Journals

Conferences

Open Access Articles- Top Results for 1986 Formula One season

1986 Formula One season

1986 FIA Formula One
World Championship season
Drivers' Champion: Alain Prost
Constructors' Champion: Williams-Honda
Previous: 1985 Next: 1987
File:Nigelcropped.jpg
Nigel Mansell finished as runner-up.
File:Piquet a Monza 1983.JPG
Mansell's team mate Nelson Piquet finished the season ranked third.

The 1986 Formula One season was the 37th season of FIA Formula One motor racing. It featured the 1986 Formula 1 World Championship which commenced on 23 March and ended on 26 October after sixteen races. The Formula 1 World Championship for Drivers was won by Alain Prost [1] and the Formula 1 World Championship for Manufacturers was awarded to Williams.[2]

The championship culminated in a points battle between the Williams duo of Nelson Piquet and Nigel Mansell versus McLaren's Alain Prost at the final race, the 1986 Australian Grand Prix. Mansell's tyre blew in spectacular fashion and Piquet, in the lead at the time of the incident, was brought in for an unscheduled pit stop soon afterward by Williams to prevent the same happening to his tyres. This enabled Prost to take the lead and the race victory (his fourth of the season) and to secure his second consecutive drivers championship.[3] Mansell, Piquet, Prost, along with the new-rising star Ayrton Senna, dominated throughout the season and formed what was popularly dubbed as the "Gang of Four".[4]

For the first time, turbocharged engines were compulsory due to a ban on naturally aspirated (atmospheric) engines. The law banning atmospheric engines was rescinded in 1987, in preparation for a ban on all forced induction engines for 1989. For 2014 turbocharged engines are now the norm effectively ending naturally aspirated (atmospheric) engines.

The Formula One cars of 1986 are the most powerful F1 cars to ever have raced. There were still no limits on engine power, and some engines, including the powerful but rather unreliable BMW M12/13 1.5 litre single turbocharged straight-4 engine used by the Benetton, Brabham and Arrows teams, could throw out 1,350+ hp at 5.5 bar boost (79.7 psi) during qualifying; this would happen when the engineers took the boost restrictors off the engine- then the power of the turbocharged engines was so great that it could not even be accurately measured until years later, when the technology was advanced enough. Purpose-built drivetrains had to be fitted to the chassis of each car for specific sessions- there were qualifying engines (as described above) nicknamed "grenades" that had unrestricted boost pressure, and qualifying gearboxes, ones that were designed to withstand the engine's immense power; these components would only last about 3–4 minutes (2-3 laps) during use. These drivetrain units were then taken out and then replaced with the boost-restricted engines and specifically prepared gearboxes for races (if too much power was used, the engines would be so worn that the combusting in the engine would burst right through the block due to the immense stress on the metal caused by the extreme temperatures in the engine's internals, hence the nickname "grenade"). When these turbocharged engines were fitted to the cars, the whole package weighed about 540 kg (1,190 lb)- so the power-to-weight ratios were extreme. For qualifying, the power to weight ratios were about 2,500 hp/ton+ for the Benetton-BMW and 1,850 hp/ton for the Benetton's race trim; compared to about 1,175 hp/ton for a modern F1 car- and all Formula 1 cars had manual stick-shift gearboxes then. To put that in perspective, a modern family car produces about 80-100 hp/ton and the fastest modern road-going cars produce about 450-550 hp/ton. But a consistent problem for these new turbo engines that was somewhat smoothed over (particularly by Ford and Honda) over the years was the terrible turbo lag; engines were mechanically turbocharged in those days. The power would only come on all at once 2–3 seconds after the driver put his foot down; it would usually measure out from 100-300 hp for the first 2–3 seconds then the engine would go immediately to the top of the power range (usually 900-1000 hp). The black and white nature of these engines made them very difficult to drive; drivers had to anticipate when the power would come on, so they would floor the gas pedal much earlier than usual to get the power on at the right moment.

