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Open Access Articles- Top Results for 2015 in science

2015 in science

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Art . Archaeology . Architecture . Literature . Music . Philosophy . Science +...

A number of significant scientific events have occurred or are scheduled to occur in 2015. The United Nations has declared 2015 the International Year of Soils and Light-based Technologies.[1]

Events

January

  • 2 January – A study published in Science shows evidence that a protein partially assembles another protein without genetic instructions. Defying textbook science, amino acids (the building blocks of a protein) can be assembled by another protein and without genetic instructions.[2]
File:X-RayFlare-BlackHole-MilkyWay-20140105.jpg
Detection of an unusually bright X-Ray flare from Sagittarius A*, a supermassive black hole in the center of the Milky Way galaxy.[3]
File:Ceres RC2 Bright Spot.jpg
Ceres, a dwarf planet, as viewed by the Dawn spacecraft on 19 February 2015.[31]

| |name= }})[36] High-resolution images captured by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter identify the lost probe, which appears to be intact.[37][38] (see discovery images here)

    • NASA and NOAA confirm that 2014 was the hottest year on record globally.[39][40]
  • 19 January
  • 20 January – Long-term carbon sequestration as a way of mitigating climate change may be harder to achieve than previously thought, due to difficulties in converting the gas to a solid state, MIT reports.[43]
  • 22 January
    • By recreating the conditions on Earth during the Chicxulub impact, researchers have concluded that the heat pulse nearer the crater was too short-lived (less than a minute) to ignite significant amounts of plant matter. By contrast, regions much further away would have experienced less intense, but longer-lived heat levels (up to seven minutes), long enough to ignite plant matter. This challenges previous theories about global firestorms in the aftermath of the event.[44]
File:Tea leaves steeping in a zhong čaj 05.jpg
Ingredient in green tea found that may protect against oral cancer.[45]
    • As part of the Open Worm Project, scientists have mapped the brain of a roundworm (C. Elegans), created software to mimic its nervous system and uploaded it to a lego robot, which seeks food and avoids obstacles.[46]
  • 23 January
    • Scientists have slowed the speed of light by using a special mask to change the shape of photons.[47]
    • In a successful method, Iranian scientists could created of grapheme-based gas sensor, which has uses in many industries to determine oxygen.[48]
  • 25 January – A new owl species in the Middle East, the desert tawny owl (Strix hadorami), is described.[49]
  • 26 January
    • Chemists determine that alkali metals explode on contact with water due to a Coulomb explosion at the water-metal interface driving the reaction, instead of merely due to Hydrogen gas formation and its subsequent ignition. This overturns what was previously considered to be a well understood phenomenon, and has the potential to increase safety when handling reactive metals.[50]
    • Iranian nanotechnologists drafted and constructed solar cells in order to changing solar energy into electricity.[51]
  • 27 January
  • 28 January – An ingredient found in green tea may protect against oral cancer, according to Penn State University researchers.[45]
  • 29 January – Global warming will result in large storms becoming larger, rather than an increase in the number of storms, concludes a study by the University of Toronto.[55]
  • 30 January – A joint study of data from the Planck space mission and the ground-based experiment BICEP2 casts doubt on earlier findings of gravitational waves from the Big Bang.[56][57]
  • 31 January – NASA launches the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) observatory. It will provide the most accurate, highest-resolution global measurements of soil moisture ever obtained from space.

