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44th United States Congress

44th United States Congress
43rd ← → 45th
200px
United States Capitol (1869)

Duration: March 4, 1875 – March 4, 1877

Senate President: Henry Wilson (Mar.–Nov. 1875)
Vacant (1875–1877)
Senate Pres. pro tem: Thomas W. Ferry
House Speaker: Michael C. Kerr
Samuel J. Randall
Members: 76 Senators
293 Representatives
9 Non-voting members
Senate Majority: Republican
House Majority: Democratic

Sessions
1st: December 6, 1875 – August 15, 1876
2nd: December 4, 1876 – March 3, 1877

The Forty-fourth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1875 to March 4, 1877, during the seventh and eighth years of Ulysses S. Grant's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Ninth Census of the United States in 1870. For the first time since the American Civil War, the House had a Democratic majority. The Senate maintained a Republican majority.

Contents

Major events

File:Keppler-Conkling-Mephistopheles.jpg
A political cartoon by Joseph Keppler depicts Roscoe Conkling as Mephistopheles, as Rutherford B. Hayes strolls off with a woman labeled as "Solid South"

Major legislation

State admitted

  • August 1, 1876: Colorado admitted as the 38th state

Party summary

The count below identifies party affiliations at the beginning of the first session of this Congress, and includes members from vacancies and newly admitted states, when they were first seated. Changes resulting from subsequent replacements are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section.

During this Congress, two Senate seats and one House seat were added for the new state, Colorado.

Senate

Affiliation Party
(Shading indicates majority caucus)
Total
Democratic
(D)
Republican
(R)
Independent
Republican

(IR)
Other Vacant
End of previous Congress 20 51 0 (Liberal
Republican
)

2
73 1
Begin 26 44 1 0 73 1
End 28 45 76 0
Final voting share 36.8% 63.2% 0.0%
Beginning of the next Congress 33 42 0 (Independent)
1
76 0

House of Representatives

Affiliation Party
(Shading indicates majority caucus)
Total
Democratic
(D)
Independent
Democratic

(ID)
Independent
Republican

(IR)
Republican
(R)
Independent
(I)
Other Vacant
End of previous Congress 95 7 0 199 0 (Liberal
Republican
)

4
290 2
Begin 177 1 3 101 4 0 287 5
End 182 100 292 2
Final voting share 62.8% 35.8% 1.4% 0.%
Beginning of the next Congress 144 2 0 146 0 0 292 1

Leadership

File:BustHenryWilson.jpg
President of the Senate Henry Wilson
File:TWFerry.jpg
President pro tempore Thomas W. Ferry

Senate

House of Representatives

Members

This list is arranged by chamber, then by state. Senators are listed in order of seniority, and Representatives are listed by district.

Senate

Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term began in this Congress, requiring reelection in 1880; Class 2 meant their term ended in this Congress, requiring reelection in 1876; and Class 3 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring reelection in 1878.

House of Representatives

The names of members of the House of Representatives are preceded by their district numbers.

Changes in membership

The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress.

Senate

  • replacements: 4
  • deaths: 3
  • resignations: 1
  • vacancy: 1
  • interim appointments: 3
  • seats of newly admitted states: 2
  • Total seats with changes: 7
State
(class)
Vacator Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation
Louisiana (3) Vacant Vacancy caused by the Senate in declining to seat rival claimants William L. McMillen and P. B. S. Pinchback.[1] Successor was elected. James B. Eustis (D) January 10, 1876
Tennessee (1) Andrew Johnson (D) Died July 31, 1875. An interim successor was appointed. David M. Key (D) August 18, 1875
Connecticut (3) Orris S. Ferry (R) Died November 21, 1875. An interim successor was appointed. James E. English (D) November 27, 1875
Connecticut (3) James E. English (D) Successor elected May 17, 1876 William H. Barnum (D) May 18, 1876
Maine (2) Lot M. Morrill (R) Resigned July 7, 1876 after being appointed United States Secretary of the Treasury James G. Blaine (R) July 10, 1876
West Virginia (1) Allen T. Caperton (D) Died July 26, 1876 Samuel Price (D) August 26, 1876
Colorado (2) New seats Colorado admitted to the Union August 1, 1876. Seats remained vacant until November 15, 1876 Henry M. Teller (R) November 15, 1876
Colorado (3) Jerome B. Chaffee (R)
Tennessee (1) David M. Key (D) Successor elected January 19, 1877 James E. Bailey (D) January 19, 1877
West Virginia (1) Samuel Price (D) Successor elected January 26, 1877 Frank Hereford (D) January 31, 1877

House of Representatives

  • replacements: 14
  • deaths: 9
  • resignations: 6
  • contested election: 5
  • seats of newly admitted states: 1
  • Total seats with changes: 21


