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7.92×57mm Mauser

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Test barrel length: 600 mm (23.62 in)
Source(s): RWS / RUAG Ammotech [1]</td></tr></table>

The 7.92×57mm Mauser (designated as the 8mm Mauser or 8×57mm by the SAAMI [2] and 8 × 57 IS by the C.I.P.[3]) is a rimless bottlenecked rifle cartridge. The 7.92×57mm Mauser cartridge was adopted by the German Empire in 1905, and was the German service cartridge in both World Wars. In its day, the 7.92×57mm Mauser cartridge was one of the world’s most popular military cartridges. In the 21st century it is still a popular sport and hunting cartridge that is factory-produced in Europe and the United States.

Development

File:8x57.jpg
1888 pattern M/88 (left) alongside the 1905 pattern 7.92×57mm Mauser S Patrone.

The parent cartridge on which the 7.92×57mm Mauser is based was adopted by Germany in 1888 as the Patrone 88 (cartridge 88) or M/88 (along with the Gewehr 1888 service rifle). The M/88 cartridge was loaded with a relatively heavy Script error: No such module "convert". round-nosed ball cartridge with a diameter of Script error: No such module "convert". and was designed by the German Gewehr-Prüfungskommission (G.P.K.) (Rifle Testing Commission).[4]

German government driven efforts to improve the performance of the military M/88 ammunition and the service arms in which the M/88 was used resulted in the design by the Gewehr-Prüfungskommission and adaptation in 1905 of the dimensionally redesigned 7.92×57mm Mauser chambering. Besides the chambering, the bore (designated as "S-bore") was also dimensionally redesigned. The 1905 pattern 7.92×57mm Mauser S Patrone (S ball cartridge) was loaded with a lighter Script error: No such module "convert"., pointed Spitzgeschoß (spitzer bullet) of Script error: No such module "convert". diameter and more powerful double-base (based on nitrocellulose and nitroglycerin) smokeless powder. With the improved ballistic coefficient of the new spitzer bullet, the 1905 pattern cartridge had an improved maximum effective range and a flatter trajectory, and was therefore less critical of range estimation compared to the M/88 cartridge.[5]

The rimless cartridge cases have been used as parent case for several other necked down and necked up cartridges and a rimmed variant.

Military use

Due to the cartridge's high performance and versatility it was adopted by the armed forces of various governments, including Spain, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Iran, Israel, Turkey, China, Egypt, Yugoslavia, former German African colonies, and the early Bundeswehr of West Germany.

During World War II it was one of the few cartridges used by both the Axis and Allied powers, a distinction it shared with the 9×19mm Parabellum pistol round. Apart from being the standard rifle cartridge of the German and Polish armed forces, it was also used by the armed forces of Great Britain in the Besa machine gun, which was mounted in some of their tanks and other armoured vehicles, as well as being extensively used by the Chinese, especially early in the war. Later, when Egypt decided to manufacture the Hakim rifle, a licensed copy of the Swedish Ag m/42, they redesigned the breech to accept the 7.92×57mm Mauser cartridge rather than use the original 6.5×55mm Ag m/42 cartridge. Its military use continues today (2012) in the former Yugoslavia in the Zastava M76 sniper rifle and the license-built copy of the MG 42, the M53 Šarac machine gun.[6]

Rifles formerly manufactured for the Wehrmacht and captured by the Allies were acquired by Israel and played a critical role in the 1948 Arab–Israeli War. Israel, at the time, did not have a domestic arms industry and could not manufacture its own battle rifles, but it could produce replacement parts and refurbish existing weapons. Israel only used its Mauser rifles in their original configuration for a short period, however. When NATO countries adopted a standard rifle cartridge, the 7.62×51mm NATO, Israel replaced all of the 7.92×57mm Mauser barrels on its Mauser rifles with barrels chambered for the then-new 7.62×51mm NATO cartridge.