The boost of the engines would often be restricted to the point where they would only be producing around 900–1,000 hp during the race. The Honda twin-turbocharged V6 exclusively supplied to the Williams team were second to BMW in overall power and had slightly less power than the German engines, and the Ferrari, TAG/Porsche, and Renault twin-turbocharged V6 engines were not as powerful and as efficient as the Honda and BMW engines and produced about 25-40 less horsepower than the Japanese and German powerplants. The new Ford-Cosworth turbocharged V6 (a successor to the ubiquitous DFV V8) was made in a rush and was therefore underpowered and underdeveloped; it apparently had 150-200 less horsepower than the front-running European and Honda engines; but continued development meant that this engine got considerably better in 1987. And finally, the underfunded and very unreliable Alfa Romeo and Motori Moderni engines were considerably less powerful than any of the others and kept their users down the order frequently. The power difference in engines from 1980 to 1986 was huge- the power of engines over those 6 years doubled. In 1980, the most powerful engine was the Renault twin-turbo V6 engine, which produced between 550-600 horsepower; most teams were using naturally-aspirated Ford-Cosworth DFV V8 engines in 1980 that produced about 480-510 hp.

At many races, particularly at high speed circuits such as Imola, Spa-Francorchamps, Hockenheim, the Österreichring and Monza, fuel consumption was always a concern, as the FIA lessened the amount of allowable fuel from 220 litres in 1984 and 1985 to 195 litres for 1986. As a result, fuel consumption became a problem for most teams since the engines were slightly more powerful than before. There were many races where a number of drivers ran out of fuel, most notably Alain Prost at Hockenheim, who very nearly finished third but ran out of fuel less than a quarter of a mile from the finishing line. He got out and desperately tried to push his stricken car across the finish line, ultimately never making it and finishing sixth. The Honda engines (second in power to the BMW engines) had the edge on fuel consumption and reliability, but the TAG/Porsche, Renault and BMW engineers were able to gain some ground later in the season.

Drivers who retired from F1 racing at the end of 1986 were Patrick Tambay, as well as 1980 World Champion Alan Jones and 1982 champion Keke Rosberg, while injuries suffered at the British Grand Prix forced the retirement of Jacques Laffite. Those who never drove in an F1 race again after 1986 were Johnny Dumfries, Huub Rothengatter and Allen Berg, while Marc Surer suffered a serious rally crash following his ninth place finish in the Belgian Grand Prix which forced his retirement from driving altogether. Elio de Angelis was killed in a testing accident at the Circuit Paul Ricard after the Monaco Grand Prix; he remained the last driver to die in an F1 crash until Roland Ratzenberger at the 1994 San Marino Grand Prix.

The 1986 Formula One calendar featured two new events in the Hungarian Grand Prix, as well as the Mexican Grand Prix, the latter of which returned to the calendar after a sixteen-year absence. Two races exiting the calendar were the Dutch Grand Prix after 33 years, and the South African Grand Prix after 21 years.

Drivers and constructors

The following competitors contested the 1986 Formula 1 World Championship.

