Open Access Articles- Top Results for 16:9


For other meanings, see 16:9 (disambiguation).
File:16x9 by Pengo.svg
A 16:9 rectangle in which rectangles visualize the ratio. Note that the groupings are not square.
File:Hd tv samsung LE26R41BD.jpg
An LCD television set with a 16:9 image ratio.

16:9 (1.77:1) (16:9 = 42:32) is an aspect ratio with a width of 16 units and height of 9. Since 2009, it has become the most common aspect ratio for sold televisions and computer monitors and is also the international standard format of HDTV, Full HD, non-HD digital television and analog widescreen television.


File:Dr. Kerns Powers, SMPTE derivation of 16-9 aspect ratio.svg
An equal-area comparison of the aspect ratios which Dr. Kerns Powers employed to derive the SMPTE 16:9 standard.[1] TV 4:3/1.33 in red, 5:3/1.66 in orange, 16:9/1.77 in blue, 1.85 in yellow, Panavision 11:5/2.2 in mauve and CinemaScope/2.35 in purple.

Dr. Kerns H. Powers, a member of the SMPTE Working Group on High-Definition Electronic Production, first proposed the 16:9 (1.77:1) aspect ratio at a time when nobody was creating 16:9 videos. The popular choices in 1980 were: 1.33:1 (based on television standard's ratio at the time), 1.66:1 (the European "flat" ratio), 1.85:1 (the American "flat" ratio), 2.20:1 (the ratio of 70 mm films and Panavision) and 2.39:1 (the CinemaScope ratio for anamorphic widescreen films).

Powers cut out rectangles with equal areas, shaped to match each of the popular aspect ratios. When overlapped with their center points aligned, he found that all of those aspect ratio rectangles fit within an outer rectangle with an aspect ratio of 1.77:1 and all of them also covered a smaller common inner rectangle with the same aspect ratio 1.77:1.[1] The value found by Powers is exactly the geometric mean of the extreme aspect ratios, 4:3 (1.33:1) and 2.35:1, which is coincidentally close to 16:9 (1.77:1). Applying the same geometric mean technique to 16:9 and 4:3 yields the 14:9 aspect ratio, which is likewise used as a compromise between these ratios.[2]

While 16:9 (1.77:1) was initially selected as a compromise format, the subsequent popularity of HDTV broadcast has solidified 16:9 as perhaps the most important video aspect ratio in use.[citation needed] Most 4:3 (1.33:1) and 2.39:1 video is now recorded using a "shoot and protect" technique[3] that keeps the main action within a 16:9 (1.77:1) inner rectangle to facilitate HD broadcast[citation needed]. Conversely it is quite common to use a technique known as center-cutting, to approach the challenge of presenting material shot (typically 16:9) to both a HD and legacy 4:3 audience simultaneously without having to compromise image size for either audience. Content creators frame critical content or graphics to fit within the 1.33 raster space.[citation needed] This has similarities to a filming technique called Open matte.

After the original 16:9 Action Plan of the early 1990s, the European Union has instituted the 16:9 Action Plan,[4] just to accelerate the development of the advanced television services in 16:9 aspect ratio, both in PAL and also in HDTV. The Community fund for the 16:9 Action Plan amounted to 228 million.

In 2008 the computer industry started switching to 16:9 as the standard aspect ratio for monitors and laptops. A 2008 report by DisplaySearch cited a number of reasons for this shift, including the ability for PC and monitor manufacturers to expand their product ranges by offering products with wider screens and higher resolutions, helping consumers to more easily adopt such products and "stimulating the growth of the notebook PC and LCD monitor market".[5]

In 2011 Bennie Budler, product manager of IT products at Samsung South Africa, confirmed that monitors capable of 1920×1200 resolutions aren't being manufactured anymore. “It is all about reducing manufacturing costs. The new 16:9 aspect ratio panels are more cost effective to manufacture locally than the previous 16:10 panels”.[6] Since computer displays are advertised by their diagonal measure, for monitors with the same display area, a wide screen monitor will have a larger diagonal measure, thus sounding more impressive. Within limits, the amount of information that can be displayed, and the cost of the monitor depend more on area than on diagonal measure.