Civil use

File:8 57 JRS.jpg
7.92×57mm Mauser (above) and the rimmed 8×57mm IRS cartridges loaded with Brenneke TIG hunting bullets

The 7.92×57mm Mauser is a common chambering offering in rifles marketed for European and North American sportsmen, alongside broadly similar cartridges such as the 5.6×57mm, 6.5×55mm, 6.5×57mm, and the 6.5×68mm and 8×68mm S magnum hunting cartridges. Major European manufacturers like Zastava Arms, Blaser, Česká Zbrojovka firearms, Heym, Mauser Jagdwaffen GmbH and Steyr Mannlicher produce factory new 7.92×57mm Mauser hunting rifles and European ammunition manufacturers like Blaser, RUAG Ammotec/RWS, Prvi Partizan, Sako and Sellier & Bellot produce factory new ammunition.[4] In 2004 Remington Arms offered a limited-edition Model 700 Classic bolt action hunting rifle chambered for the 7.92×57mm Mauser.[7]

The 7.92×57mm Mauser cartridge's performance makes it suitable for the hunting all medium-sized game such as the deer family, chamois, mouflon, bighorn sheep, wild boar and bear. The 7.92×57mm Mauser can offer very good penetrating ability due to a fast twist rate that enables it to fire long, heavy bullets with a high sectional density.

The 7.92×57mm Mauser cannot be used in countries which ban civil use of former or current military rifle cartridges, like France.

The rimmed variant of the 7.92×57mm Mauser, the 8×57mm IRS, was developed later for break-barrel rifles and combination guns.[8] The 8×57mm IRS is commercially offered as a chambering option in European break-action rifles.[1][8]

Cartridge naming

The naming of this cartridge is cultural and epoch dependent and hence not uniform around the world.

The 7.92×57mm Mauser cartridge is also known by the following designations:

  • 7.9, 7.9mm[9]
  • 7.9 Mauser, 7.9mm Mauser
  • 7.92, 7.92mm
  • 7.92 Mauser, 7.92mm Mauser
  • Cartridge SA, 7.92
  • 7.92×57, 7.92×57mm
  • 7.92×57 Mauser, 7.92×57mm Mauser
  • 8mm Mauser
  • 8×57, 8×57mm
  • 8×57 Mauser, 8×57mm Mauser
  • 8 × 57 IS, 8 × 57 JS

This list is not conclusive and other nomenclature or designation variations might be encountered.

The 7.92 naming convention is often used by English speaking sources for the military issued 7.92×57mm Mauser and 7.92×33mm Kurz cartridges. Remarkably, both the 7.92 and 7,9 used in these and alike designations do not exactly comply to the actual C.I.P. or SAAMI cartridge, chamber and bore dimensions. All other non-military issued rimless and rimmed rifle cartridges originating from Germany having approximately 8 mm bullet diameter are connected to 8 mm namings.[3]

The widespread use in German military Gewehr 98 and Karabiner 98k service rifles designed and manufactured by Mauser caused the "Mauser" tag, though the Mauser company had nothing to do with the development of this cartridge.[10]

The letter "J" often mentioned by English speaking sources is actually an "I" for Infanterie (German for "infantry"). A stamped "I" at the cartridge bottom in writing styles used in the past in Germany could be easily mistaken for a "J". Even in the 21st century the "I" is often substituted by a "J" in English speaking communities and German ammunition manufacturers often write "JS" instead of "IS" to avoid confusing customers. The letter "S" stands for Spitzgeschoß ("pointed bullet"), and the English designation "spitzer" for that style of bullet is derived from this German term.

Current European civil C.I.P. designation

File:8x57mm IS RWS cartridge cases.jpg
German made unprimed cases with their packaging box displaying the C.I.P. 8 × 57 IS cartridge designation.

The mainly European arms standards body Commission Internationale Permanente pour l'Epreuve des Armes à Feu Portatives (Permanent International Commission for portable firearms testing) (C.I.P.)—an organisation for standards in ammunition for civilian use—currently (2012) designates the 7.92×57mm Mauser as the 8 × 57 IS. This designation has the power of law for civil use in C.I.P. member states like the United Kingdom.[3]

Warning: the 8 × 57 IS and 8 × 57 I (other non-military issued rifle cartridge developed by civilians after the 8 × 57 IS) are not the same cartridge and are not interchangeable. To avoid catastrophic firearm failures that could endanger users or bystanders, it is important to distinguish clearly between these two differing chamberings and bullet diameters, and only fire them in appropriately chambered/barrelled rifles.

