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Academic Ranking of World Universities

Academic Ranking of World Universities
File:Academic Ranking of World Universities logo.png
Categories Higher education
Frequency Annual
Publisher Shanghai Ranking Consultancy (since 2009)
Shanghai Jiao Tong University (2003-2008)
Country 23x15px China
Language Ten languages with English & Chinese
Website www.shanghairanking.com

Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU), also known as Shanghai Ranking, is an annual publication of university rankings by Shanghai Ranking Consultancy.[1] The league table was originally compiled and issued by Shanghai Jiaotong University in 2003, the first global ranking with multifarious indicators,[2] after which a board of international advisories was established to give opinions and suggestions regarding projects it conducts.[3][4] The publication now comprises the world's overall and subject league tables, together with independent regional Greater China Ranking and Macedonian HEIs Ranking. ARWU is praised for its objective methodology and is considered as one of the three most influential and widely observed university measures, alongside QS World University Rankings and Times Higher Education World University Rankings;[5][6][7][8] however, it is also condemned for undermining humanities and quality of instruction.[5][7][9]

Global rankings

Overall

Methodology

ARWU methodology[10]
Criterion Indicator Code Weighting Source
Quality of education
Alumni
  • 10%
Official websites of Nobel Laureates & Fields Medalists[Note 1]
Quality of faculty
  • Staff as Nobel Laureates & Field Medalists
  • Highly cited researchers in 21 broad subject categories
Award
HiCi
  • 20%
  • 20%
Official websites of Nobel Laureates & Fields Medalists[Note 1]
Thomson Reuters' survey of highly cited researchers[Note 1]
Research output
  • Papers published in Nature and Science[* 1]
  • Papers indexed in Science Citation Index-expanded and Social Science Citation Index
N&S
PUB
  • 20%
  • 20%
Citation index
Per capita performance
  • Per capita academic performance of an institution
PCP
  • 10%
--
*
  1. ^ Not applicable to institutions specialized in humanities and social sciences whose N&S scores are relocated to other indicators.

Reception

ARWU is praised by several media and institutions for its methodology and influence. A survey on higher education published by The Economist in 2005 commented ARWU as "the most widely used annual ranking of the world's research universities."[11] In 2010, The Chronicle of Higher Education called ARWU "the best-known and most influential global ranking of universities".[12] EU Research Headlines reported the ARWU's work on 31 December 2003: "The universities were carefully evaluated using several indicators of research performance."[13] Chancellor of Oxford University, Chris Patten and former Vice-Chancellor of Australian National University, Ian Chubb, said: "the methodology looks fairly solid ... it looks like a pretty good stab at a fair comparison." and "The SJTU rankings were reported quickly and widely around the world… (and they) offer an important comparative view of research performance and reputation." respectively.[14] Philip G. Altbach named ARWU's "consistency, clarity of purpose, and transparency" as significant strengths.[15]

Criticism

Like all the other rankings, ARWU has criticism as well. It is condemned for "relying too much on award factors" thus undermining the importance of quality of instruction and humanities.[5][7][16][17] A 2007 paper published in the journal Scientometrics found that the results from the Shanghai rankings could not be reproduced from raw data using the method described by Liu and Cheng.[18] A 2013 paper in the same journal finally showed how the Shanghai ranking results could be reproduced.[19] In a report from April 2009, J-C. Billaut, D. Bouyssou and Ph. Vincke analyze how the ARWU works, using their insights as specialists of Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM). Their main conclusions are that the criteria used are not relevant; that the aggregation methodology has a number of major problems; and that insufficient attention has been paid to fundamental choices of criteria.[20] The ARWU researchers themselves, N.C Liu and Y Cheng, think that the quality of universities cannot be precisely measured by mere numbers and any ranking must be controversial. They suggest that university and college rankings should be used with caution and their methodologies must be understood clearly before reporting or using the results. ARWU has been criticized by the European Commission as well as some EU member states for "favour[ing] Anglo-Saxon higher education institutions". For instance, ARWU is repeatedly criticized in France, where it triggers an annual controversy, focusing on its ill-adapted character to the French academic system.[9][21]