In March 2011 the 16:9 resolution 1920×1080 became the most common used resolution among Steam's users. The earlier most common resolution was 1680×1050 (16:10).[7]


16:9 is the only widescreen aspect ratio natively supported by the DVD format. Anamorphic DVD transfers store the information as 5:4 (PAL) or 3:2 (NTSC) square pixels, which is set to expand to either 16:9 or 4:3, which the television or video player handles. For example, a PAL DVD with a full frame image may contain a video resolution of 720×576 (5:4 ratio), but a video player software will stretch this to 1024×576 square pixels with a 16:9 flag in order to recreate the correct aspect ratio.

DVD producers can also choose to show even wider ratios such as 1.85:1 and 2.39:1[a] within the 16:9 DVD frame by hard matting or adding black bars within the image itself. Some films which were made in a 1.85:1 aspect ratio, such as the U.S.-Italian co-production Man of La Mancha and Kenneth Branagh's Much Ado About Nothing, fit quite comfortably onto a 1.77:1 HDTV screen and have been issued anamorphically enhanced on DVD without the black bars. Many digital video cameras have the capability to record in 16:9.

Super 16 mm film is frequently used for television production due to its lower cost, lack of need for soundtrack space on the film itself, and aspect ratio similar to 16:9.[citation needed]

Common resolutions

Common resolutions for 16:9 are listed in the table below:

Width Height Standard
640 360
720 405
864 486
960 540 qHD
1024 576
1280 720 HD
1366 768
1600 900 HD+
1920 1080 Full HD
2048 1152
2560 1440 QHD
2880 1620
3200 1800
3840 2160 4K UHDTV
4096 2304
5120 2880 5K
7680 4320 8K UHDTV
15360 8640 16K

In Europe

In Europe, 16:9 is the standard broadcast format for most digital channels and all HDTV broadcasts. Some countries adopted the format for analog television, first by using the PALplus standard (now obsolete) and then by simply using WSS signals on normal PAL broadcasts.

Country Channel
23x15px Albania Top Channel, TV Klan, Klan HD, Digi Gold, DigitALB HD (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6), SuperSport (1, 2, 3, 4, 5)*, Digi Plus**, Film Author**, Film Hits**, Film Thriller**, Film Drame**, Film Aksion**, Film Komedi**
*Do not set the aspect ratio correctly when broadcasting in 16:9 and the image appears squashed on 4:3 TV sets.
**These channels do broadcast in 16:9 and 4:3 but the aspect ratio is always kept 4:3 so 16:9 programs appear squashed.
23x15px Austria ORF1, ORF2, ORF Sport +, ORF1 HD, ATV, Puls 4, Servus TV, and others (all main channels)
23x15px Azerbaijan AzTV (16:9 in news programs), Idman Azerbaijan TV (16:9 in Premier League, La Liga, Serie A, UEFA Champions League, UEFA Europa League, Formula One), İctimai Television
23x15px Belarus Belsat
23x15px Belgium All channels
23x15px Bosnia and Herzegovina Kanal 1, Face TV, TV1, Hayat music, BDC TV, Hayat TV, Elta HD, Elta 2, BN TV
23x15px Bulgaria BNT 1*, bTV, Нова телевизия, Kanal 3, Fox Channel (Bulgaria), The Voice, TV+, FILM+/SPORT+, TV7*, RING.BG, bTV Action*, FEN TV, Balkanika Music Television, BG MUSIC Channel, PlanetaTV
* These stations do not set the aspect ratio correctly when broadcasting in 16:9 and the image appears stretched on 4:3 TV sets. Such stations use mostly 4:3 programming.
23x15px Cyprus Nine out of the 13 FTA channels always in 16:9 even when showing 4:3 content: ANT1 Cyprus, CyBC One, Two, HD and the international channels CyBC has the duty to rebroadcast: DT, Euronews, Sigma TV, Plus TV, Primetel.
The other four always broadcast in 4:3, even when showing 16:9 content: MEGA Cyprus, Capital TV, EXTRA TV, MusicTV.
23x15px Croatia HRT 1**, 2**, RTL Televizija*, RTL 2*, Nova TV* , Doma TV*, RTL Kockica* Sportska televizija**,

Older programmes filmed in 4:3 are:
**transmitted in their original format.