Current U.S. civil SAAMI designations

File:WWI rifle ammunition.JPG
German stripper clip with five 7.92×57mm IS cartridges for the Gewehr 98 and Karabiner 98k German rifles.

The United States standardizing body for sporting cartridges Sporting Arms and Ammunition Manufacturers' Institute (SAAMI) currently (2012) designates the 7.92×57mm Mauser cartridge as the 8mm Mauser, also known as 8×57mm.[2]

Since the SAAMI has no authority to issue nomenclature rulings, the nomenclature used for this cartridge can vary in the United States.

Historic military designations

The German military used 7,9mm as designation or omitted any diameter reference and only printed the exact type of loading on ammunition boxes during World War II.

In Sweden the cartridge was designated "8mm patron m/39"[11]

The Polish military used 7,9mm or 7,92mm designations (mostly 7,9mm).[12]

The British military's Besa machine gun was chambered for the 7.92×57mm Mauser, and was used in armoured vehicles during World War II. The British referred to this ammunition as Cartridge SA, 7.92.[13]

United States intelligence documents from World War II refer to the cartridge as 7.92 or 7.92 mm or 7.92-mm.[14][15]

Cartridge drawings and dimensions

The 7.92×57mm Mauser cartridge has a cartridge case capacity of 4.09 ml (63 grains) H2O. The exterior shape of the case was designed to promote reliable case feeding and extraction in bolt action rifles and machine guns alike, under extreme conditions.

400px

7.92×57mm Mauser maximum C.I.P. cartridge dimensions. All sizes in millimeters.

Americans would define the shoulder angle at alpha/2 ≈ 19.1 degrees. The common rifling twist rate for this cartridge is 240 mm (1 in 9.45 in), 4 grooves, Ø of the lands = 7.89 mm, Ø grooves = 8.20 mm, land width = 4.40 mm and the primer type is large rifle.

According to the official C.I.P. (Commission Internationale Permanente pour l'Epreuve des Armes à Feu Portatives) rulings the 7.92×57mm Mauser can handle up to Script error: No such module "convert". Pmax piezo pressure. In C.I.P. regulated countries every rifle cartridge combo has to be proofed at 125% of this maximum C.I.P. pressure to certify for sale to consumers.[16] This means that 7.92×57mm Mauser chambered arms in C.I.P. regulated countries are currently (2013) proof tested at Script error: No such module "convert". PE piezo pressure.[3]

The SAAMI (voluntary) Maximum Average Pressure (MAP) for this cartridge is Script error: No such module "convert". piezo pressure or (37,000 CUP).[17][18] This is considerably lower than the C.I.P. pressure limit and is done for liability reasons, in case a 7.92×57mm Mauser cartridge is fired in an "I-bore" rifle that has a narrower throat and barrel diameter. Most European ammunition manufacturers generally only load to a lower pressure limit for I-bore cartridges; and the US based manufacturer Hornady followed their lead in their (now discontinued) EuroSpec brand 8×57 JS load.

German military ammunition

"There were many German military versions of the cartridge, and Germany never stopped its development of different variations until the end" of World War II. "The bullet lengths varied a great deal through the different types, but all were loaded to an overall length" of Script error: No such module "convert".. The Germans had started using steel cases in World War I, "and by the end of 1943, most German ammunition had that type of case."[19] The weights and case capacities of the World War II military cartridge cases varied somewhat. The German military ammunition manufacturer Polte produced brass cartridge cases weighing 10.32 g (159 gr) with 4.03 ml (62 gr) H2O case capacity and steel cartridge cases weighing 10.90 g (168 gr) with 3.95 ml (61 gr) H2O case capacity.[20]