February

File:Anopheles stephensi.jpeg
An Anopheles stephensi mosquito, a vector of malaria - mosquito control is an effective way of reducing its incidence.
  • 16 February
    • New research by King's College London suggests the risk of psychosis is three times higher for users of potent "skunk-like" cannabis than for non-users.[80]
    • Mars One selects its final 100 astronaut candidates.[81]
    • Iranian scientists planned a new technique to cure of Wilson's disease. The study gave a modern nano-arrangement with more healing skill in cell culture form. The nanostructure consists of a bio well-matched polymeric nanocarrier that facilitates the penetration into the cell without making of toxicity with high effectiveness.[82]
    • Iranian nanotechnologists synthesized the latest-scheme nano-pill of bio-adaptable and bio-degradable chain-molecular which is able to ebb toxicity of anti-cancer drugs. This modern medicine is considered for treating breast cancer.[83]
  • 18 February – Limpet teeth might be the strongest natural material known to man, a new study has found.[84]
  • 19 February
    • A regulator of gene activity known as HARE5 (human-accelerated regulatory enhancer) is found to make human brains bigger.[85][86]
    • Iranian scientists achieved in devising of a biosensor to determine dopamine level, which has high detection border and go down clinical diagnosis expenses due to its high correctness and rate.[87]
  • 20 February – Drug-resistant malaria has been detected at the Myanmar-India border and now poses an "enormous threat" to global health, scientists have said.[88]
  • 26 February
  • 27 February
    • A new study examining the role of oceanic cycles in heat transfer concludes that the global warming "pause" is only temporary and that temperatures will accelerate in the near future.[94][95][96]
    • The number of wild giant pandas has increased by nearly 17% over the last decade, according to a new survey conducted by the Chinese government.[97]

March

File:Titanis07DB.jpg
Artist's restoration of Titanis walleri, an extinct eight-foot tall carnivorous flightless bird also known as a "terror bird".
    • Iranian researchers reduce costly materials from diabetes diagnosis sensors. They devised and created a non-enzyme biosensor at the laboratorial scale to notice diabetes.[144]
  • 26 March
    • The ice around the edge of Antarctica is melting faster than previously thought, researchers have warned.[145]
    • A nanoparticle therapy has been shown to accelerate the healing of wounds by 50 percent.[146]
  • 30 March
    • A 1,000-year-old treatment for eye infections – containing onion, garlic and part of a cow's stomach – has been shown to completely wipe out staphylococcus aureus, the antibiotic-resistant superbug known as MRSA.[147]
    • Eating pesticide-laden foods is linked to remarkably low sperm count (49% lower), say Harvard scientists in a landmark new study connecting pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables to reproductive health.[148][149]
    • Scientists have developed tiny 'nanoneedles' that successfully prompted parts of mice bodies to generate new blood vessels. It is hoped this technique could ultimately help damaged organs and nerves to repair themselves and help transplanted organs to thrive.[150]