23x15px Czech Republic TV Nova, Česká televize, TV Nova HD, TV Prima, TV Barrandov
23x15px Denmark Almost all main channels.
23x15px Estonia All main digital channels (ETV, Kanal 2 and TV3) and their sister channels are 16:9.
23x15px Finland Almost all main channels as 16:9 with resolution 1920×1080 is the national standard for television, including but not limited to Yle TV1, Yle TV2, MTV3, Nelonen, TV5, Liv, Jim, Sub, Yle Fem, Yle Teema, Kutonen, Fox, AVA
23x15px France All nationwide channels on the French DVB-T (TNT)
And almost all pay channel via TNT, ADSL, DVB-C and DVB-S;
Canal+ Décalé, Canal+ Family, Poker Channel, CinePlay, Ciné Cinéma Premier, OL TV, Motors TV, Disney Cinemagic, Disney Cinemagic + 1, NRJ Hits, Ciné Cinéma Premier HD and SD, National Geographic HD and SD, Ushuaia TV HD and SD, Disney Cinemagic HD and SD, MTV HD, NRJ 12 HD and SD, iConcert HD, HD1, Melody Zen HD, Sci Fi Channel HD and SD, 13ème Rue HD and SD, Orange cinemax HD...
23x15px Germany Almost all channels.
23x15px Georgia Maestro TV, Tabula TV, GDS TV, Voice of Abkhazia
23x15px Greece All major stations in Greece N1, N plus N HD, ANT1, Mega Channel, Alpha TV, Star Channel, EPSILON TV, Makedonia TV, now use the 16:9 aspect ratio, and only switch to 4:3 when an older program is broadcast. Skai TV was the first in Greece to broadcast in 16:9 format on 2006, and 100% of its programming is in 16:9.

Other stations using exclusively 16:9 aspect ratio: MTV Greece, NovaCinema1, NovaCinema2, NovaCinema3, NovaCinema4, NovaCinema HD, NovaSports1, NovaSports2, NovaSports3, NovaSports4, NovaSports Highlights, NovaSports6, NovaSports7, NovaSports HD, Nickelodeon (Greece), Kontra Channel, THRAKI NET, IONIAN CHANNEL, BEST TV, PatraTV, Blue Sky TV, Action 24, ΜΕΣΟΓΕΙΟΣ TV, ΚΡΗΤΗ TV, NEA TV ΚΡΗΤΗΣ, ΘΡΑΚΗ NET, TV 100, ΗΠΕΙΡΟΣ TV1, ΑΛΦΑ ΤΗΛΕΟΡΑΣΗ ΔΡΑΜΑΣ TELE TIME
4:3 is still the most popular aspect ratio among local television stations.

23x15px Hungary All main channels (RTL Klub,[8] RTL Klub HD, RTL2, Cool, Film+, TV2,[9] SuperTV2, TV2 HD, M1, M2, Duna TV,[10] Duna World, FEM3, PRO4) Story4, Sport Klub, Sport 1, Sport 2, Sport M, Life Network, Ozone Network, Viasat3, TV6, ATV, Spektrum, DigiSport, 1 Music Channel, MusicMix, Discovery Channel, DoQ
Template:Country data Iceland All three national stations broadcast in 16:9 with occasional 4:3 programs. Local stations still use 4:3.
23x15px Ireland RTÉ One, RTÉ 2, TV3, TG4, and Setanta Ireland
23x15px Italy Exclusively widescreen: All Sky Italia Channels (Sky Cinema, Sky Primafila, Sky Sport, Sky TG24...), All Fox Company Channels except Fox Retrò, Cielo, all Discovery Channels except Animal Planet (Discovery, DMAX, Real Time, Discovery Science...), RTL 102.5 TV, QVC Italy, TGCom 24, Rai Storia, Rai News, Rai Sport Channels, all NatGeo Channels, History Channel, Winga, MTV Channels except MTV Classic, all Disney Channels except Disney In English, all Mediaset Premium channels, Deejay TV, Vero, TG Norba 24, SuperTennis and other.

16:9 with 4:3 occasional programs: Rai, Mediaset, La7, La7d, Giallo.
Anamorphic 16:9: Sportitalia Channels,, Repubblica TV.

23x15px Latvia Always on 16:9: Latvijas Televizija (LTV1, LTV7), Re:TV, Riga TV24, OTV, TV XXI.

Often on 16:9: MTG channels (TV3, LNT and others)

23x15px Lithuania Always on 16:9: LRT televizija, LRT Kultūra, LRT Lituanica, Sport1 (Lithuania), Lietuvos rytas TV, BTV (Lithuania), Balticum Auksinis.