German military standard ball evolution

7.92×57mm Mauser
300px
From left to right 9.3×62mm, .30-06 Springfield, 7.92×57mm Mauser, 6.5×55mm and .308 Winchester cartridges
Type Rifle
Place of origin 23x15px German Empire
Service history
In service 1905–Present
Used by Germany, United Kingdom, Spain, Czechoslovakia, Poland, China, Dominican Republic, Yugoslavia, Ottoman Empire, Turkey, Iran, Egypt, and many other countries
Wars World War I,
World War II
and numerous others
Production history
Designer German Rifle Testing Commission
Designed 1903/1905
Produced 1888–present
Variants 8×57mm IRS (rimmed)
Specifications
Parent case M/88
Case type Rimless, bottleneck
Bullet diameter 8.08 mm / .318 (I and IR) and 8.20 / .323" (IS and IRS)
Neck diameter Script error: No such module "convert".
Shoulder diameter Script error: No such module "convert".
Base diameter Script error: No such module "convert".
Rim diameter Script error: No such module "convert".
Rim thickness Script error: No such module "convert".
Case length Script error: No such module "convert".
Overall length Script error: No such module "convert".
Case capacity Script error: No such module "convert".
Rifling twist 240 mm (1 in 9.45 in)
Primer type Large rifle
Maximum pressure (C.I.P.) Script error: No such module "convert".
Maximum pressure (SAAMI) Script error: No such module "convert".
Ballistic performance
Bullet weight/type Velocity Energy
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Name Year Caliber Bullet mass Length Rim Base Shoulder Neck OAL Muzzle velocity Muzzle energy
M/88 1888 Script error: No such module "convert". Script error: No such module "convert". Script error: No such module "convert". Script error: No such module "convert". Script error: No such module "convert". Script error: No such module "convert". Script error: No such module "convert". Script error: No such module "convert". Script error: No such module "convert". Script error: No such module "convert".
7.92×57mm Mauser S Patrone 1905 Script error: No such module "convert". Script error: No such module "convert". Script error: No such module "convert". Script error: No such module "convert". Script error: No such module "convert". Script error: No such module "convert". Script error: No such module "convert". Script error: No such module "convert". Script error: No such module "convert". Script error: No such module "convert".
7.92×57mm Mauser s.S. Patrone 1934 Script error: No such module "convert". Script error: No such module "convert". Script error: No such module "convert". Script error: No such module "convert". Script error: No such module "convert". Script error: No such module "convert". Script error: No such module "convert". Script error: No such module "convert". Script error: No such module "convert". Script error: No such module "convert".

The data for the M/88 and the 7.92×57mm Mauser S Patrone of 1905 is for Gewehr 98 rifles with Script error: No such module "convert". barrel length.

The data for the 7.92×57mm Mauser s.S. Patrone of 1934 is for Karabiner 98k rifles with Script error: No such module "convert". barrel length.

German cartridge variants during World War II

File:K98kclip.jpg
Karabiner 98k stripper clip with brass-cased 7.92x57mm ammunition
File:German 7.92mm Ss 198gr FMJBT.jpg
German 7.92 mm s.S. Script error: No such module "convert". Full Metal Jacket Boat-Tail round.
File:World War 2 German ammunition.JPG
Steel cased German s.S. ball ammunition produced in 1941.
File:World War 2 German 7.92x57IS Spitzer with core.JPG
Spitzgeschoß mit Kern, yellow bullet, red circular cap groove

The German standard s.S. (schweres Spitzgeschoß—"heavy pointed bullet") ball bullet was Script error: No such module "convert". long, boat-tailed, and very well made.[19] It was lead filled, had a gilding-metal-plated jacket, and weighed Script error: No such module "convert".. The s.S. ball boat tail projectile was designed for long range use and offered the best aerodynamic efficiency and external ballistic performance of any standard rifle bullet used during World War II, with a G1 ballistic coefficient between 0.593 and 0.557 (ballistic coefficients are somewhat debatable). When fired at the typical muzzle velocity of Script error: No such module "convert". out of a Script error: No such module "convert". barrel the s.S. bullet retained supersonic velocity up to and past Script error: No such module "convert". (V1000Mach 1.07) under International Standard Atmosphere conditions at sea level (air density ρ = 1.225 kg/m3). It had a maximum range of approximately Script error: No such module "convert".[21] Even by contemporary (2012) standards 1000+ m (1,094+ yards) effective supersonic range is quite remarkable for a standard military rifle round. For recognition the circular groove between cap and brass was green, and it had a yellow colored bullet.