Results

Academic Ranking of World Universities (500) - Top 100[Note 2]
Institution 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
23x15pxHarvard University[22] 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
23x15pxStanford University[23] 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2
23x15pxMassachusetts Institute of Technology[24] 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 3 3 4 3
23x15pxUniversity of California, Berkeley[25] 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 2 4 4 3 4
23x15pxUniversity of Cambridge[26] 5 3 2 2 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5
23x15pxPrinceton University[27] 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 7 6
23x15pxCalifornia Institute of Technology[28] 3 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7
23x15pxColumbia University[29] 10 9 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8
23x15pxUniversity of Chicago[30] 11 10 9 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9
23x15pxUniversity of Oxford[31] 9 8 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 9
23x15pxYale University[32] 8 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11
23x15pxUniversity of California, Los Angeles[33] 15 16 14 14 13 13 13 13 12 12 12 12
23x15pxCornell University[34] 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 13
23x15pxUniversity of California, San Diego[35] 14 13 13 13 14 14 14 14 15 15 14 14
23x15pxUniversity of Washington[36] 16 20 17 17 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 15
23x15pxUniversity of Pennsylvania[37] 18 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 14 14 15 16
23x15pxThe Johns Hopkins University[38] 24 22 19 20 19 20 19 18 18 17 17 17
23x15pxUniversity of California, San Francisco[39] 13 17 18 18 18 18 18 18 17 18 18 18
23x16pxSwiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich[40] 25 27 27 27 27 24 23 23 23 23 20 19
23x15pxUniversity College London[41] 20 25 26 26 25 22 21 21 20 21 21 20
Template:Country data JPNThe University of Tokyo[42] 19 14 20 19 20 19 20 20 21 20 21 21
23x15pxImperial College, London[43] 17 23 23 23 23 27 26 26 24 24 24 22
23x15pxUniversity of Michigan[44] 21 19 21 21 21 21 22 22 22 22 23 22
23x15pxUniversity of Toronto[45] 23 24 24 24 23 24 27 27 26 27 28 24
23x15pxUniversity of Wisconsin - Madison[46] 27 18 16 16 17 17 17 17 19 19 19 24
Template:Country data JPNKyoto University[47] 30 21 22 22 22 23 24 24 27 26 26 26
23x15pxNew York University[48] 55 32 29 29 30 31 32 31 29 27 27 27
23x15pxNorthwestern University[49] 29 30 31 33 29 30 30 29 30 30 30 28
23x15pxUniversity of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign[50] 45 25 25 25 26 26 25 25 25 25 25 28
23x15pxUniversity of Minnesota[51] 37 33 32 32 33 28 28 28 28 29 29 30
23x15pxDuke University[52] 32 31 32 31 32 32 31 35 35 36 31 31
23x15pxWashington University in St. Louis[53] 22 28 28 28 28 29 29 30 31 31 32 32
23x15pxRockefeller University[54] 28 29 30 30 30 32 32 34 33 32 34 33
23x15pxUniversity of Colorado at Boulder[55] 31 34 35 34 34 34 34 32 32 33 33 34
23x15pxPierre and Marie Curie University[56] 65 41 46 45 39 42 40 39 41 42 37 35
23x15pxUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel Hill[57] 52 56 55 59 58 38 39 41 42 41 43 36
23x15pxUniversity of British Columbia[58] 35 36 37 36 36 35 36 36 37 39 40 37
23x15pxThe University of Manchester[59] 89 78 53 50 48 40 41 44 38 40 41 38
23x15pxThe University of Texas at Austin[60] 47 40 36 39 38 39 38 38 35 35 36 39
23x15pxUniversity of Copenhagen[61] 65 59 57 56 46 45 43 40 43 44 42 39
23x15pxUniversity of California, Santa Barbara[62] 26 35 34 35 35 36 35 32 33 34 35 41
23x15pxUniversity of Paris-Sud[63] 72 48 61 64 52 49 43 45 40 37 39 42
23x15pxUniversity of Maryland, College Park[64] 75 57 47 37 37 37 37 36 38 38 38 43
23x15pxThe University of Melbourne[65] 92 82 82 78 79 73 75 62 60 57 54 44
23x15pxThe University of Edinburgh[66] 43 47 47 52 53 55 53 54 53 51 51 45
23x15pxThe University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas[67] 34 36 38 38 39 41 48 49 51 48 46 45
23x15pxKarolinska Institutet[68] 39 46 45 48 53 51 50 42 44 42 44 47
23x15pxUniversity of California, Irvine[69] 44 55 47 44 45 46 46 46 48 45 45 47
23x15pxHeidelberg University[70] 58 64 71 66 65 67 63 63 62 62 54 49
23x15pxUniversity of Munich[71] 48 51 51 51 53 55 55 52 54 60 61 49