Entrant Constructor Chassis Engine Tyres No Driver Rounds
23x15px Marlboro McLaren International McLaren-TAG MP4/2C TAG/Porsche TTE PO1 1.5 V6t G 1 23x15px Alain Prost All
2 23x15px Keke Rosberg All
23x15px Data General Team Tyrrell Tyrrell-Renault 014
015
Renault EF4B 1.5 V6t G 3 23x15px Martin Brundle All
4 23x15px Philippe Streiff All
23x15px Canon Williams Honda Team Williams-Honda FW11 Honda RA166E 1.5 V6t G 5 23x15px Nigel Mansell All
6 23x15px Nelson Piquet All
23x15px Motor Racing Developments Brabham-BMW BT55 BMW M12/13/1 1.5 L4t P 7 23x15px Riccardo Patrese All
8 23x15px Elio de Angelis 1-4
23x15px Derek Warwick 6-16
23x15px John Player Special Team Lotus Lotus-Renault 98T Renault EF15B 1.5 V6t G 11 23x15px Johnny Dumfries All
12 23x15px Ayrton Senna All
23x15px West Zakspeed Racing Zakspeed 861 Zakspeed 1500/4 1.5 L4t G 14 23x15px Jonathan Palmer All
29 23x15px Huub Rothengatter 3-16
23x15px Team Haas (USA) Ltd Lola-Hart THL1 Hart 415T 1.5 L4t G 15 23x15px Alan Jones 1-2
16 23x15px Patrick Tambay 1-3
Lola-Ford THL2 Ford Cosworth GBA 1.5 V6t 15 23x15px Alan Jones 3-16
16 23x15px Patrick Tambay 4-6, 8-16
23x15px Eddie Cheever 7
23x15px Barclay Arrows BMW Arrows-BMW A8
A9
BMW M12/13 1.5 L4t G 17 23x16px Marc Surer 1-5
23x15px Christian Danner 7-16
18 23x15px Thierry Boutsen All
23x15px Benetton Formula Ltd Benetton-BMW B186 BMW M12/13 1.5 L4t P 19 23x15px Teo Fabi All
20 23x15px Gerhard Berger All
23x15px Osella Squadra Corse Osella-Alfa Romeo FA1G
FA1F
FA1H
Alfa Romeo 890T 1.5 V8t P 21 23x15px Piercarlo Ghinzani All
22 23x15px Christian Danner 1-6
23x15px Allen Berg 7-12, 14-16
23x15px Alex Caffi 13
23x15px Minardi Team SpA Minardi-Motori Moderni M185B
M186
Motori Moderni Tipo 615-90 1.5 V6t P 23 23x15px Andrea de Cesaris All
24 23x15px Alessandro Nannini All
23x15px Equipe Ligier Ligier-Renault JS27 Renault EF4B 1.5 V6t P 25 23x15px René Arnoux All
26 23x15px Jacques Laffite 1-9
23x15px Philippe Alliot 10-16
23x15px Scuderia Ferrari SpA SEFAC Ferrari F1/86 Ferrari 032 1.5 V6t G 27 23x15px Michele Alboreto All
28 23x15px Stefan Johansson All
23x15px Jolly Club SpA AGS-Motori Moderni JH21C Motori Moderni Tipo 615-90 1.5 V6t G 31 23x15px Ivan Capelli 13-14

Championship schedule

The 1986 Formula 1 World Championship was contested over a sixteen race series.[2]