The regular s.S. projectile had the following penetration performance: Script error: No such module "convert". of dry pine wood at Script error: No such module "convert"., Script error: No such module "convert". at Script error: No such module "convert"., Script error: No such module "convert". at Script error: No such module "convert". and Script error: No such module "convert". at Script error: No such module "convert"., Script error: No such module "convert". of iron at Script error: No such module "convert"., Script error: No such module "convert". at Script error: No such module "convert"., Script error: No such module "convert". of steel at Script error: No such module "convert". and Script error: No such module "convert". at Script error: No such module "convert"..

During World War II German snipers were issued with purpose-manufactured sniping ammunition, known as the 'effect-firing' s.S. round.[22] The 'effect-firing' s.S. round featured an extra carefully measured propellant charge and seated an sS full-metal-jacketed boat-tail projectile of match-grade build quality, lacking usual features such as a seating ring or cannelure to further improve the already high G1 ballistic coefficient to approximately 0.595 (G1) or 0.300 (G7).[23] The 'effect-firing' s.S. projectile had a form factor (G7 i) of 0.869, which indicates good aerodynamic efficiency and external ballistic performance for the bullet diameter.[24][25]

Special ammunition included:[20][26][27]

  • SmK-Geschoß - Spitzgeschoß mit Kern ("Spitzer with Core")—steel cored projectile for use against targets behind thick covers, tanks, or airplanes. Red circular cap groove, yellow bullet. There was also a version SmK(H)-Geschoß - Spitzgeschoß mit Hartkern ("Spitzer with Hardcore") which had a tungsten carbide instead of a steel core.
  • SmK L'spur - Leuchtspur (SmK tracer)—red circular groove, black bullet point—German tracer bullets "were the best put out by any country — streamlined and with excellent ballistics".[19] The bullet was basically the same as used in the SmK ammunition but combined with a tracer that burned for Script error: No such module "convert"..
German Spitzgeschoss mit Kern armor-piercing bullets were also very good, being very stable and accurate at long ranges.[19] The most common type of armor-piercing round had a hardened-steel core with plated-steel jacket and weighed Script error: No such module "convert".. Other types appeared which used tungsten carbide and combinations for cores. Sintered iron and mild steel cores also came into use in ball ammunition.
  • PmK-Geschoß - (Phosphor mit Stahlkern) ("phosphorus with steel core") German Luftwaffe (Air force) 7.9 mm high velocity machine gun ammunition loaded with the Script error: No such module "convert". PmK (Phosphor mit Stahlkern—"phosphorus with steel core") ball bullets, featuring a higher muzzle velocity than standard ammunition due to a more powerful smokeless powder charge. These rounds were designated as V-patronen, with 'V' being short for improved (German: verbessert). This cartridge can be recognised by the black circular cap groove, yellow bullet.
  • B-Geschoß - (Beobachtung) ("observation") — The German Luftwaffe Script error: No such module "convert". B (Beobachtung—"observation") HE incendiary ball bullets contained phosphorus and "had a pellet in it which exploded on contact with any target, however frail".[19] The B ball bullet was like any other high-explosive or incendiary bullet, illegal for anti-personnel use according to the Hague Conventions. It featured a higher muzzle velocity than standard ammunition due to a more powerful smokeless powder charge. These rounds were designated as V-patronen, with 'V' being short for improved (German: verbessert). "The Germans maintained that it was used mainly for observation and range-finding, but observers report having seen them in rifle clips and machine gun belts".[19] The regular German infantry units were not allowed to use this round; however German snipers sometimes used this high velocity round to gain an extra Script error: No such module "convert". effective range and cause horrendous wounds. The standard issue Karabiner 98k rifles handled these higher pressure cartridges without issues.[28] This cartridge can be recognised by the black circular cap groove, yellow bullet.
  • SPr-Geschoß - S-Phosphor (S incendiary)—black circular groove, clear or black bullet
  • Platzpatrone (blank cartridge)—two cannelures in the brass, red wood- or cardboard-bullet, cardboard plug (Fließpappe-Pfropfen) between bullet and propellant powder. Safe distance given at 25m.
  • Exerzierpatrone ("drill cartridge")—two variants:
    • S-Punkt ("S-dot") with vertical grooves in the brass for aiming exercises.
    • Werkzeug ("tool") with the same weight as a sS ball cartridge for examining the functioning of firearms action. A horizontal ring of small holes above the extractor grooves differentiated the Werkzeug round from the sS ball cartridge.