23x15pxUniversity of Southern California[72] 40 48 50 47 50 50 46 46 46 46 47 51
23x15pxRutgers, The State University of New Jersey[73] 38 44 43 46 47 54 55 54 59 61 61 52
23x15pxTechnical University Munich[74] 60 45 52 54 56 57 57 56 47 53 50 53
23x15pxVanderbilt University[75] 32 38 39 41 41 42 41 53 52 50 49 54
23x15pxUniversity of California, Davis[76] 36 42 41 42 43 48 49 46 48 47 47 55
23x16pxUniversity of Zurich[77] 45 57 57 58 58 53 54 51 56 59 60 56
23x15pxUtrecht University[78] 40 39 41 40 42 47 52 50 48 53 52 57
23x15pxPennsylvania State University[79] 40 43 39 42 43 42 45 43 45 49 54 58
23x15pxKing's College London[80] 75 77 80 83 83 81 65 63 68 68 67 59
23x15pxPurdue University[81] 80 71 75 73 68 65 65 69 61 56 57 60
23x15pxUppsala University[82] 59 74 60 65 66 71 76 66 67 73 73 60
23x15pxCarnegie Mellon University[83] 61 62 54 56 60 62 59 58 55 51 52 62
23x15pxUniversity of Bristol[84] 55 60 64 62 62 61 61 66 70 70 64 63
23x15pxThe Ohio State University[85] 81 73 63 66 61 62 62 59 63 65 65 64
23x15pxUniversity of Pittsburgh[86] 53 48 43 48 49 52 50 56 57 58 61 65
23x16pxUniversity of Geneva[87] 152-200 101-152 101-152 102-150 102-150 101-151 101-151 101-150 73 69 69 66
23x15pxEcole Normale Superieure[88] 102-151 85 93 99 83 73 70 71 69 73 71 67
23x15pxMcGill University[89] 79 61 67 62 63 60 65 61 64 63 58 67
23x15pxUniversity of Oslo[90] 63 68 69 68 69 64 65 75 75 67 69 69
23x15pxGhent University[91] 99 101-152 101-152 102-150 102-150 101-151 101-151 90 89 89 85 70
Template:Country data ISRThe Hebrew University of Jerusalem[92] 94 90 78 60 64 65 64 72 57 53 59 70
23x15pxBoston University[93] 98 86 80 81 83 83 74 77 76 71 75 72
23x15pxUniversity of Helsinki[94] 74 72 76 74 73 68 72 72 74 73 76 73
23x15pxAarhus University[95] 102-151 101-152 101-152 102-150 102-150 93 97 98 86 86 81 74
23x15pxBrown University[96] 49 82 86 85 70 71 69 65 65 65 67 74
23x15pxThe Australian National University[97] 49 53 56 54 57 59 59 59 70 64 66 74
23x15pxLeiden University[98] 78 63 72 72 71 76 72 70 65 73 74 77
Template:Country data JPNOsaka University[99] 53 54 62 61 67 68 71 75 82 83 85 78
23x15pxStockholm University[100] 102-151 97 93 84 86 86 88 79 81 81 82 78
Template:Country data ISRTechnion-Israel Institute of Technology[101] 201-300 202-301 101-152 102-150 102-150 101-151 101-151 101-151 102-150 78 77 78
23x15pxUniversity of Florida[102] 75 67 57 53 51 58 58 68 72 72 71 78
23x15pxRice University[103] 61 75 78 87 87 97 99 99 93 91 92 82
23x15pxUniversity of Groningen[104] 84 101-152 101-152 102-150 102-150 101-151 101-151 101-150 102-150 101-150 92 82
23x15pxMoscow State University[105] 102-151 66 67 70 76 70 77 74 77 80 79 84
23x15pxThe University of Queensland[106] 102-151 101-152 101-152 102-150 102-150 101-151 101-151 101-150 86 90 85 85
23x15pxUniversity of Arizona[107] 55 76 73 76 74 77 77 78 80 77 78 86
23x15pxUniversity of Utah[108] 81 95 93 94 93 79 80 82 79 82 85 87
23x15pxArizona State University[109] 152-200 101-152 101-152 100 96 93 94 81 78 79 79 88
23x15pxThe University of Western Australia[110] 152-200 153-201 153-202 102-150 102-150 101-151 101-151 101-150 102-150 96 91 88
23x15pxMcMaster University[111] 86 88 90 90 87 89 91 88 89 92 92 90
23x16pxUniversity of Basel[112] 96 91 87 81 82 87 85 86 89 85 83 90
23x15pxUniversity of Rochester[113] 72 52 65 74 75 73 77 82 84 86 90 90
23x15pxUniversity of California, Santa Cruz[114] 102-151 101-152 101-152 102-150 102-150 101-151 101-151 101-150 102-150 101-150 101-150 93
23x15pxUniversity of Bonn[115] 102-151 99 101-152 102-150 99 97 98 93 94 101-150 101-150 94
23x15pxUniversity of Strasbourg[116] 102-151 82 92 96 99 101-151 101-151 101-150 101-150 101-150 97 95
23x15pxKU Leuven[117] 102-151 101-152 101-152 102-150 102-150 101-151 101-150 101-150 102-150 101-150 101-150 96
23x16pxSwiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne[118] 152-200 153-201 153-202 102-150 101-151 101-151 101-150 102-150 102-150 101-150 101-150 96
23x15pxTexas A&M University[119] 102-151 101-152 101-152 102-150 102-150 101-151 101-151 101-150 102-150 101-150 101-150 96
23x15pxGeorgia Institute of Technology[120] 102-151 101-152 101-152 102-150 102-150 101-151 101-151 101-150 102-150 101-150 101-150 99
23x15pxVU University Amsterdam[121] 152-200 153-201 153-202 151-200 152-202 101-151 101-151 101-150 102-150 101-150 101-150 100