Often on 16:9: LNK, TV3 Lithuania, TV6, TV8, TV1, Info TV, Viasat Sport Baltic.
Always on 4:3: Liuks!, Balticum TV

23x15px Luxembourg RTL Télé Lëtzebuerg,
23x15px Macedonia Alfa tv, MRT 1, MRT 2, Sitel,
23x15px Malta All nationwide channels.
23x15px Montenegro RTCG, TV Vijesti
23x15px Netherlands All nationwide channels (Netherlands Public Broadcasting, RTL, SBS), BravaHDTV. Only older programmes filmed in 4:3 are usually transmitted in their original format, as cropping a 4:3 picture for 16:9 TVs has proved unpopular.
23x15px Norway 16:9 is the national standard for television – almost all channels conform to this format.
23x15px Poland All nationwide, TVP, ITI, Discovery Communications, Canal+ Group and Polcast Television channels, VIVA, Polsat News, Polsat Sport, Polsat Sport Extra, Polsat Café, Polsat Film SD and HD, Polsat Sport News, Polsat Play, Polsat News 2, TVS,, Eska TV, Orange Sport, Eurosport SD and HD, Eurosport 2 SD and HD, AXN SD and HD, National Geographic Channel HD, NatGeo Wild HD, Fox, FOX Life HD, MGM HD, BBC Knowledge HD, Disney Channel, Disney XD, Superstacja, Kino Polska Muzyka, Disco Polo Music, TV.Disco, Polo TV,
23x15px Portugal RTP1 (except news), RTP2 (almost all shows), RTP Informação (only some shows and continuity), RTP África, RTP Internacional, SIC Mulher, SIC Radical +TVI, TVCine, MOV, Canal Q, AXN, AXN Black, AXN White, National Geographic Channel, SportTV, Syfy, Económico TV, História, Disney Channel, Disney Junior, Odisseia, FOX, FOX Life, FOX Crime, Fox Movies, A Bola TV, Canal Hollywood, MTV, Nickelodeon, Discovery Channel, Localvisão TV, CMTV
23x15px Romania Occasional 16:9 widescreen programming shown on the Romanian Public Broadcaster's channels (TVR 1, TVR 2, TVRi),, RegioTV Transilvania, Pro Tv, B1 TV, Dolce Sport and DigiSport. SSD version aired in 16:9-in-4:3 letterbox on PRO Cinema, Antena 1 Romania, Prima Tv Romania, Zutv, National Tv, ID Extra Romania and MTV Romania. Full 16:9 widescreen programming aired on all HD channels: TVR HD, PRO TV HD, Kanal D HD, Dolce Sport HD, Digi Sport 1, 2 and 3 HD, Digi 24 HD, Digi Life HD, Digi World HD, Digi Animal World HD, National Geographic HD, Comedy Central and Extra HD, Discover Channel HD Romania, Animal Planet HD Romania, UTV HD, Acasa TV HD and HD.
23x15px Russia Always on 16:9: Channel One Russia, VGTRK (Russia-HD, Russia-24, Carousel, Sport-1, IQ HD), OTR, Ren-TV, LifeNews, RT, NTV, NTV Plus HD channels, Tricolor TV HD-channels, RTG TV, FOX, FOX life, National Geographic Channel, Nat Geo Wild, Dozhd Optimistic Channel, Euronews, RBC TV, Eurospot channels, Viasat TV1000 HD channels, Discovery HD-channels, Nickelodeon, HD media
Often on 16:9: NTV Plus Sport plus, NTV Plus channels, Viasat channels, Tricolor TV channels
23x15px Serbia Prva (programming in 4:3 are transmissed in its original format with Prva logo changing its aspect ratio to match the aspect ratio of the program, idents are still being in 16:9), RTS1, RTS2 , RTS HD, RTS Digital, Arena Sport 1, 2, 3 and 4 (also on HD), Sport Klub, Sport Klub 2, Sport Klub 3, Sport Klub 4, 5, 6, SK Golf, Cinemania, RTV Pink (some programs airs in 4:3, recently most of the new programs are 16:9), Happy TV (some programming, still in 4:3)
23x15px Slovakia All nationwide channels (CME Slovakia (TV Markiza, Doma, Dajto), RTVS (Jednotka, Dvojka), J&T (TV JOJ, Plus, Wau), TA3)
23x15px Slovenia All main channels (RTV Slovenija (SLO 1, SLO 2, SLO 3, TV Koper/Capodistria, TV Maribor), Info TV, POP TV, POP BRIO, Kanal A, Sport TV 1, Sport TV 2, Sportklub+, Golfklub, HBO Slovenija, TV3 Slovenia, RTS Maribor) and all HD channels (Televizija Slovenija HD, Info TV HD)
23x15px Spain As of 2013, all nationalwide and regional channels on 16:9, as the national standard for television. Practically all of the local tv channels in 16:9. 4:3 is still common in PPV channels. Older programmes filmed in 4:3 are transmitted in their original format or zooming to 14:9 Pillarbox; stretched programs are rare.

