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1954 24 Hours of Le Mans

1954 24 Hours of Le Mans
Previous: 1953 Next: 1955
Index: Races | Winners

The 22émes Grand Prix d’Endurance les 24 Heures du Mans 1954 was a race for Sports Cars, staged on 12 and 13 June 1954, at the Circuit de la Sarthe, Le Mans, France. It was the 22nd 24 Hours of Le Mans and was also the fourth race of the 1954 World Sportscar Championship.[1] The race was won by José Froilán González and Maurice Trintignant driving a Ferrari 375 Plus.

A battle between brute force and science. That was how the most people viewed the line-up ahead of the race. In the high technology corner, clothed in its beautiful, wind-tunnel tested, aerodynamic bodywork was the Jaguar D-Type with its 3.4-litre, six-cylinder engine. In the brute force corner, Ferrari’s formidable 4.9-litre V12-engined 375 Plus. Ranged somewhere in between was everyone else. It was billed as one of the most tantalizing line-ups ever seen at the French circuit.[2]

Report

Entry

Following their 1953 success at la Sarthe, Jaguar arrived with three brand new works Jaguar D-Types. These were so new that they hadn’t even been painted when they got to Le Mans. However, in their limited testing, the Coventry marque beat the lap records by five seconds. These cars were purpose-built for the billiard-smooth tarmac of the Sarthe. The team, which won in 1951 with Peter Walker and Peter Whitehead, and in 1953 with Tony Rolt and Duncan Hamilton; entered three works D-Types – to be driven by Walker and Stirling Moss, Whitehead and Ken Wharton, and Rolt and Hamilton.[2][3]

A grand total 85 racing cars were registered for this event, of which only 58 arrived for practice. In spite of the anticipated battle between Coventry and Maranello concerns, the entry list did not have quite the appeal that the star-studded quality as in 1953. The major Italian teams, Scuderia Ferrari, Officine Alfieri Maserati and Automobili Osca had built new cars for this race. Ferrari’s reply to the D-type came in the form of three Tipo 375 Pluses, a Ferrari 375 MM, which bored out engine, now with a cubic capacity of 4,954cc and double-ignition, putting out some 345 bhp. Ferrari’s hope were in the hands of Umberto Maglioli and Paolo Marzotto, José Froilán González and Maurice Trintignant, and Robert Manzon and Louis Rosier. They were backed up by a Ferrari 375 MM from the American, Briggs Cunningham team. Cunningham also brought over to Europe, a pair of Cunningham C4-Rs.[4]

Race

In terms of handling and agility, the Jaguars were at the top of the class, but the Ferraris were quicker by far on acceleration. It came as no surprise when the 375’s of González/Trintignant, Manzon/Rosier and Maglioli/Marzotto stormed away in 1-2-3 formation at the start. Moss, sharing with Walker, kept the D-Type in touch the Maranello threesome during the early stages, while Rolt was never too far behind, quick to move into this select pack as a rain shower doused the track within the first couple of hours. The chase was on and these five men would start the race as if it were some kind of sprint race. The early pace played into the hands of González and the other Ferraris. The order remain virtually intact until, by the end of the first hour, it would still be González in the lead, but Moss had managed to make his way up to 3rd.[2][5][6][7]

Although the Jaguars seemed to be pacing themselves extremely well, problems with blocked fuel link delayed them in third hour. By this time these issued were resolved; the trio of works Ferraris tightens their grip of the race. As the race moved from evening to night, so González and Trintignant pounded ever onwards, but the 375 Plus of Maglioli and Manzon were out with rear axle failure.[2][6][7]

A number of cars had fallen out of the race after just an hour or so. Then, seven hours into the race, the number of retirements would rapidly increase as the conditions began to change. The Aston Martin of Carroll Shelby and Paul Frère would be out, the Gordini of Jean Behra and André Simon would be gone.[6][7]

File:1954 Ferrari 375 Plus 34.jpg
1954 Ferrari 375 Plus. From the Ralph Lauren collection