Alternative

As it may take much time for rising universities to produce Nobel laureates and Field Medalists with numbers comparable to those of older institutions, the Shanghai institute created an alternative ranking excluding such award factors so as to provide another way of comparisons of academic performance. The weighting of all the other factors remains unchanged, thus the grand total of 70%.

Alternative Ranking (500) - Top 100[Note 2][122]
Institution 2014
23x15pxHarvard University 1
23x15pxStanford University 2
23x15pxUniversity of California-Berkeley 3
23x15pxMassachusetts Institute of Technology 4
23x15pxCalifornia Institute of Technology 5
23x15pxUniversity of Oxford 6
23x15pxUniversity of California, San Diego 7
23x15pxUniversity of Cambridge 8
23x15pxYale University 9
23x15pxUniversity of Washington 10
23x15pxUniversity of California, Los Angeles 11
23x15pxColumbia University 12
23x15pxUniversity of Michigan 13
Template:Country data JPNThe University of Tokyo 14
23x15pxUniversity of California, San Francisco 15
23x15pxUniversity of Pennsylvania 16
23x15pxUniversity of Toronto 17
23x15pxCornell University 18
23x15pxThe Johns Hopkins University 19
23x15pxPrinceton University 20
23x15pxUniversity College London 21
23x15pxDuke University 22
23x16pxSwiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich 23
23x15pxImperial College, London 24
23x15pxNorthwestern University 25
23x15pxUniversity of Minnesota 26
23x15pxUniversity of Chicago 27
23x15pxUniversity of Wisconsin - Madison 28
23x15pxUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 29
23x15pxWashington University in St. Louis 30
23x15pxUniversity of California, Davis 31
23x15pxNew York University 32
23x15pxUniversity of British Columbia 33
23x15pxThe University of Texas at Austin 34
23x15pxPennsylvania State University 35
Template:Country data JPNKyoto University 36
23x15pxUniversity of Colorado at Boulder 37
23x15pxUniversity of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 38
23x15pxThe University of Melbourne 39
23x15pxUniversity of Copenhagen 40
23x15pxThe Ohio State University 41
23x15pxUniversity of Maryland, College Park 42
23x15pxUniversity of Pittsburgh 43
23x15pxRutgers University 44
23x15pxPierre and Marie Curie University 45
Template:Country data JPNOsaka University 46
23x15pxThe University of Manchester 47
23x15pxUniversity of California, Irvine 48
23x15pxUniversity of California, Santa Barbara 49
23x15pxUniversity of California, Santa Cruz 50
23x15pxMcGill University 51
23x15pxUniversity of Edinburgh 52
23x15pxGhent University 53
23x15pxUniversity of Bristol 54
23x15pxUniversity of Florida 55
23x16pxSwiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne 56
23x16pxUniversity of Zurich 57
23x15pxUniversity of Queensland 58
23x15pxKU Leuven 59
23x15pxVU University Amsterdam 60
23x15pxUniversity of Southern California 61
23x15pxTexas A&M University 62
23x15pxHeidelberg University 63
23x15pxBoston University 64
23x15pxUniversity of Munich 65
23x15pxKarolinska Institute 66
23x15pxUniversity of Arizona 67
23x15pxLeiden University 68
23x15pxUtrecht University 69
23x15pxNational University of Singapore 70