British military ammunition

British cartridges included "Ball", "Armour-Piercing", "Tracer", and "Incendiary". Blanks and a Drill round were also available for instruction purposes. The Drill round was an aluminium bullet fixed in a chromium-plated case which had three deep lengthwise recesses painted red to identify it. Ammunition was supplied in belted form with 225 rounds per belt.[13]

Designation Marks Annulus colour Notes
Cartridge, SA, Ball, 7.92mm Mark I.Z, Mark II.Z Dark purple if present Mark II.Z bullet has "flatter" nose and longer parallel portion to engage with rifling
Cartridge, SA, Armour-piercing, 7.92mm Mark I.Z, Mark II.Z Green Hard steel core, lead-antimony sleeve, steel envelope
Cartridge, SA, Tracer, 7.92mm Mark I.Z, Mark II.Z Red Red tracer composition in non-streamlined bullet. Effective for 900 yards.
Cartridge, SA, Incendiary, 7.92mm Mark I Blue

The Ball case was filled with a charge of around 45 grains (3 g) of nitro-cellulose.[13]

The British cartridge was used in only one weapon—the Besa machine gun. This was a Czech design adopted shortly before the war as a move towards rimless ammunition across the armed service. However the move was disrupted by the lead up to war. The BESA was only fitted to tanks and armoured cars of British design (the original Czech design was also produced for German use following the occupation of Czechoslovakia) and captured German ammunition was used when available.

Polish military ammunition

The cartridges manufactured in Poland during the interwar period were mainly copies or modifications of the corresponding original German cartridge designs. The standard rifle cartridge was the S—a copy of the 1905 pattern German S Patrone loaded with the Script error: No such module "convert". S bullet. For machine guns a cartridge variant loaded with the heavier Script error: No such module "convert". SC bullet—a copy of the German 1934 pattern s.S. cartridge—was used. The armor-piercing variant loaded with the P bullet was a copy of the German SmK cartridge. The armor-piercing with tracer PS and incendiary Z cartridges were Polish modifications of the original German counterpart designs. The Polish designed a long-range machine gun cartridge loaded with the D bullet, which offered a maximum plunging fire range of Script error: No such module "convert". to Script error: No such module "convert"..[12]

Yugoslav military ammunition

After World War II the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia used the 7.92×57mm Mauser as military service round. The Yugoslav National Army (JNA) designated their 7.92×57mm Mauser ammunition as 7,9 mm. At the end of the 1940s the Yugoslav National Army adopted a 7,9 mm Cartridge, Ball M49 variant, designated as M49, as infantry ammunition.[29] As extra accurate ammunition for sniper and designated marksman use the Yugoslav National Army adopted a 7,9 mm Cartridge, Sniper, with Universal ball M75, designated as M75.[30] Besides ball ammunition the Yugoslav National Army also adopted a tracer round 7,9 mm Cartridge, Ball with tracer M70, designated as M70. The M70 tracer round burns out to Script error: No such module "convert"..[31] For training and ceremonial use a 7,9 mm Cartridge, Blank was adopted.[32] After the breakup of Yugoslavia this ammunition was extensively used in the 1990s during the Yugoslav wars.