April

  • 1 April – New research reveals that, as the Arctic region warms and melts, polar bears forced ashore will be unable to gain sufficient food on land, a new study concludes.[151] Two-thirds of polar bears could be lost by 2050 and the species could be extinct by 2100.[152]
  • 2 April – Northwestern Medicine scientists identify a small RNA molecule called miR-182 that can suppress cancer-causing genes in mice with glioblastoma mulitforme (GBM), a deadly and incurable type of brain tumor.[153]
  • 4 April – A total lunar eclipse occurs.
  • 5 April – The Large Hadron Collider resumes operations after a two-year technology upgrade and various maintenance delays.[154]
  • 6 April – Glaciers in Western Canada will lose 70 percent of their volume by 2100, according to a study by the University of British Columbia.[155][156]
  • 7 April –Scientists from Iran research on a new method to let users to scan 3D photos with only their smartphone. The result was published in a media titled Nanophotonic coherent imager in the February 2015 issue of Optics Express.[157]
  • 8 April
    • DARPA announces a new project that aims to create a computer program able to continuously scan its environment, evolving and adapting autonomously for the next 100 years.[158]
    • Complex organic molecules have been detected in a young star system for the first time.[159]
    • Iranian researchers make magnetic recyclable photo-catalyst to refine dirty water.[160]
File:PlutoCharon-1stColorImage-NewHorizons-Ralph-20150414.png
Pluto and moon Charon - first color image from the New Horizons spacecraft mission (Ralph camera; 9 April 2015).[161][162]
  • 9 April – Iranian researchers apply ultrasound waves to create Fullerene. This approach is in agreeing with green chemistry basics and it is biocompatible.[163]
  • 10 April – An almost completely intact skeleton of a terror bird is found in Argentina. Analysis suggests these predators had good low-frequency hearing and deep voices.[164]
  • 13 April – The U.S. Federal Communications Commission publishes the final rule on its new "Net Neutrality" regulations.[165]
  • 14 April
  • 15 April
    • Following groundbreaking studies on mice, American scientists claim to have found a potential cause of Alzheimer's disease in the behaviour of immune cells, which it may be possible to target with drug treatments.[171][172]
    • Researchers uncover evidence of a cannibalistic ritual that occurred in a British cave roughly 14,700 years ago.[173]
  • 16 April
    • A major advance in artificial photosynthesis is achieved with a system able to capture CO2 using solar energy and then use it to produce valuable chemical products.[174]
    • Modification of histones in the DNA of nematodes, fruit flies, and possibly humans can affect aging, researchers claim.[175]
    • Scientists say the first detailed kinematic study of octopus arm coordination in crawling show that the animals have a special system control tactic to fix their odd form.[176]
    • Iranian researchers have produced a type of nanocatalyst which improves the performance of fuel cells.[177]
  • 17 April – Bouvier's red colobus, a species of monkey last seen in the 1970s and thought to have been extinct, is rediscovered in the Republic of Congo.[178]
  • 20 April – Japan announces plans to send an unmanned lunar rover to the Moon's surface in 2018.[179]
  • 21 April
    • The Japanese L0 Series maglev becomes the first train to operate at a speed of Script error: No such module "convert"..[180]
    • Researchers demonstrate WiFiFO (WiFi Free space Optic), a technology capable of increasing the bandwidth of WiFi systems tenfold, using optical data transmission via LED lights.[181]
File:8-cell stage embryo.png
22 April: It is confirmed that Chinese scientists have genetically modified human embryos.
  • 22 April
  • 23 April
    • Two huge magma chambers have been imaged in 3D below Yellowstone National Park.[185]
    • For the first time, signals relating to the constant ringing noise of tinnitus have been mapped across the brain of a patient undergoing surgery.[186]
    • An international team of scientists has sequenced the complete genome of the woolly mammoth.[187]
    • Researchers at the University of Toronto in Canada have developed a new algorithm for showing protein structures in 3D, based on 2D images, which is 100,000 times faster than current methods.[188]
    • A new gene-editing technique is reported that could prevent mitochondrial diseases, without the need for three-parent IVF.[189]
  • 27 April – Archaeologists discover fossil remnants of an ancient human species, dating from roughly 430,000 years ago, in two sites in Italy.[190]
  • 28 April
    • A study from Arizona State University reveals the action of an experimental blood pressure drug in unprecedented detail, potentially aiding the development of new and better drugs.[191]
    • British and American psychologists claimed persecuting in schooldays result to at least mental health difficulties in adulthood.[192]
File:Rubella virus TEM B82-0203 lores.jpg
29 April: The World Health Organization (WHO) declares that rubella has been eradicated from the Americas.
  • 29 April
    • Scientists report finding a scansoriopterygid dinosaur, named Yi qi ("strange wing"), that may have flown without feathers.[193][194]
    • The World Health Organization (WHO) declares that rubella has been eradicated from the Americas.[195][196]
    • Two critical steps towards a practical quantum computer are achieved by IBM scientists, who demonstrate the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as building a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions.[197]
  • 30 April
    • NASA's MESSENGER spacecraft concludes its four-year orbital mission over Mercury by crashing into the planet at a velocity of approximately Script error: No such module "convert"., impacting at 54.4° N, 149.9° W, near the crater Janáček.[198][199]
    • Tesla Motors reveals a new large-scale battery technology for homes and businesses, which will provide a means of storing energy from localised renewables and a reliable backup system during power outages.[200][201]
    • Progeria researchers have shown how the disorganisation of DNA contributes to the cell disorder and is linked to aspects of aging.[202]