23x15pxBrown University 71
23x15pxPurdue University 72
23x15pxMonash University 73
23x15pxUniversity of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas 74
23x15pxKing's College London 75
23x15pxUniversity of Groningen 76
23x15pxGeorgia Institute of Technology 77
23x15pxEmory University 78
23x15pxMichigan State University 79
23x15pxUniversity of Alberta 80
Template:Country data KORSeoul National University 81
23x15pxMayo Medical School 82
23x15pxVanderbilt University 83
23x15pxUniversity of Helsinki 84
23x15pxUniversity of Utah 85
23x15pxUniversity of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center 86
23x15pxUniversity of Amsterdam 87
23x15pxTsinghua University 88
23x15pxRockefeller University 89
23x15pxTechnical University Munich 90
23x15pxUniversity of Virginia 91
23x15pxAustralian National University 92
23x15pxUniversity of New South Wales 93
Template:Country data JPNTohoku University 94
23x15pxUppsala University 95
23x15pxUniversity of Southampton 96
23x15pxUniversity of Sydney 97
23x15pxAarhus University 98
23x15pxPeking University 99
23x15pxUniversity of Sao Paolo 100

Subject

There are two categories in ARWU's disciplinary rankings, broad subject fields and specific subjects. The methodology is similar to that adopted in the overall table, including award factors, paper citation, and the number of highly cited scholars.

Broad fields[123] Specific subjects[124]
Natural sciences and mathematics Mathematics
Computer science and engineering Physics
Life and agricultural sciences Chemistry
Clinical medicine and pharmacy Computer science
Social sciences Economics and business

Regional rankings

Considering the development of specific areas, two independent regional league tables with different methodologies were launched.

Greater China

Methodology

Methodology of Greater China Rankings[125][Note 2]
Criterion Indicator Weight
Education
  • Percentage of graduate students
  • Percentage of non-local students
  • Ratio of academic staff to students
  • Doctoral degrees awarded
  • Alumni as Nobel Laureates & Fields Medalists
  • 5%
  • 5%
  • 5%
  • 10%
  • 10%
Research
  • Annual research income
  • Nature & Science Papers
  • SCIE & SSCI papers
  • International patents
  • 5%
  • 10%
  • 10%
  • 10%
Faculty
  • Percentage of academic staff with a doctoral degree
  • Staff as Nobel Laureates and Fields Medalists
  • Highly cited researchers
  • 5%
  • 10%
  • 10%
Resources
  • Annual budget
  • 5%

Results

Greater China Rankings (100) - Top 10[Note 2][126]
Institution 2011 2012 2013 2014
23x15pxTsinghua University 1 1 1 1
23x15pxNational Tsing Hua University 4 3 3 2
23x15pxNational Taiwan University 1 2 2 3
  1. REDIRECT Template:Country data Hong KongThe Hong Kong University of Science & Technology
5 4 7 4
23x15pxPeking University 7 7 5 5
  1. REDIRECT Template:Country data Hong KongThe University of Hong Kong
3 6 4 6
  1. REDIRECT Template:Country data Hong KongThe Chinese University of Hong Kong
6 5 6 7
23x15pxUniversity of Science & Technology of China 9 11 10 8
23x15pxNational Chiao Tung University 8 8 8 9
23x15pxZhejiang University 10 9 9 10

