.8 J K−1 mol−1 −302.79–−302.29 kJ mol−1 −2.02156–−2.02106 MJ mol−1 colspan=2 style="background:#f8eaba; border-top:2px solid transparent; border-bottom:2px solid transparent; text-align:center;" #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. Hazards

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GHS pictograms The flame pictogram in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) The corrosion pictogram in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) The exclamation-mark pictogram in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) GHS signal word DANGER H225, H318, H336 P210, P261, P280, P305+351+338 EU Index 603-003-00-0 EU classification Highly Flammable F Irritant Xi R-phrases R11, R41, R67 S-phrases (S2), S7, S16, S24, S26, S39 NFPA 704

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Flash point Script error: No such module "convert". Script error: No such module "convert". Explosive limits 2.2% - 13.7%[2] 2800 mg/kg (rabbit, oral)
6800 mg/kg (mouse, oral)
1870 mg/kg (rat, oral)[4] US health exposure limits (NIOSH):

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This page is a soft redirect. Related compounds

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Related compounds
Butane
Propanamine
Ethanol
Butanol
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
 14pxN verify (what is10pxY/10pxN?) Infobox references

1-Propanol, is a primary alcohol with the formula CH3CH2CH2OH. This colorless liquid is also known as propan-1-ol, 1-propyl alcohol, n-propyl alcohol, and n-propanol. It is an isomer of isopropanol (2-propanol, isopropyl alcohol). It is formed naturally in small amounts during many fermentation processes and used as a solvent in the pharmaceutical industry mainly for resins and cellulose esters.

Chemical properties

1-Propanol shows the normal reactions of a primary alcohol. Thus it can be converted to alkyl halides; for example red phosphorus and iodine produce n-propyl iodide in 80% yield, while PCl3 with catalytic ZnCl2 gives 1-chloropropane. Reaction with acetic acid in the presence of an H2SO4 catalyst under Fischer esterification conditions gives propyl acetate, while refluxing propanol overnight with formic acid alone can produce propyl formate in 65% yield. Oxidation of 1-propanol with Na2Cr2O7 and H2SO4 gives only a 36% yield of propionaldehyde, and therefore for this type of reaction higher yielding methods using PCC or the Swern oxidation are recommended. Oxidation with chromic acid yields propionic acid.

Preparation

1-Propanol is manufactured by catalytic hydrogenation of propionaldehyde. The propionaldehyde is itself produced via the oxo process, by hydroformylation of ethylene using carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the presence of a catalyst such as cobalt octacarbonyl or a rhodium complex.[5]

H2C=CH2 + CO + H2 → CH3CH2CH=O
CH3CH2CH=O + H2 → CH3CH2CH2OH

A traditional laboratory preparation of 1-propanol involves treating n-propyl iodide with moist Ag2O.

1-Propanol was discovered in 1853 by Chancel, who obtained it by fractional distillation of fusel oil. Indeed 1-propanol is a major constituent of fusel oil, a by-product formed from certain amino acids when potatoes or grains are fermented to produce ethanol. This process is no longer a significant source of 1-propanol.

Safety

1-Propanol is thought to be similar to ethanol in its effects on human body, but 2-4 times more potent. Oral LD50 in rats is 1870 mg/kg (compared to 7060 mg/kg for ethanol). It is metabolized into propionic acid. Effects include alcoholic intoxication and high anion gap metabolic acidosis. As of 2011, only one case of lethal 1-propanol poisoning was reported.[6]

Inhalation

Although this method is rare, it does indeed exist. Propanol might be much more convenient than ethanol for inhalation because of its potency with nebulizers.

Propanol as fuel

1-propanol has high octane numbers and it is suitable to engine fuel usage. However, production of propanol has been too expensive to be a common fuel. The Research octane number (RON) of propanol is 118 and Anti-Knock Index (AKI) is 108.[7]

References

  1. ^ "1-Propanol - Compound Summary". PubChem Compound. USA: National Center for Biotechnology Information. 26 March 2005. Identification and Related Records. Retrieved 10 October 2011. 
  2. ^ a b c d e "NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards #0533". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). 
  3. ^ Pal, Amalendu; Gaba, Rekha (2008). "Volumetric, acoustic, and viscometric studies of molecular interactions in binary mixtures of dipropylene glycol dimethyl ether with 1-alkanols at 298.15 K". The Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics 40 (5): 818–828. doi:10.1016/j.jct.2008.01.008. 
  4. ^ "n-Propyl alcohol". Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). 
  5. ^ Anthony J. Papa "Propanols" in Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2011, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi:10.1002/14356007.a22_173.pub2
  6. ^ "N-PROPANOL Health-Base Assessment and Recommendation for HEAC". 
  7. ^ "Bioalcohols". Biofuel.org.uk. Retrieved 2014-04-16. 

Further reading

  1. Furniss, B. S.; Hannaford, A. J.; Smith, P. W. G.; Tatchell, A. R. (1989), Vogel's Textbook of Practical Organic Chemistry (5th ed.), Harlow: Longman, ISBN 0-582-46236-3 
  2. Lide, David R., ed. (2006-06-26). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 87th Edition (87 ed.). TF-CRC. ISBN 0-8493-0487-3. 
  3. Maryadele J. O'Neil, ed. (2006-11-03). The Merck Index: An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals (14 ed.). Merck. ISBN 0-911910-00-X. 
  4. Perkin, W. H.; Kipping, F. S (1922). Organic Chemistry. London: W. & R. Chambers. ISBN 0-08-022354-0. 

External links