The D-types were now steadily hailing themselves back into contention. By midnight Whitehead and Wharton were up to second, only two laps adrift of the leading Ferrari. Manzon/Rosier was third, ahead of Rolt and Hamilton, with the Aston Martins of Parnell/Salvadori and Collins/Bira completing the top six. The Lagonda had been eliminated after Eric Thompson dented its rear so badly when he spun into the bank at the Esses that the rear lights were destroyed, so it had to be withdrawn. Another casualty of the long night was Ian Stewart, who rolled his Aston Martin DBR3S on the fast stretch between Arnage and White House corners. The car was completely written off. As for Stewart, he sustained serious arm injuries.[2][6][7]

In the early hours of Sunday morning, Walker/Whitehead and Rosier/Manzon retired, both Jaguar and Ferrari succumbing to gearbox breakages. With the Moss/Walker car packed up with breaking problems late on Saturday evening, dawn arrived with the battle reduced to just one car for each team at the front of the field. What’s more, as the clouds built up and rain became an ever-present threat, the prospects for the aerodynamic D-types were starting to look petty promising. By breakfast time, the rain started to come down very heavy and the stage was set for a truly heroic chase. González and Trintignant could afford to take things cautiously, but any unnecessary delays would enable the pursuing Jaguar to open up a chink the Ferrari’s armour, and as the rain intensified, the sole remaining D-type piled on the pressure.[2]

Rolt and Hamilton had nothing to lose and everything to gain. They threw caution to wind and raced their D-type as hard as they dared in defence of title. Rolt glanced the bank coming out of Arnage on one lap, stopping for a bout impromptu panel beating. He had been forced off the road by a slower car, but there were no recriminations from the former British Army Major, and the ferocious chase continued.[2]

File:Jaguar D-Type rear-left Heritage Motor Centre, Gaydon.jpg
1954 Jaguar D-Type. From the Heritage Motor Centre collection

The rain eased during the morning, allowing the Ferrari to use of its power to better effect, but still the D-type would not give up. Then, around noon, the rain intensified again and the Jaguar drivers steadied the gap. With just two hours left to run, González and Trintignant were still almost two laps ahead of the English car. Despite those gallant efforts on the part of Rolt and Hamilton, the battle seemed hopeless. But with only ninety minutes to run Trintignant brought the 375 in for a routine stop. González took over, but the V12 refused to start. After a few seconds the Argentine jumped out of the car as the mechanics fumbled with the plugs. Rolt was now in sight, the Englishman intent on stopping for new goggles, but his pit crew waved him on. Now the Jaguar was on the same lap as the leader! [2][6][7]

Still the Italian mechanics fiddled beneath the bonnet. The crew knew the car’s engine was well as it had come into pit lane under its own power and sounding strong enough to complete the rest of the race. Therefore, the problem had to be something else leading to the engine. The number 4 Ferrari would sit idle for seven agonizing minutes. Then suddenly, the Ferrari’s engine burst back into life, González jumped back into the car and accelerated back on to the track. But he was barely ninety seconds ahead of the chasing Rolt, and his V12 sounded none to healthy. With thunder and lightning now lashed the soaking the circuit, and with an hour to go, Rolt handed over to Hamilton for the final assault. In a desperate sprint to the finish, Hamilton had carved the lead down to 1:26 mins, but as the track began to dried for the last few laps, González eased away to win by just under three minutes.[2][6][7]

González and Trintignant drove their Ferrari 375 Plus, to victory covering a distance of 2,523.486 miles (4,061.15 km), over 302 laps, averaging a speed of 105.145 mph (169.215kph). Rolt and Hamilton were classified as one lap adrift at the finish, in second place was their D-Type. The podium was completed by the American pair, William Spear and Sherwood Johnson, in their Cunningham-Chrysler C4-R, who were 19 laps (over 157 miles) behind the winners.[2][8]

The winner, the Argentinian, have a very special place in motorsport history, in relation to the Grand Prix d’Endurance les 24 Heures du Mans and Formula One. Three years before his victory, José Froilan González scored the first Ferrari’s F1 victory. Now, in was to be his last appearance at La Sarthe, this victory gave González a new status: the first driver to win in a Ferrari in Formula 1 and Le Mans.[6]

Overall, the Jaguars were faster (Moss was timed at 154.44 mph/278kph), but the Ferrari had superior acceleration and better breaking. Although finishing third and fifth, the Cunninghams were unable to match the pace of the leaders, with no Astons at the finish. The 1500cc class saw a lucky for Porsche KG, and their drivers Johnny Claes and Pierre Stasse, as the two leading Oscas, leading by 15 laps, both retired in the last hour.[7]

Tony Rolt and Duncan Hamilton had gone down fighting, but Le Mans had not heard the end of the Jaguar D-type...