The first films were broadcast in 16:9 (PALplus) at TV3 and TVG in 1997. Transition to widescreen programs and commercials started in only DVB-T and regional channels like Neox, Nova, Teledeporte, TV3 (Catalonia) or Aragón Televisión in late 2008, and in main analog networks in 2009 (except TVE). HD versions of nationwide main TV channels, Antena 3, Telecinco, LaSexta and TVE (as TVE HD) were launched (or relaunched in the case of TVE-HD) in 2010. 1080i HD version of Cuatro was launched in 2012. Main news programme in Spain, Telediario, only available in 16:9 as late as January 2012. Other networks' news programmes adapted to 16:9 in 2009 or early 2010.

23x15px Sweden Almost all main channels.
23x16px  Switzerland All SRG SSR channels.
23x15px Turkey Almost all channels.
23x15px Ukraine English Club TV, BTB (Bank television), 1+1 Media (Ukraine Today), StarLightMedia (M1, M2), Media Group Ukraine (NLO TV, Indigo TV, Football 1, Football 2), Tonis, 112 Ukraine, Music Box Ukraine, Espresso TV, HD Fashion, Trofey TV, Poverkhnost TV (Sport 1, Sport 2), ATR, Black Sea Broadcasting
23x15px United Kingdom In 1998, with the introduction of digital television, digital versions of BBC One, BBC Two, ITV and Channel 4 were created. An On Digital set top box or a subscription to Sky Digital was required to view the digital versions.

On 1 July 2000, "C-Day", most of the UK broadcast industry began requiring commercials to be delivered in 16:9 full-height format (with a 14:9 safe area for those channels still broadcasting in 4:3). ITV and C4 upgraded their continuity suites to be 16:9 capable at the same time, allowing idents to be broadcast in widescreen format on digital.
In 2001, the UK's fourth broadcaster Channel 5 switched to 16:9.
In 2002, On Digital became defunct and free-to-air digital terrestrial television services instead began to operate under the name of Freeview.
In 2003, Sky branded channels were re-branded which included the switch to 16:9.
In 2006, BBC HD began broadcasting in 1080i which became the standard for all HD channels. Similar to the switch to Digital in 1998, viewers using terrestrial services required an additional set-top-box which was HD capable
In 2007, Channel 4 HD was launched on Sky. It was later added to Virgin Media in 2009 and then to Freeview HD in 2011.
In 2008, ITV HD was launched on Freesat and was later added to Virgin Media, Sky and Freeview HD in 2010.
In 2009, Freeview HD launched allowing terrestrial viewers to watch BBC HD and ITV HD without a subscription, a Freeview HD set-top box or television is required.
In 2010, Channel 5 HD was launched on Sky and Virgin Media.
In 2011, BBC One HD was launched on Sky, Virgin Media and Freeview HD.

As of 2012,
Almost all Freeview channels broadcast in 16:9;
Almost all Virgin Media/Sky channels broadcast in 16:9 with the rest expected to switch by the end of 2012.

In Oceania

Country Channel
23x15px Australia All major channels since the introduction of DVB-T in 2001.

As of 2014, all major free to air channels and almost all pay TV channels (including SD) are in 16:9. Older 4:3 programs are either shown in their original format or zoomed to 14:9 or 16:9.

23x15px New Zealand Almost all channels

In Asia

Japan's Hi-Vision originally started with a 5:3 ratio but converted when the international standards group introduced a wider ratio of 513 to 3 (=16:9).

