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Abel Prize
Abel Prize  

Portrait of Niels Henrik Abel  
Awarded for  Outstanding scientific work in the field of mathematics 
Country  Norway 
Presented by  Government of Norway 
First awarded  2003 
Winners 

Official website  abelprize.no 
The Abel Prize (pronounced [ɑːbɛl]) is an international prize awarded annually by the Government of Norway to one or more outstanding mathematicians.^{[1]}
Named after Norwegian mathematician Niels Henrik Abel (1802–29), the award was established in 2001 by the Government of Norway and complements its sister prize in the humanities, the Holberg Prize.
The Abel Prize has often been described as the mathematician's "Nobel Prize".^{[2]}^{[3]}^{[4]}^{[5]}^{[6]} It comes with a monetary award of 6 million Norwegian kroner (NOK) (approximately US$1 million).^{[7]}
The prize board has also established an Abel symposium, administered by the Norwegian Mathematical Society.^{[8]} The award ceremony takes place in the Atrium of the University of Oslo Faculty of Law, where the Nobel Peace Prize was awarded between 1947 and 1989.^{[9]}
The establishment of the Abel Prize was first proposed by Sophus Lie (1842–1899) in 1899 when he learned that Alfred Nobel's plans for annual prizes would not include a prize in mathematics. Lie's death marked an interruption in the establishment of the award, and King Oscar II's attempt to establish the award in 1902 was unsuccessful, complicated by the dissolution of the union between Sweden and Norway three years later.
Selection criteria
The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters declares the winner of the Abel Prize each March after selection by a committee of five international mathematicians. The committee is headed by Ragni Piene. The International Mathematical Union and the European Mathematical Society nominate members of the Abel Committee. The Norwegian Government gave the prize an initial funding of NOK 200 million (about US$23 million) in 2001. The funding is controlled by the Board, which consists of members elected by the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters.^{[10]}
Anyone may submit a nomination, but selfnomination is not allowed. The nominee must be alive; however, if the awardee dies after being declared as the winner, the prize is awarded posthumously. The Abel Laureate is decided by the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters based on the recommendation of the Abel Committee. Both Norwegians and nonNorwegians may serve on the Committee; they are elected by the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters and nominated by the International Mathematical Union and the European Mathematical Society.^{[10]}^{[11]}
History
The prize was first proposed to be part of the 1902 celebration of 100th anniversary of Abel's birth.^{[11]} Shortly before his death in 1899, mathematician Sophus Lie proposed establishing an Abel Prize when he learned that Alfred Nobel's plans for annual prizes would not include a prize in mathematics. King Oscar II was willing to finance a mathematics prize in 1902, and the mathematicians Ludwig Sylow and Carl Størmer drew up statutes and rules for the proposed prize. However, Lie's influence waned after his death, and the dissolution of the union between Sweden and Norway in 1905 ended the first attempt to create the Abel Prize.^{[11]}
After interest in the concept of the prize had risen in 2001, a working group was formed to develop a proposal, which was presented to the Prime Minister of Norway in May. In August 2001, the Norwegian government announced that the prize would be awarded beginning in 2002, the twohundredth anniversary of Abel's birth. Atle Selberg received an honorary Abel Prize in 2002, but the first actual Abel Prize was only awarded in 2003.^{[12]}^{[11]} A book series presenting Abel Prize laureates and their research was commenced in 2010. The first two volumes cover the years 2003–2007 and 2008–2012 respectively.^{[13]}^{[14]}
Laureates
Year  Laureate(s)  Citizenship  Institution  Citation  Ref 