Official results

Pos Class No Team Drivers Chassis Engine Laps
1 S
5.0
4 23x15px Scuderia Ferrari 23x15px José Froilán González
23x15px Maurice Trintignant
Ferrari 375 Plus Ferrari 5.0L V12 302
2 S
5.0
14 23x15px Jaguar Cars Ltd. 23x15px Duncan Hamilton
23x15px Tony Rolt
Jaguar D-Type Jaguar 3.4L I6 301
3 S
8.0
2 23x15px Briggs Cunningham 23x15px William Spear
23x15px Sherwood Johnston
Cunningham C4-R Chrysler 5.5L V8 283
4 S
5.0
16 23x15px Ecurie Francorchamps 23x15px Roger Laurent
23x15px Jacques Swaters
Jaguar C-Type Jaguar 3.4L I6 277
5 S
8.0
1 23x15px Briggs Cunningham 23x15px Briggs Cunningham
23x15px John Gordon Bennet
Cunningham C4-R Chrysler 5.5L V8 274
6 S
3.0
30 23x15px Equipe Gordini 23x15px André Guelfi
23x15px Jacques Pollet
Gordini T15 Gordini 2.5L I6 263
7 S
2.0
35 23x15px Bristol Aeroplane Company 23x15px Peter S. Wilson
23x15px Jim Mayers
Bristol 450 Bristol 2.0L I6 260
8 S
2.0
33 23x15px Bristol Aeroplane Company 23x15px Tommy Wisdom
23x15px Jack Fairman
Bristol 450 Bristol 2.0L I6 257
9 S
2.0
34 23x15px Bristol Aeroplane Company 23x15px Mike Keen
23x15px John Line
Bristol 450 Bristol 2.0L I6 255
10 S
750
57 23x15px Automobiles Deutsch et Bonnet 23x15px René Bonnet
23x15px Élie Bayol
DB HBR Panhard 0.7L Flat-2 240
11 S
2.0
36 23x15px Automobiles Frazer Nash Ltd. 23x15px Maurice Gatsonides
23x15px Marcel Becquart
Frazer Nash Le Mans Coupe Bristol 2.0L I6 228
12 S
1.5
39 23x15px Porsche KG 23x15px Johnny Claes
23x15px Pierre Stasse
Porsche 550/4 RS 1500 Spyder Porsche 1.5L Flat-4 228
13 S
750
55 23x15px Ets. Monopole 23x15px Jean Hèmard
23x15px Pierre Flahaut
Monopole X84 Panhard 0.6L Flat-2 222
14 S
1.1
47 23x15px Porsche KG 23x15px Zora Arkus-Duntov
23x15px Gustave Olivier
Porsche 550/4 RS 1100 Spyder Porsche 1.1L Flat-4 216
15 S
2.0
62 23x15px Edgar B. Wadsworth 23x15px Edgar Wadsworth
23x15px John Brown
Triumph TR2 Triumph 2.0L I4 214
16 S
750
56 23x15px Ecurie Jeudy-Bonnet 23x15px Marc Gignoux
23x15px Louis Cornet
DB HBR Panhard 0.7L Flat-2 213

Not Classified

Failed to cover 70% of winner's distance (211 laps)

Pos Class No Team Drivers Chassis Engine Laps
17 S
750
59 23x15px Automobiles Panhard et Levassor 23x15px René Cotton
23x15px André Beaulieux
Panhard X88 Panhard 0.6L Flat-2 195
18 S
750
54 23x15px P. Garzynski 23x15px René Breuil
23x15px Jean Py
BG Le Mans Renault 0.7L I4 194