Rnd Race Date Location Pole Position Fastest Lap Race Winner Constructor Report
1 23x15px Brazilian Grand Prix 23 March Jacarepaguá 23x15px Ayrton Senna 23x15px Nelson Piquet 23x15px Nelson Piquet 23x15px Williams-Honda Report
2 23x15px Spanish Grand Prix 13 April Jerez 23x15px Ayrton Senna 23x15px Nigel Mansell 23x15px Ayrton Senna 23x15px Lotus-Renault Report
3 23x15px San Marino Grand Prix 27 April Imola 23x15px Ayrton Senna 23x15px Nelson Piquet 23x15px Alain Prost 23x15px McLaren-TAG Report
4 23x15px Monaco Grand Prix 11 May Monaco 23x15px Alain Prost 23x15px Alain Prost 23x15px Alain Prost 23x15px McLaren-TAG Report
5 23x15px Belgian Grand Prix 25 May Spa-Francorchamps 23x15px Nelson Piquet 23x15px Alain Prost 23x15px Nigel Mansell 23x15px Williams-Honda Report
6 23x15px Canadian Grand Prix 15 June Circuit Gilles Villeneuve 23x15px Nigel Mansell 23x15px Nelson Piquet 23x15px Nigel Mansell 23x15px Williams-Honda Report
7 23x15px Detroit Grand Prix 22 June Detroit 23x15px Ayrton Senna 23x15px Nelson Piquet 23x15px Ayrton Senna 23x15px Lotus-Renault Report
8 23x15px French Grand Prix 6 July Paul Ricard 23x15px Ayrton Senna 23x15px Nigel Mansell 23x15px Nigel Mansell 23x15px Williams-Honda Report
9 23x15px British Grand Prix 13 July Brands Hatch 23x15px Nelson Piquet 23x15px Nigel Mansell 23x15px Nigel Mansell 23x15px Williams-Honda Report
10 23x15px German Grand Prix 27 July Hockenheimring 23x15px Keke Rosberg 23x15px Gerhard Berger 23x15px Nelson Piquet 23x15px Williams-Honda Report
11 23x15px Hungarian Grand Prix 10 August Hungaroring 23x15px Ayrton Senna 23x15px Nelson Piquet 23x15px Nelson Piquet 23x15px Williams-Honda Report
12 23x15px Austrian Grand Prix 17 August Österreichring 23x15px Teo Fabi 23x15px Gerhard Berger 23x15px Alain Prost 23x15px McLaren-TAG Report
13 23x15px Italian Grand Prix 7 September Monza 23x15px Teo Fabi 23x15px Teo Fabi 23x15px Nelson Piquet 23x15px Williams-Honda Report
14 23x15px Portuguese Grand Prix 21 September Estoril 23x15px Ayrton Senna 23x15px Nigel Mansell 23x15px Nigel Mansell 23x15px Williams-Honda Report
15 23x15px Mexican Grand Prix 12 October Hermanos Rodriguez 23x15px Ayrton Senna 23x15px Nelson Piquet 23x15px Gerhard Berger 23x15px Benetton-BMW Report
16 23x15px Australian Grand Prix 26 October Adelaide 23x15px Nigel Mansell 23x15px Nelson Piquet 23x15px Alain Prost 23x15px McLaren-TAG Report