2003  Serre, JeanPierreJeanPierre Serre  23x15px French  Collège de France  "for playing a key role in shaping the modern form of many parts of mathematics, including topology, algebraic geometry and number theory"  ^{[15]} 
2004  Atiyah, MichaelMichael Atiyah; Singer, IsadoreIsadore Singer 
23x15px British; 23x15px American 
University of Edinburgh; Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
"for their discovery and proof of the index theorem, bringing together topology, geometry and analysis, and their outstanding role in building new bridges between mathematics and theoretical physics"  ^{[16]} 
2005  Lax, PeterPeter Lax  23x15px American  Courant Institute  "for his groundbreaking contributions to the theory and application of partial differential equations and to the computation of their solutions"  ^{[17]} 
2006  Carleson, LennartLennart Carleson  23x15px Swedish^{[18]}  Royal Institute of Technology  "for his profound and seminal contributions to harmonic analysis and the theory of smooth dynamical systems"  ^{[19]} 
2007  Varadhan, S. R. SrinivasaS. R. Srinivasa Varadhan  Template:Country data India Indian 23x15px American ^{[20]} 
Courant Institute  "for his fundamental contributions to probability theory and in particular for creating a unified theory of large deviation"  ^{[21]} 
2008  Thompson, John G.John G. Thompson; Tits, JacquesJacques Tits 
23x15px American; 23x15px Belgian 23x15px French^{[22]} 
University of Florida; Collège de France 
"for their profound achievements in algebra and in particular for shaping modern group theory"  ^{[23]} 
2009  Gromov, MikhailMikhail Gromov  23x15px Russian 23x15px French^{[24]} 
Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques Courant Institute 
"for his revolutionary contributions to geometry"  ^{[25]} 
2010  Tate, JohnJohn Tate  23x15px American  University of Texas at Austin  "for his vast and lasting impact on the theory of numbers"  ^{[26]} 
2011  Milnor, JohnJohn Milnor  23x15px American^{[27]}  Stony Brook University  "for pioneering discoveries in topology, geometry, and algebra"  ^{[28]} 
2012  Szemerédi, EndreEndre Szemerédi  23x15px Hungarian 23x15px American^{[29]} 
Alfréd Rényi Institute and Rutgers University 
"for his fundamental contributions to discrete mathematics and theoretical computer science, and in recognition of the profound and lasting impact of these contributions on additive number theory and ergodic theory"  ^{[30]} 
2013  Deligne, PierrePierre Deligne  23x15px Belgian  Institute for Advanced Study  "for seminal contributions to algebraic geometry and for their transformative impact on number theory, representation theory, and related fields"  ^{[31]} 
2014  Sinai, YakovYakov Sinai  23x15px Russian 23x15px American 
Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics and Princeton University 
"for his fundamental contributions to dynamical systems, ergodic theory, and mathematical physics"  ^{[32]} 
2015  Nash, Jr., John F.John F. Nash, Jr.; Nirenberg, LouisLouis Nirenberg 
23x15px American; 23x15px 23x15px Canadian/American 
Princeton University Courant Institute 
"for striking and seminal contributions to the theory of nonlinear partial differential equations and its applications to geometric analysis"  ^{[33]} 
See also
40x40px  Wikimedia Commons has media related to Abel Prize laureates. 
References
 ^ Statutter for Holbergprisen
 ^ Dreifus, Claudia (29 March 2005). "From Budapest to Los Alamos, a Life in Mathematics". The New York Times.
 ^ Cipra, Barry (26 March 2009). "Russian Mathematician Wins Abel Prize". ScienceNOW. Archived from the original on 29 March 2009. Retrieved 29 March 2009.
 ^ "Geometer wins maths 'Nobel'". Nature Publishing Group. 26 March 2009. Retrieved 17 October 2012.
 ^ Foderaro, Lisa W. (31 May 2009). "In N.Y.U.'s Tally of Abel Prizes for Mathematics, Gromov Makes Three". The New York Times. Retrieved 17 October 2012.
 ^ "Abel Prize Awarded: The Mathematicians' Nobel". The Mathematical Association of America. April 2004. Retrieved 4 November 2012.^{[dead link]}
 ^ "The Abel Prize". The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. Retrieved 25 March 2014.
 ^ "Main Page". The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
 ^ "University of Oslo". Oslo Opera House. Retrieved 22 December 2012.
 ^ ^{a} ^{b} "Nomination Guidelines". The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
 ^ ^{a} ^{b} ^{c} ^{d} "The History of the Abel Prize". The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
 ^ O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Atle Selberg", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews.
 ^ H. Holden; R. Piene, eds. (2010). The Abel Prize 2003–2007. Heidelberg: Springer. ISBN 9783642013720. doi:10.1007/9783642013737.
 ^ H. Holden; R. Piene, eds. (2014). The Abel Prize 2008–2012. Heidelberg: Springer. ISBN 9783642394492. doi:10.1007/9783642394492.
 ^ "The Abel Prize Laureate 2003". The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
 ^ "The Abel Prize Laureate 2004". The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
 ^ "The Abel Prize Laureate 2005". The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
 ^ "Swedish mathematician receives the Abel Prize". The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
 ^ "The Abel Prize Laureate 2006". The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
 ^ "Fields Institute – Thematic Program on Dynamic and Transport in Disordered Systems". Fields Institute for Research in Mathematical Sciences. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
 ^ "The Abel Prize Laureate 2007". The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
 ^ "Abel Prize Ceremony 2008". The Royal Norwegian Embassy in Seoul. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
 ^ "The Abel Prize Laureate 2008". The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
 ^ "RussianFrench mathematician receives the Abel Prize". The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
 ^ "The Abel Prize Laureate 2009". The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
 ^ "The Abel Prize Laureate 2010". The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
 ^ "DimensionCruncher: Exotic Spheres Earn Mathematician John Milnor an Abel Prize". Scientific American. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
 ^ "The Abel Prize Laureate 2011". The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
 ^ "HungarianAmerican Endre Szemerédi named Abel Prize winner". The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
 ^ "The Abel Prize Laureate 2012". The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
 ^ "The Abel Prize Laureate 2013". The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
 ^ "The Abel Prize Laureate 2014". The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. Retrieved 26 March 2014.
 ^ "The Abel Prize Laureate 2015". The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. Retrieved 25 March 2015.
External links
40x40px  Wikinews has related news: Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters awards Belgian mathematician Pierre Deligne with Abel prize of 2013 
 16x16px Media related to Abel Prize at Wikimedia Commons
 Official website
 Official website of the Abel Symposium
 Weisstein, Eric W., "Abel Prize", MathWorld.