Disqualified

  • #11 was disqualified for failing to complete their final lap of the race in under 30 minutes.
  • #43 was disqualified for receiving outside assistance while still on the course.
Pos Class No Team Drivers Chassis Engine Laps
19 S
5.0
11 23x15px Georges Grignard 23x15px Jean Blanc
23x15px Serge Nersessian
Talbot T26 Gran Sport Talbot 4.6L I6 206
20 S
1.5
43 23x15px Automobili O.S.C.A. 23x15px Lance Macklin
23x15px Pierre Leygonie
23x15px James Simpson
O.S.C.A. MT-4 1500 O.S.C.A. 1.5L I4 247

Did Not Finish

Pos Class No Team Drivers Chassis Engine Laps
21 S
1.5
42 23x15px Automobili O.S.C.A. 23x15px Jacques Péron
23x15px Francesco Giardini
O.S.C.A. MT-4 1500 O.S.C.A. 1.5L I4 243
22 S
5.0
8 23x15px David Brown 23x15px Reg Parnell
23x15px Roy Salvadori
Aston Martin DB3S SC Aston Martin 2.9L Supercharged I6 222
23 S
1.1
63 23x15px Lucien Farnaud 23x15px Lucien Farnaud
23x15px Adolfo Macchieraldo
O.S.C.A. MT-4 1100 O.S.C.A. 1.1L I4 199
24 S
750
49 23x15px Automobiles VP 23x15px Yves Giraud-Cabantous
23x15px Just-Emile Verney
VP 166R Renault 0.7L I4 190
25 S
5.0
5 23x15px Scuderia Ferrari 23x15px Robert Manzon
23x15px Louis Rosier
Ferrari 375 Plus Ferrari 5.0L V12 177
26 S
750
58 23x15px Automobiles Panhard et Levassor 23x15px Pierre Chancel
23x15px Robert Chancel
Monopole X88 Panhard 0.6L Flat-2 157
27 S
1.5
41 23x15px Porsche KG 23x15px Hans Herrmann
23x15px Helmut Polensky
Porsche 550/4 RS 1500 Spyder Porsche 1.5L Flat-4 148
28 S
3.0
20 23x15px David Brown 23x15px Prince Birabongse Bhanubandh
23x15px Peter Collins
Aston Martin DB3S Coupe Aston Martin 2.9L I6 138
29 S
5.0
15 23x15px Jaguar Cars Ltd. 23x15px Peter Whitehead
23x15px Ken Wharton
Jaguar D-Type Jaguar 3.4L I6 131
30 S
3.0
27 23x15px Jean-Paul Colas 23x15px Jean-Paul Colas
23x15px Hermano da Silva Ramos
Aston Martin DB2/4 Vignale Aston Martin 2.9L I6 121
31 S
5.0
6 23x15px Briggs Cunningham 23x15px Phil Walters
23x15px John Fitch
Ferrari 375MM Ferrari 4.5L V12 120
32 S
2.0
28 23x15px Officine Alfieri Maserati 23x15px Alfonso de Portago
23x15px Carlo Tomasi
Maserati A6GCS Maserati 2.0L I6 116
33 S
2.0
38 23x15px Automobiles Frazer Nash Ltd.
23x15px Sture Nottorp
23x15px Sture Nottorp
23x15px Ivar Andersson
Frazer Nash Le Mans Bristol 2.0L I6 109
34 S
750
52 23x15px Ecurie Jeudy-Bonnet 23x15px Marc Azéma
23x15px Alphonse de Burnay
DB HBR Renault 0.7L I4 102
35 S
2.0
44 23x15px Alexandre Constantin 23x15px Edmond Mouche
23x15px Alexandre Constantin
Constantin Barquette Peugeot 1.3L Supercharged I4 95
36 S
5.0
12 23x15px Jaguar Cars Ltd. 23x15px Stirling Moss
23x15px Peter Walker
Jaguar D-Type Jaguar 3.4L I6 92
37 S
5.0
3 23x15px Scuderia Ferrari 23x15px Umberto Maglioli
23x15px Paolo Marzotto
Ferrari 375 Plus Ferrari 5.0L V12 88
38 S
1.1
46 23x15px Kieft Cars Ltd. 23x15px Alan Rippon
23x15px William Black
Kieft Coventry Climax 1.1L I4 86
39 S
1.1
65 23x15px Equipe Gordini 23x15px André Pilette
23x15px Gilberte Thirion