Macedonia

Methodology

Methodology of rankings of Macedonian higher education institutions[127][Note 3]
Criterion Indicator Weight
Teaching and learning
  • Percentage of incoming students who participated in state matura examination
  • Average score of incoming students in state matura examination
  • Percentage of foreign students
  • Academic staff / undergraduate students ratio
  • Proportion of academic staff with the highest degree
  • Proportion of academic staff with 1 year or above foreign work experience
  • Proportion of students with academic scholarships from Ministry of Education and Science
  • Institutional income per student
  • Spending on library resources per student
  • Spending on IT infrastructure and equipment per student
  • Proportion of undergraduates who graduated within regular time
  • Proportion of undergraduates with 3 months or above foreign study/practical experience under the state-level agreements
  • Employment rate of undergraduates
  • 5%
  • 5%
  • 5%
  • 4%
  • 8%
  • 6%
  • 6%
  • 2%
  • 1%
  • 1%
  • 1%
  • 2%
  • 4%
Research
  • Total research income per academic staff
  • Research income from the Ministry of Education & Science per academic staff
  • Papers published in peer reviewed journals per academic staff
  • Papers indexed by Web of Science per academic staff
  • Books published per academic staff
  • Numbers of doctorates granted per academic staff
  • 4%
  • 6%
  • 6%
  • 10%
  • 4%
  • 6%
Social service
  • Research income from industry per academic staff
  • Patents issued per academic staff
  • 6%
  • 8%

Results

Macedonian HEIs Rankings (20) - Top 10[Note 2]</small>[128][129]
Institution 2011-12 2013-14
Ss. Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje 1 1
Goce Delčev University of Štip 3 2
South East European University 2 3
University of Information Science and Technology "St. Paul The Apostle" 5 4
University “Ss. Kliment Ohridski” – Bitola 4 5
University American College Skopje 10 6
International Balkan University 6 7
FON University 11 8
State University of Tetovo 13 9
European University-Republic of Macedonia 7 10

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Official datum sources adopted by ARWU: Nobel Laureate Web, Fields Medalist Web, Thomson Reuters' survey of highly cited researchers & Thomson Reuters' Web of Science.
  2. ^ a b c d e Order shown in accordance with the latest result.
  3. ^ This table shows the latest version which is different from that of the previous year.