1986 Drivers Championship final standings

Drivers' Championship points were awarded on a 9-6-4-3-2-1 basis to the top six finishers in each round.[5] However only the best eleven round results were counted towards each driver's championship total.[6]

Pos Driver BRA
23x15px
ESP
23x15px
SMR
23x15px
MON
23x15px
BEL
23x15px
CAN
23x15px
DET
23x15px
FRA
23x15px
GBR
23x15px
GER
23x15px
HUN
23x15px
AUT
23x15px
ITA
23x15px
POR
23x15px
MEX
23x15px
AUS
23x15px
Points[7]
1 23x15px Alain Prost Ret 3 1 1 (6) 2 3 2 3 (6) Ret 1 DSQ 2 2 1 72 (74)
2 23x15px Nigel Mansell Ret 2 Ret 4 1 1 5 1 1 3 3 Ret 2 1 (5) Ret 70 (72)
3 23x15px Nelson Piquet 1 Ret 2 7 Ret 3 Ret 3 2 1 1 Ret 1 3 4 2 69
4 23x15px Ayrton Senna 2 1 Ret 3 2 5 1 Ret Ret 2 2 Ret Ret 4 3 Ret 55
5 23x15px Stefan Johansson Ret Ret 4 10 3 Ret Ret Ret Ret 11 4 3 3 6 12 3 23
6 23x15px Keke Rosberg Ret 4 5 2 Ret 4 Ret 4 Ret 5 Ret 9 4 Ret Ret Ret 22
7 23x15px Gerhard Berger 6 6 3 Ret 10 Ret Ret Ret Ret 10 Ret 7 5 Ret 1 Ret 17
8 23x15px Jacques Laffite 3 Ret Ret 6 5 7 2 6 Ret 14
9 23x15px Michele Alboreto Ret Ret 10 Ret 4 8 4 8 Ret Ret Ret 2 Ret 5 Ret Ret 14
10 23x15px René Arnoux 4 Ret Ret 5 Ret 6 Ret 5 4 4 Ret 10 Ret 7 15 7 14
11 23x15px Martin Brundle 5 Ret 8 Ret Ret 9 Ret 10 5 Ret 6 Ret 10 Ret 11 4 8
12 23x15px Alan Jones Ret Ret Ret Ret 11 10 Ret Ret Ret 9 Ret 4 6 Ret Ret Ret 4
13 23x15px Johnny Dumfries 9 Ret Ret DNQ Ret Ret 7 Ret 7 Ret 5 Ret Ret 9 Ret 6 3
14 23x15px Philippe Streiff 7 Ret Ret 11 12 11 9 Ret 6 Ret 8 Ret 9 Ret Ret 5 3
15 23x15px Patrick Tambay Ret 8 Ret Ret Ret DNS Ret Ret 8 7 5 Ret NC Ret NC 2
16 23x15px Teo Fabi 10 5 Ret Ret 7 Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret 8 Ret 10 2
17 23x15px Riccardo Patrese Ret Ret 6 Ret 8 Ret 6 7 Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret 13 Ret 2
18 23x15px Christian Danner Ret Ret Ret DNQ Ret Ret Ret 11 Ret Ret Ret 6 8 11 9 Ret 1
19 23x15px Philippe Alliot Ret 9 Ret Ret Ret 6 8 1
23x15px Thierry Boutsen Ret 7 7 8 Ret Ret Ret NC NC Ret Ret Ret 7 10 7 Ret 0
23x15px Derek Warwick Ret 10 9 8 7 Ret DNS Ret Ret Ret Ret 0
23x15px Jonathan Palmer Ret Ret Ret 12 13 Ret 8 Ret 9 Ret 10 Ret Ret 12 10 9 0
23x15px Huub Rothengatter Ret DNQ Ret 12 DNS Ret Ret Ret Ret 8 Ret Ret DNS Ret 0
23x15px Andrea de Cesaris Ret Ret Ret DNQ Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret 8 Ret 0
23x15px Elio de Angelis 8 Ret Ret Ret 0
23x16px Marc Surer Ret Ret 9 9 9 0
23x15px Piercarlo Ghinzani Ret Ret Ret DNQ Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret 11 Ret Ret Ret Ret 0
23x15px Allen Berg Ret Ret Ret 12 Ret Ret 13 16 NC 0
23x15px Alessandro Nannini Ret Ret Ret DNQ Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret NC 14 Ret 0
23x15px Alex Caffi NC 0
23x15px Ivan Capelli Ret Ret 0
23x15px Eddie Cheever Ret 0
Pos Driver BRA
23x15px
ESP
23x15px
SMR
23x15px
MON
23x15px
BEL
23x15px
CAN
23x15px
DET
23x15px
FRA
23x15px
GBR
23x15px
GER
23x15px
HUN
23x15px
AUT
23x15px
ITA
23x15px
POR
23x15px
MEX
23x15px
AUS
23x15px
Points
Key
Colour Result
Gold Winner
Silver 2nd place
Bronze 3rd place
Green Points finish
Blue Non-points finish
Non-classified finish (NC)
Purple Did not finish (Ret)
Red Did not qualify (DNQ)
Did not pre-qualify (DNPQ)
Black Disqualified (DSQ)
White Did not start (DNS)
Race cancelled (C)
Light blue Practiced only (PO)
Friday test driver (TD)
(from 2003 onwards)
Blank Did not practice (DNP)
Excluded (EX)
Did not arrive (DNA)