Gordini T17S Gordini 1.1L I4 76
40 S
3.0
19 23x15px Equipe Gordini 23x15px Jean Behra
23x15px André Simon
Gordini T24S Gordini 3.0L I8 76
41 S
3.0
22 23x15px David Brown 23x15px Carroll Shelby
23x15px Paul Frére
Aston Martin DB3S Aston Martin 2.9L I6 74
42 S
750
50 23x15px Guy Michel et André Guillard 23x15px Guy Michel
23x15px André Guillard
Renault 4CV Renault 0.7L I4 73
43 S
3.0
21 23x15px David Brown 23x15px Ian Stewart
23x15px Graham Whitehead
Aston Martin DB3S Coupe Aston Martin 2.9L I6 64
44 S
5.0
9 23x15px Ecurie Rossier 23x15px Jean-Louis Rosier
23x15px Pierre Meyrat
Talbot-Lago T26 Gran Sport Talbot-Lago 4.5L I6 62
45 S
2.0
31 23x15px Equipe Gordini 23x15px Charles de Clareur
23x15px André Moynet
Gordini T15 Gordini 2.0L I6 54
46 S
2.0
37 23x15px Automobiles Frazer Nash Ltd. 23x15px Rodney F. Peacock
23x15px Gerry A. Ruddock
Frazer Nash Le Mans Bristol 2.0L I6 49
47 S
5.0
10 23x15px Pierre Levegh 23x15px Pierre Levegh
23x15px Lino Fayen
Talbot-Lago T26 Gran Sport Talbot-Lago 4.4L I6 33
48 S
1.1
48 23x15px Kieft Cars Ltd. 23x15px Georges Trouis
23x15px Alfred P. Hitchings
Kieft Sport MG 1.1L I4 26
49 S
5.0
7 23x15px David Brown 23x15px Eric Thompson
23x15px Dennis Poore
Lagonda DP115 Lagonda 4.5L V12 25
50 S
750
66 23x15px Jacques Faucher 23x15px Jacques Faucher
23x15px Jean Hébert
Renault 4CV Renault 0.7L I4 20
51 S
750
51 23x15px Automobiles Deutsch et Bonnet 23x15px Pierre-Louis Dreyfus
23x15px Leon Dernier
23x15px Jean Lucas
DB HBR Renault 0.7L I4 8
52 S
750
53 23x15px Nardi et Co. 23x15px Alexandre Gacon
23x15px Dr. Mario Damonte
Nardi 750LM Crosley 0.7L I4 7
53 S
5.0
18 23x15px Luigi Chinetti 23x15px Porfirio Rubirosa
23x15px Innocente Baggio
Ferrari 375MM Berlinetta Ferrari 4.5L V12 5
54 S
750
60 23x15px Automobiles Panhard et Levassor 23x15px Lucien Pailler
23x15px Jacques Dewez
Panhard X88 Panhard 0.6L Flat-2 5
55 S
1.5
40 23x15px Porsche KG 23x15px Richard von Frankenberg
23x15px Helm Glöckler
Porsche 550/4 RS 1500 Spyder Porsche 1.5L Flat-4 4
56 S
750
64 23x15px Ecurie Jeudy-Bonnet 23x15px Claude Storez
23x15px Jean-Claude Vidilles
23x15px Jean Lucas
DB HBR Renault 0.7L I4 4
57 S
750
61 23x15px Automobiles Panhard et Levassor 23x15px Eugéne Dussous
23x15px Jacques Savoye
Panhard X84 Panhard 0.6L Flat-2 0

Standings after the race

Pos Championship Points
1 23x15px Ferrari 22
2 23x15px Lancia 14
3 23x15px Jaguar 9
4 23x15px Osca 8
5 23x15px Maserati 5
  • Note: Only the top five positions are included in this set of standings.

Championship points were awarded for the first six places in each race in the order of 8-6-4-3-2-1. Manufacturers were only awarded points for their highest finishing car with no points awarded for positions filled by additional cars. Only the best 4 results out of the 6 races could be retained by each manufacturer.

References


World Sportscar Championship
Previous race:
Mille Miglia
1954 season Next race:
RAC Tourist Trophy