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1934 Montreux Fascist conference

The Fascist International Congress was a meeting held by deputies from a number of European Fascist organizations. The conference was held on 16–17 December 1934 in Montreux, Switzerland. The conference was organised and chaired by Comitati d'Azione per l'Universalita di Roma (CAUR), or the Action Committees for the Universality of Rome.


CAUR was a network founded in 1933 by Benito Mussolini's Fascist Regime. CAUR's director was Eugenio Coselschi, and its stated goal was to act as a network for a "Fascist International"[1] Major obstacles arose in the organisation's attempt to identify a "universal fascism" and the criteria that an organisation must fulfil in order to qualify as "fascist".[1] Nevertheless, by April 1934 the network had identified "fascist" movements in 39 countries, including all European countries except Yugoslavia, as well as the United States, Canada, Australia, South Africa, five countries in Asia and six in Latin America.[1] As different groups tried to obtain subsidies all manners of conflicts arose on issues such as racism, anti-Semitism, corporatism and state structure.[2]


The first world conference of the CAUR convened at Montreux on 16 December. Participants from fascist organisations in 13 European countries attended, including Ion Moța of Romania's Iron Guard, Vidkun Quisling of Norway's Nasjonal Samling, George S. Mercouris of the Greek National Socialist Party, Ernesto Giménez Caballero of the Spanish Falange movement, Eoin O'Duffy of the Irish Blueshirts, Marcel Bucard of the French Mouvement Franciste,[3] representatives from Lithuania's Tautininkai,[4] the Portuguese Acção Escolar Vanguarda (Vanguard School Action, with observer status), headed by António Eça de Queiroz (son of the famous writer, and future head of the Emissora Nacional, the National Radio Station of Portugal),[5] as well as delegates from Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Greece, the Netherlands and Switzerland.

Notable in their absence were any representatives from Nazi Germany.[6] The conference in Montreux occurred only six months after the assassination of the Austrofascist Austrian chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss by Nazi agents and the resulting diplomatic crisis between Italy and Germany. Likewise, Mussolini did not allow any official representative of the Italian Fascist Party attend the meeting, ostensibly in order to see what the conference could achieve before lending full official support.[6] José Antonio Primo de Rivera, while allowing members of the Falange to participate, stated that the Falange as an organisation would not be represented, as the CAUR was "not a Fascist movement".[7] Other notable absences included the Austrian Ernst Rudiger von Starhemberg and any representatives from the British Union of Fascists.[6]


From the outset, the conference was marred by serious conflicts between the participants. Coselschi, acting as President of the Conference, clashed with Quisling over the importance of Nazi Germany to international fascism.[6] Moța, supported by the Danish and Swiss delegates, likewise created a rift by underlining the centrality of anti-Semitism to fascist movements, a move opposed by Coselschi and O'Duffy.[6] The Romanian Iron Guard stressed the need for race to be an integral component of fascism.[8]

On the matter of anti-Semitism, several compromise resolutions were adopted. These declared that "the Jewish question cannot be converted into a universal campaign of hatred against the Jews," while also stating that "Considering that in many places certain groups of Jews are installed in conquered countries, exercising in an open and occult manner an influence injurious to the material and moral interests of the country which harbors them, constituting a sort of state within a state, profiting by all benefits and refusing all duties, considering that they have furnished and are inclined to furnish, elements conducive to international revolution which would be destructive to the idea of patriotism and Christian civilisation, the Conference denounces the nefarious action of these elements and is ready to combat them.".[6]

The delegates at the conference also unanimously declared their opposition to communist movements and the Third International.[6]


A second and final conference was held in Montreux in April 1935. José Antonio Primo de Rivera did make a brief appearance at this conference, using the opportunity to express sympathies with the movement while stating that Spain was not ready to participate in any venture of international fascism, because his movement was estrictamente nacional, strictly national.[9]

The conference was not able to bridge the gulf between those participants who proposed achieving national integration by a corporative socio-economic policy and those who favored an appeal to race.[10] Pretensions to "universal fascism" could not survive this rift, and the movement did not meet its goal of acting as a counterbalance to international communism.[10]

The CAUR did not win official endorsement from the Italian Fascist Party or the Spanish Falange. It was unsuccessful presenting a commonly agreed definition as to what "fascism" was, and was unsuccessful in uniting most major fascist parties into one international movement.


Full members

Country Name Abbr Leader Government
23x15px Austria Fatherland Front VF Ernst Rüdiger Starhemberg in government
23x15px Belgium Rexist Party PR Jean Denis in opposition
23x15px Belgium Union of Diets National Solidarists VERDINASO Joris Van Severen in opposition
23x15px France Mouvement Franciste MF Marcel Bucard in opposition
23x15px Greece Greek National Socialist Party EESK George S. Mercouris in opposition
23x15px Greece National Union of Greece EEE Georgios Kosmidis in opposition
23x15px Ireland National Corporate Party PNC Eoin O'Duffy in opposition
23x15px Lithuania Iron Wolf GV Augustinas Voldemaras N/A
23x15px Netherlands National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands NSB Anton Mussert in opposition
23x15px Netherlands General Dutch Fascist League ANFB Jan Baars in opposition
23x15px Romania Iron Guard GF Ion Moța in opposition
23x16px  Switzerland National Union UN Georges Oltramare in opposition
23x16px  Switzerland National Front NF Rolf Henne in opposition
23x15px Spain Ernesto Giménez Caballero (Falange) N/A N/A in opposition

Observer members

Country Name Abbr Leader Government
23x15px Germany Nazi Party NSDAP Adolf Hitler in government
23x15px Italy National Fascist Party PNF Benito Mussolini in government
23x15px Portugal National Union UN António de Oliveira Salazar in government
23x15px Spain Spanish Falange FE de las JONS José Antonio Primo de Rivera in opposition

See also


  1. ^ a b c Payne, Stanley G. "Fascist Italy and Spain, 1922–1945". Spain and the Mediterranean Since 1898, Raanan Rein, ed. page 105. London, 1999
  2. ^ Payne, Stanley G. "Fascist Italy and Spain, 1922–1945". Spain and the Mediterranean Since 1898, Raanan Rein, ed. page 105. London, 1999
  3. ^ Bingham, John. "Defining French Fascism, Finding Fascists in France". Canadian Journal of History, Dec. 1994.
  4. ^ Griffin, Roger. The Nature of Fascism St. Martin's Press, New York. 1991, page 121
  5. ^ Cordeiro, Filipe. Nacional Sindicalismo / Estado Novo / . Unica Semper Avis, website of the Causa Real (federation of Portuguese Monarchist associations), 18 October 2001 09:58:07 PM
  6. ^ a b c d e f g "Pax Romanizing". TIME Magazine, 31 December 1934
  7. ^ Payne, Stanley G. "Fascist Italy and Spain, 1922–1945". Spain and the Mediterranean Since 1898, Raanan Rein, ed. page 106. London, 1999
  8. ^ Morgan, Philip. Fascism in Europe, 1919–1945. London, UK; New York, USA: Routledge, 2003. Pp. 169-170.
  9. ^ Payne, Stanley G. "Fascist Italy and Spain, 1922–1945". Spain and the Mediterranean Since 1898, Raanan Rein, ed. page 107. London, 1999
  10. ^ a b Cassels, Alan. Ideology and International Relations in the Modern World Routledge, New York. page 158