The 7.92×57mm Mauser as parent case

File:8 57 JRS rim.jpg
8×57 IRS and 8×57 IS (a.k.a. 7.92×57mm Mauser) sporting rounds. The rimless cartridge on the right is used in repeating and self-loading rifles, the other is for breech-loading only (and therefore rimmed)

This was the parent case for many other later cartridges, such as:

See also

Contemporary military rifle cartridges

Notes

Footnotes

Citations

  1. 1.0 1.1 RWS Rifle Cartridge Brochure showing 8×57mm IR, 8×57mm IS and 8×57mm IRS cartridge offerings at page 9
  2. 2.0 2.1 SAAMI 8mm MAUSER (7.92×57) cartridge and chamber drawings
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 CIP decisions, texts and tables 2007 CD-ROM
  4. 4.0 4.1 8×57mm IS cartridge portrait - Totgesagte leben länger, Wild und Hund 11/2006 Invalid language code.
  5. The 8 mm (7,92×57) Mauser Cartridge
  6. Machine Gun 42
  7. Remington's 8×57 Classic
  8. 8.0 8.1 Table II pages 31-32.
  9. German 7,9mm Military Ammunition 1888-1945 by Daniel W. Kent
  10. [1]
  11. http://gotavapen.se/gota/artiklar/rifles_se/gev39_40.htm Swedish
  12. 12.0 12.1 Dąbrowski, Jarosław. Amunicja małokalibrowa kampanii wrześniowej (Small-calibre ammunition of the September campaign) in: "Strzał" 10/2010, pp. 18-24 (in Polish)
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 Royal Armoured Corps Tank Museum (1983). Churchill Tank: Vehicle History and Specification. H.M. Stationery Office. pp. 100–102. ISBN 978-0-11-290404-5. 
  14. Military Intelligence Service, Special Series No. 14, May 25, 1943 Section V: AMMUNITION 27. RIFLE AND MACHINE-GUN AMMUNITION (7.92-MM)
  15. Catalog of Enemy Ordnance Originally Published by U.S. Office of Chief of Ordnance, 1945
  16. C.I.P. TDCC datasheet 8 x 57 IS
  17. ANSI/SAAMI Centerfire Rifle | Z.299.4 1992 - Pages 19 and 24 of 240
  18. ANSI/SAAMI Velocity & Pressure Data: Centerfire Rifle
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 19.3 19.4 19.5 Maj. James C. Beyer, MC, Maj. James K. Arima, MSC, and Doris W. Johnson. "Enemy Ordnance Materiel". Wound Ballistics. Office of the Surgeon General Department of the Army. pp. 52–53. 
  20. 20.0 20.1 7.9mm Mauser Polte factory drawings of various German military cartridge variants, projectiles and cartridge case
  21. The 8mm (7,92X57) Mauser Cartridge, Ballistics of the F.N. Rifle, Cal. 7,9 m/m Streamlined Pointed Bullet with Tapered Base (197.5 gr.)
  22. Peter R. Senich: German Sniper 1914-45, Page 91
  23. 7.9mm Mauser drawing of s.S. proofing projectile without cannelure
  24. The Case for a General-Purpose Rifle and Machine Gun Cartridge (GPC) by Anthony G Williams
  25. Form Factors: A Useful Analysis Tool by Bryan Litz, Chief Ballistician Berger Bullets
  26. W. Reibert, Der Dienst-Unterricht im Heere, Ausgabe für den Schützen der Schützenkompanie, edition 1940, pp. 169f.
  27. 7.9mm Mauser color codes drawings of various German military cartridge variantse
  28. Albrecht Wacker (2000). Im Auge des Jägers: der Wehrmachts-Scharfschütze Franz Karner ; (eine biographische Studie). ISBN 978-3-932077-12-8. 
  29. 7.9mm Cartridge, Ball M49
  30. 7.9mm Cartridge, Sniper, with Universal ball M75
  31. 7.9mm Cartridge, Ball with tracer M70
  32. 7.9mm Cartridge, Blank

References

External links