District Vacator Reason for change Successor Date successor
seated
[[Georgia's 9th congressional district#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.Georgia 9th]]
Vacant Rep-elect Garnett McMillan died before taking seat Benjamin H. Hill (D) May 5, 1875
[[Maine's 4th congressional district#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.Maine 4th]]
Vacant Rep. Samuel F. Hersey died during previous congress Harris M. Plaisted (R) September 13, 1875
[[New York's 33rd congressional district#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.New York 33rd]]
Vacant Rep.-elect Augustus F. Allen died before taking seat Nelson I. Norton (R) December 6, 1875
[[Massachusetts's 1st congressional district#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.Massachusetts 1st]]
James Buffington (R) Died March 7, 1875 William W. Crapo (R) November 2, 1875
[[Oregon's at-large congressional district#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.Oregon At-large]]
George A. La Dow (D) Died May 1, 1875 Lafayette Lane (D) October 25, 1875
[[Tennessee's 4th congressional district#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.Tennessee 4th]]
Samuel M. Fite (D) Died October 23, 1875 Haywood Y. Riddle (D) December 14, 1875
[[Connecticut's 3rd congressional district#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.Connecticut 3rd]]
Henry H. Starkweather (R) Died January 28, 1876 John T. Wait (R) April 12, 1876
[[Florida's 2nd congressional district#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.Florida 2nd]]
Josiah T. Walls (R) Lost contested election April 19, 1876 Jesse J. Finley (D) April 19, 1876
[[Illinois's 3rd congressional district#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.Illinois 3rd]]
Charles B. Farwell (R) Lost contested election May 6, 1876 John V. Le Moyne (D) May 6, 1876
[[Connecticut's 4th congressional district#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.Connecticut 4th]]
William H. Barnum (D) Resigned May 18, 1876 after being elected to the US Senate Levi Warner (D) December 4, 1876
[[Louisiana's 5th congressional district#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.Louisiana 5th]]
Frank Morey (R) Lost contested election June 8, 1876 William B. Spencer (D) June 8, 1876
[[Idaho Territory's at-large congressional district#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.Idaho Territory At-large]]
nowrap Template:Party shading/Independent | Thomas W. Bennett) (I) Lost contested election June 23, 1876 Stephen S. Fenn (D) June 23, 1876
[[Maine's 3rd congressional district#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.Maine 3rd]]
James G. Blaine (R) Resigned July 10, 1876 after being appointed to the US Senate Edwin Flye (R) December 4, 1876
[[Kentucky's 5th congressional district#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.Kentucky 5th]]
Edward Y. Parsons (D) Died July 18, 1876 Henry Watterson (D) August 12, 1876
[[Pennsylvania's 12th congressional district#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.Pennsylvania 12th]]
Winthrop W. Ketcham (R) Resigned July 19, 1876 after being appointed judge to the United States District Court for the Western District of Pennsylvania William H. Stanton (D) November 7, 1876
[[South Carolina's 2nd congressional district#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.South Carolina 2nd]]
Edmund W. M. Mackey (IR) Seat declared vacant July 19, 1876 Charles W. Buttz (R) November 7, 1876
[[Massachusetts's 4th congressional district#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.Massachusetts 4th]]
Rufus S. Frost (R) Lost contested election July 28, 1876 Josiah G. Abbott (D) July 28, 1876
[[Colorado Territory's at-large congressional district#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.Colorado Territory At-large]]
Thomas M. Patterson (D) Colorado admitted to the Union August 1, 1876 Statehood achieved
[[Colorado's at-large congressional district#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.Colorado At-large]]
New seat Colorado admitted to the Union August 1, 1876. Seat remained vacant until October 3, 1876. James B. Belford (R) October 3, 1876
[[Indiana's 3rd congressional district#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.Indiana 3rd]]
Michael C. Kerr (D) Died August 19, 1876 Nathan T. Carr (D) December 15, 1876
[[Indiana's 2nd congressional district#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.Indiana 2nd]]
James D. Williams (D) Resigned December 1, 1876 after being elected Governor of Indiana Andrew Humphreys (D) December 5, 1876
[[New York's 7th congressional district#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.New York 7th]]
Smith Ely, Jr. (D) Resigned December 11, 1876 David D. Field II (D) January 11, 1877
[[Louisiana's 5th congressional district#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.Louisiana 5th]]
William B. Spencer (D) Resigned January 8, 1877 to become an associate justice of the Louisiana Supreme Court Vacant Not filled this term
[[West Virginia's 3rd congressional district#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.West Virginia 3rd]]
Frank Hereford (D) Resigned January 31, 1877 after being elected to the US Senate Vacant Not filled this term
[[Georgia's 9th congressional district#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.Georgia 9th]]
Benjamin H. Hill (D) Resigned March 3, 1877 after being elected to the US Senate Vacant Not filled this term

Employees

Senate

House of Representatives

References

  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. 
  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1982). The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. 

External links