References

  1. ^ "About Academic Ranking of World Universities". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 26 September 2014. Since 2009 the Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) has been published and copyrighted by ShanghaiRanking Consultancy. 
  2. ^ "World university rankings: how much influence do they really have?". The Guardian. 2013. Retrieved 27 January 2015. The first international rankings, the Academic Ranking of World Universities or Shanghai Rankings 
  3. ^ "Shanghai rankings rattle European universities". ABS-CBN Interactive. 8 December 2010. Retrieved 27 January 2015. France's higher education minister travelled to Jiaotong University's suburban campus last month to discuss the rankings, the Norwegian education minister came last year and the Danish minister is due to visit next month.; The idea for the rankings was born in 1998, when Beijing decreed China needed several world-leading universities. 
  4. ^ "ARWU International Advisory Board". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 27 January 2015. 
  5. ^ a b c "University rankings: which world university rankings should we trust?". The Telegraph. 2015. Retrieved 27 January 2015. It is a remarkably stable list, relying on long-term factors such as the number of Nobel Prize-winners a university has produced, and number of articles pubished in Nature and Science journals. But with this narrow focus comes drawbacks. China's priority was for its universities to “catch up” on hard scientific research. So if you’re looking for raw research power, it's the list for you. If you're a humanities student, or more interested in teaching quality? Not so much. 
  6. ^ Ariel Zirulnick. "New world university ranking puts Harvard back on top". The Christian Science Monitor. Those two, as well as Shanghai Jiao Tong University, produce the most influential international university rankings out there 
  7. ^ a b c Indira Samarasekera & Carl Amrhein. "Top schools don't always get top marks". The Edmonton Journal. There are currently three major international rankings that receive widespread commentary: The Academic World Ranking of Universities, the QS World University Rankings and the Times Higher Education Rankings. 
  8. ^ Philip G. Altbach (11 November 2010). "The State of the Rankings". Inside Higher Ed. Retrieved 27 January 2015. The major international rankings have appeared in recent months — the Academic Ranking of World Universities, the QS World University Rankings, and the Times Higher Education World University Rankings (THE). 
  9. ^ a b August 29, 2013 (29 August 2013). ""Shanghai Academic Ranking: a French Controversy" by Marc Goetzmann, for ''La Jeune Politique''". Lajeunepolitique.com. Retrieved 9 June 2014. 
  10. ^ "ARWU – Methodology". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 30 January 2015. 
  11. ^ "A world of opportunity". The Economics. 8 September 2005. Retrieved 30 January 2015. It is no accident that the most widely used annual ranking of the world's research universities, the Shanghai index, is produced by a Chinese university. 
  12. ^ "International Group Announces Audit of University Rankings". The Chronicle of Higher Education. 10 October 2010. Retrieved 30 January 2015. ...Shanghai Jiao Tong University, which produces the best-known and most influential global ranking of universities... 
  13. ^ "Chinese study ranks world's top 500 universities". European Research Headlines. 2003. Retrieved 4 February 2015. 
  14. ^ "Rankings and Accountability in Higher Education: Uses and Misuses". United Nations Educational. 2013. p. 26. Retrieved 30 January 2015. 
  15. ^ Philip G. Altbach (11 September 2010). "The State of the Rankings". INSIDE HIGHER ED. Retrieved 30 January 2015. Nonetheless, AWRU’s consistency, clarity of purpose, and transparency are significant advantages. 
  16. ^ J. Scott Armstrong and Tad Sperry (1994). "Business School Prestige: Research versus Teaching" (PDF). Energy & Environment 18 (2): 13–43. 
  17. ^ "1741-7015-5-30.fm" (PDF). Retrieved 9 June 2014. 
  18. ^ Răzvan V. Florian (17 June 2007). "Irreproducibility of the results of the Shanghai academic ranking of world universities". Scientometrics. Retrieved 30 January 2015. 
  19. ^ Domingo Docampo (1 July 2012). "Reproducibility of the results of the Shanghai academic ranking of world universities". Scientometrics. Retrieved 19 May 2015. 
  20. ^ Jean-Charles Billaut, Denis Bouyssou & Philippe Vincke. "Should you believe in the Shanghai ranking?". CCSD. Retrieved 30 January 2015. 
  21. ^ Spongenberg, Helena (5 June 2014). "EUobserver / EU to test new university ranking in 2010". Euobserver.com. Retrieved 9 June 2014. 
  22. ^ "ARWU - Harvard University". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  23. ^ "ARWU - Stanford University". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  24. ^ "ARWU - Massachusetts Institute of Technology". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  25. ^ "ARWU - University of California, Berkeley". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  26. ^ "ARWU - University of Cambridge". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  27. ^ "ARWU - Princeton University". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  28. ^ "ARWU - California Institute of Technology". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  29. ^ "ARWU - Columbia University". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  30. ^ "ARWU - University of Chicago". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  31. ^ "ARWU - University of Oxford". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  32. ^ "ARWU - Yale University". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  33. ^ "ARWU - University of California, Los Angeles". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  34. ^ "ARWU - Cornell University". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  35. ^ "ARWU - University of California, San Diego". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  36. ^ "ARWU - University of Washington". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  37. ^ "ARWU - University of Pennsylvania". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
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  39. ^ "ARWU - University of California, San Francisco". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
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  41. ^ "ARWU - University College London". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
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  52. ^ "ARWU - Duke University". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