Country Channel
23x15px China CCTV News, CCTV-5+
Template:Country data Hong Kong All major channels since the digital television broadcasting in 2007.
Template:Country data India HD channels were added by most DTH operators.
Template:Country data Indonesia Kompas TV, BeritaSatu TV, NET., CNN Indonesia, Bang Habib, Eri Satria, Hasan Al-Basri, and Bang Mirza.
23x15px Malaysia All HD channels available on Astro and HyppTV are in widescreen format.
Template:Country data Israel All main channels, including but not limited to Hot&Yes.
Template:Country data Japan Japan pioneered in its analogue HDTV system (MUSE) in 16:9 format, started in the 1980s. Currently all main channels have Digital terrestrial television channels in 16:9 while being simulcast in analogue 4:3 format. Many satellite broadcast channels are being broadcast in 16:9 as well.
23x15px Pakistan Express News Now on 16:9.
23x15px Philippines TV stations in the Philippines Now on 16:9 This year.
23x15px Singapore All MediaCorp channels, however those channels did not set and broadcast content in correct ratio and 16:9 contents will look squashed in older 4:3 sets. Also, all 4:3 contents including news clips will be stretched as stretching is common.
Template:Country data South Korea All major channels currently feature 16:9 aspect.
23x15px Qatar All Al Jazeera Sports channels, Al Jazeera, Al Jazeera English, Qatar TV HD, all alkass channels
23x15px Thailand All major channels since the digital television broadcasting in 2014.
23x15px United Arab Emirates Alarabiya (Since 01.07.2011), MBC 1, MBC 2, MBC DRAMA, AD ALOULA, AD AL EMARAT, AD SPORTS HD 1-7,AD DRAMA +HD, exactly OSN channels broadcast in 16:9
23x15px Vietnam All of VTC HD's channels, VTV channels, K+'s channels (selected programme)

In South America

Country Channel
23x15px Bolivia Always on 16:9 PAT, ATB. Often on 16:9 Bolivia TV.
23x15px Brazil Rede Bandeirantes, Rede Globo, Rede Record, Rede Gazeta, Rede TV!, SBT, FOX Sports, ESPN, ESPN Brasil, ESPN+, Telecine Premium, Telecine Action, Telecine Touch, Telecine Pipoca, Telecine Fun, Telecine Cult, Multishow, GNT, HBO, HBO HD, MAX HD, Gloob, Arte1, Megapix Sky Esportes, Canal Off, BIS, Canal Sony, History Channel, TBS, AXN, +Globosat, Warner Channel, Bio., Discovery Channel, and more.
23x15px Chile Canal 13HD, Chilevisión HD, TVN HD, MEGA HD.

See also


  1. ^ The 2.39:1 ratio is commonly labeled 2.40:1, e.g., in the American Society of Cinematographers' American Cinematographer Manual, and is mistakenly referred to as 2.35:1 (only cinema films before the 1970 SMPTE revision used 2.35:1).



  1. ^ a b "Understanding Aspect Ratios" (TECHNICAL BULLETIN). The CinemaSource Press. 2001. Retrieved 2009-10-24. 
  2. ^ US 5956091, "Method of showing 16:9 pictures on 4:3 displays", issued 1999-09-21 
  3. ^ Baker, I (1999-08-25). "Safe areas for widescreen transmission" (PDF). EBU (CH: BBC). Retrieved 2009-10-27. 
  4. ^ "Television in the 16:9 screen format" (LEGISLATION SUMMARY). EU: Europa. Retrieved 2011-09-08. 
  5. ^ "Product Planners and Marketers Must Act Before 16:9 Panels Replace Mainstream 16:10 Notebook PC and Monitor LCD Panels, New DisplaySearch Topical Report Advises". DisplaySearch. 2008-07-01. Retrieved 2011-09-08. 
  6. ^ "Widescreen monitors: Where did 1920×1200 go? « Hardware « MyBroadband Tech and IT News". 2011-01-10. Retrieved 2011-09-08. 
  7. ^ "Steam Hardware & Software Survey". Steam. Retrieved 2011-09-08. 
  8. ^ "RTL KLub 16:9-es képarányban | R-Time". R-time. Retrieved 2011-09-08. 
  9. ^ "Tájékoztató a 16:9 képarányú sugárzásról | TV2 Sales". TV2. Retrieved 2011-09-08. 
  10. ^ Szerző, Lukács Andrea (2010-10-05). "A Duna TV műholdváltása – Duna Televízió". Duna Televízió. Retrieved 2011-09-08.