Drivers did not finish the Grand Prix, but were classified as they completed over 90% of the race distance.

() Results in parentheses were not counted for the driver's championship due to the limitation to the 11 best results.

1986 Manufacturers Championship final standings

Pos Manufacturer Car
no.
BRA
23x15px
ESP
23x15px
SMR
23x15px
MON
23x15px
BEL
23x15px
CAN
23x15px
DET
23x15px
FRA
23x15px
GBR
23x15px
GER
23x15px
HUN
23x15px
AUT
23x15px
ITA
23x15px
POR
23x15px
MEX
23x15px
AUS
23x15px
Pts
1 23x15px Williams-Honda 5 Ret 2 Ret 4 1 1 5 1 1 3 3 Ret 2 1 5 Ret 141
6 1 Ret 2 7 Ret 3 Ret 3 2 1 1 Ret 1 3 4 2
2 23x15px McLaren-TAG 1 Ret 3 1 1 6 2 3 2 3 6 Ret 1 DSQ 2 2 1 96
2 Ret 4 5 2 Ret 4 Ret 4 Ret 5 Ret 9 4 Ret Ret Ret
3 23x15px Lotus-Renault 11 9 Ret Ret DNQ Ret Ret 7 Ret 7 Ret 5 Ret Ret 9 Ret 6 58
12 2 1 Ret 3 2 5 1 Ret Ret 2 2 Ret Ret 4 3 Ret
4 23x15px Ferrari 27 Ret Ret 10 Ret 4 8 4 8 Ret Ret Ret 2 Ret 5 Ret Ret 37
28 Ret Ret 4 10 3 Ret Ret Ret Ret 11 4 3 3 6 12 3
5 23x15px Ligier-Renault 25 4 Ret Ret 5 Ret 6 Ret 5 4 4 Ret 10 Ret 7 15 7 29
26 3 Ret Ret 6 5 7 2 6 Ret Ret 9 Ret Ret Ret 6 8
6 23x15px Benetton-BMW 19 10 5 Ret Ret 7 Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret 8 Ret 10 19
20 6 6 3 Ret 10 Ret Ret Ret Ret 10 Ret 7 5 Ret 1 Ret
7 23x15px Tyrrell-Renault 3 5 Ret 8 Ret Ret 9 Ret 10 5 Ret 6 Ret 10 Ret 11 4 11
4 7 Ret Ret 11 12 11 9 Ret 6 Ret 8 Ret 9 Ret Ret 5
8 23x15px Lola-Ford 15 Ret Ret 11 10 Ret Ret Ret 9 Ret 4 6 Ret Ret Ret 6
16 Ret Ret DNS Ret Ret Ret 8 7 5 Ret NC Ret NC
9 23x15px Brabham-BMW 7 Ret Ret 6 Ret 8 Ret 6 7 Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret 13 Ret 2
8 8 Ret Ret Ret Ret 10 9 8 7 Ret DNS Ret Ret Ret Ret
10 23x15px Arrows-BMW 17 Ret Ret 9 9 9 Ret 11 Ret Ret Ret 6 8 11 9 Ret 1
18 Ret 7 7 8 Ret Ret Ret NC NC Ret Ret Ret 7 10 7 Ret
23x15px Zakspeed 14 Ret Ret Ret 12 13 Ret 8 Ret 9 Ret 10 Ret Ret 12 10 9 0
29 Ret DNQ Ret 12 DNS Ret Ret Ret Ret 8 Ret Ret DNS Ret
23x15px Minardi-Motori Moderni 23 Ret Ret Ret DNQ Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret 8 Ret 0
24 Ret Ret Ret DNQ Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret NC 14 Ret
23x15px Lola-Hart 15 Ret Ret 0
16 Ret 8 Ret
23x15px Osella-Alfa Romeo 21 Ret Ret Ret DNQ Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret 11 Ret Ret Ret Ret 0
22 Ret Ret Ret DNQ Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret 12 Ret Ret NC 13 16 NC
23x15px AGS-Motori Moderni 31 Ret Ret 0
Pos Constructor Car
no.
BRA
23x15px
ESP
23x15px
SMR
23x15px
MON
23x15px
BEL
23x15px
CAN
23x15px
DET
23x15px
FRA
23x15px
GBR
23x15px
GER
23x15px
HUN
23x15px
AUT
23x15px
ITA
23x15px
POR
23x15px
MEX
23x15px
AUS
23x15px
Pts
Key
Colour Result
Gold Winner
Silver 2nd place
Bronze 3rd place
Green Points finish
Blue Non-points finish
Non-classified finish (NC)
Purple Did not finish (Ret)
Red Did not qualify (DNQ)
Did not pre-qualify (DNPQ)
Black Disqualified (DSQ)
White Did not start (DNS)
Race cancelled (C)
Light blue Practiced only (PO)
Friday test driver (TD)
(from 2003 onwards)
Blank Did not practice (DNP)
Excluded (EX)
Did not arrive (DNA)

Drivers did not finish the Grand Prix, but were classified as they completed over 90% of the race distance.

Notes and references

  1. ^ 1986 Formula 1 World Championship for Drivers (points table), 1987 FIA Yearbook, Red section, page 86
  2. ^ a b 1986 Formula 1 World Championship for Manufacturers (points table), 1987 FIA Yearbook, Red section, page 87
  3. ^ ESPN coverage of the 1997 Japanese Grand Prix, end-of-year F1 championship battles segment narrated by Bob Varsha
  4. ^ "F1 season goes down to the wire". The Globe and Mail. 2010-11-08. Retrieved April 12, 2015. 
  5. ^ Peter Higham, The Guinness Guide To International Motor Racing, 1995, page 6
  6. ^ Peter Higham, The Guinness Guide To International Motor Racing, 1995, page 120
  7. ^ Only the best 11 results counted towards the Drivers' Championship. Numbers without parentheses are Championship points; numbers in parentheses are total points scored.

External links