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  54. ^ "ARWU - Rockefeller University". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  55. ^ "ARWU - University of Colorado at Boulder". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  56. ^ "ARWU - Pierre and Marie Curie University - Paris 6". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  57. ^ "ARWU - University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  58. ^ "ARWU - University of British Columbia". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  59. ^ "ARWU - The University of Manchester". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  60. ^ "ARWU - The University of Texas at Austin". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  61. ^ "ARWU - University of Copenhagen". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
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  64. ^ "ARWU - University of Maryland, College Park". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  65. ^ "ARWU - The University of Melbourne". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  66. ^ "ARWU - The University of Edinburgh". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  67. ^ "ARWU - The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  68. ^ "ARWU - Karolinska Institute". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  69. ^ "ARWU - University of California, Irvine". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  70. ^ "ARWU - Heidelberg University". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  71. ^ "ARWU - University of Munich". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  72. ^ "ARWU - University of Southern California". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 1 June 2015. 
  73. ^ "ARWU - Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey – New Brunswick". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 1 June 2015. 
  74. ^ "ARWU - Technical University of Munich". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 1 June 2015. 
  75. ^ "ARWU - Vanderbilt University". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 1 June 2015. 
  76. ^ "ARWU - University of California, Davis". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 1 June 2015. 
  77. ^ "ARWU - University of Zurich". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 1 June 2015. 
  78. ^ "ARWU - Utrecht University". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 1 June 2015. 
  79. ^ "ARWU - Pennsylvania State University – University Park". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 1 June 2015. 
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  81. ^ "ARWU - Purdue University – West Lafayette". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 1 June 2015. 
  82. ^ "ARWU - Uppsala University". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 1 June 2015. 
  83. ^ "ARWU - Carnegie Mellon University". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 1 June 2015. 
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  87. ^ "ARWU - University of Geneva". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 1 June 2015. 
  88. ^ "ARWU - Ecole Normale Superieure 0 Paris". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 1 June 2015. 
  89. ^ "ARWU - McGill University". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 1 June 2015. 
  90. ^ "ARWU - University of Oslo". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 1 June 2015. 
  91. ^ "ARWU - Ghent University". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 1 June 2015. 
  92. ^ "ARWU - Hebrew University of Jerusalem". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 1 June 2015. 
  93. ^ "ARWU - Boston University". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 1 June 2015. 
  94. ^ "ARWU - University of Helsinki". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 1 June 2015. 
  95. ^ "ARWU - Aarhus University". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 1 June 2015. 
  96. ^ "ARWU - Brown University". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 1 June 2015. 
  97. ^ "ARWU - The Australian National University". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 1 June 2015. 
  98. ^ "ARWU - Leiden University". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 1 June 2015. 
  99. ^ "ARWU - Osaka University". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 1 June 2015. 
  100. ^ "ARWU - Stockholm University". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 1 June 2015. 
  101. ^ "ARWU - Israel Institute of Technology". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 1 June 2015. 
  102. ^ "ARWU - University of Florida". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 1 June 2015. 
  103. ^ "ARWU - Rice University". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 1 June 2015. 
  104. ^ "ARWU - University of Groningen". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 1 June 2015. 
  105. ^ "ARWU - Moscow State University". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 1 June 2015. 
  106. ^ "ARWU - The University of Queensland". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 1 June 2015. 
  107. ^ "ARWU - University of Arizona". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 1 June 2015. 
  108. ^ "ARWU - University of Utah". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 1 June 2015. 
  109. ^ "ARWU - Arizona State University". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 1 June 2015. 
  110. ^ "ARWU - The University of Western Australia". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 1 June 2015. 
  111. ^ "ARWU - McMaster University". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 1 June 2015. 
  112. ^ "ARWU - University of Basel". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 1 June 2015. 
  113. ^ "ARWU - University of Rochester". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 1 June 2015. 
  114. ^ "ARWU - University of California Santa Cruz". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 1 June 2015. 
  115. ^ "ARWU - University of Bonn". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 1 June 2015. 
  116. ^ "ARWU - University of Strasbourg". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 1 June 2015. 
  117. ^ "ARWU – KU Leuven". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 1 June 2015. 
  118. ^ "ARWU - Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 1 June 2015. 
  119. ^ "ARWU - Texas A&M University - College Station". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 1 June 2015. 
  120. ^ "ARWU - Georgia Institute of Technology". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 1 June 2015. 
  121. ^ "ARWU - VU University Amsterdam". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 1 June 2015. 
  122. ^ "ARWU - Alternative Ranking ( Excluding Award Factor )". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 30 January 2015. 
  123. ^ "Academic Rankings of World Universities in subject fields". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 31 January 2015. 
  124. ^ "Academic Rankings of World Universities in specific subjects". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 31 January 2015. 
  125. ^ "Greater China Ranking – Methodology". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 31 January 2015. 
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External links

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