May

File:Opah 6.jpg
15 May: The Opah is confirmed as the first known warm-blooded fish.
  • 12 May
    • The Australian Government's Bureau of Meteorology confirms that the tropical Pacific is in the early stages of an El Niño that is "likely to persist in the coming months."[215]
    • New evidence has been uncovered that global warming will damage wheat yields, resulting in a 15 percent loss when average temperatures increase by 2 degrees Celsius and a 40 percent decline when average temperatures rise by 4 degrees.[216]
  • 13 May – For the first time, the phase brightness variations in exoplanets have been measured to see the day-night cycle of exoplanetary weather dynamics.[217]
  • 14 May – Researchers confirm that strong warming is taking place in the upper troposphere, a phenomenon long predicted in global warming theory and climate models.[218]
  • 15 May
    • Larsen B and C, a pair of ice shelves in the Antarctic, are reportedly at risk of collapse in the near future, potentially adding several centimetres to global sea levels.[219]
    • Researchers have taken a step towards large-scale fabrication of graphene, using chemical vapor deposition to produce composites containing 2-inch-by-2-inch sheets of the material.[220]
    • The opah is confirmed as the first known "warm-blooded" fish, able to regulate the temperature of its entire body.[221]
  • 18 May – Scientists have reactivated neuroplasticity in older mice, restoring their brains to a more youthful state.[222]
  • 19 May – Playing natural sounds such as flowing water in offices can boost worker moods and improve cognitive abilities, in addition to providing speech privacy, according to a new study.[223]
  • 20 May – NASA reports the Kepler space observatory observed a newly discovered supernova, KSN 2011b (Type 1a), in the process of exploding: before, during and after. Details of the pre-nova moments may help scientists better understand dark energy.[224]
  • 21 May
    • NASA reports the most luminous galaxy yet discovered is galaxy WISE J224607.57-052635.0. Smaller than the Milky Way galaxy, this dusty galaxy releases 10,000 times more energy. Nearly 100 percent of the light emitted from galaxy WISE J224607.57-052635.0 is infrared radiation.[225][226] (image)
    • Scientists have observed a sudden increase of ice loss in a previously stable region of Antarctica. The ice loss is so large that it causes small changes in the gravity field of the Earth.[227]
  • 22 May – Researchers have developed algorithms that enable robots to learn motor tasks through trial and error using a process that more closely approximates the way humans learn, marking a major milestone in the field of artificial intelligence.[228]
  • 25 May – A new technique to create a single-molecule diode has been developed by scientists, and, in doing so, they have developed molecular diodes that perform 50 times better than all prior designs.[229]
  • 27 May – Glacier volume in the Everest region of the Himalayas could be reduced between 70% and 99% by 2100, unless greenhouse gas emissions are curbed, according to a new study by the European Geosciences Union.[230]
  • 28 May – A new species of ancient hominid – Australopithecus deyiremeda – is uncovered in Ethiopia, with jaw bones and teeth dating to between 3.3m and 3.5m years old.[231]
  • 29 May
    • Researchers have developed a new shape-memory material that stays strong even after tens of millions of transformations.[232][233]
    • A new version of the Cheetah robot has been demonstrated with the ability to jump over obstacles while running.[234]
  • 30 May – A new treatment for lung cancer using a drug called nivolumab has been shown to more than double life expectancy in some patients.[235]

June

Predicted and scheduled events

July

September

October

Awards

UNESCO Medals

  • UNESCO Medal for the Development of Nanoscience and Nanotechnologies: Valentin Bukhtoyarov, Constance Chang-Hasnain, Soodabeh Davaran, Vladimir Fortov, Mikhail Kovalchuk, Tebello Nyokong, Mikhail Selyanin and Shem Wandiga.[242][243]

Deaths

See also

References

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