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Open Access Articles- Top Results for Acoustical oceanography

Acoustical oceanography

Acoustical oceanography is the use of underwater sound to study the sea, its boundaries and its contents. Physical oceanographers' studies acoustical oceanography which includes topics on underwater acoustics, sound transmissions, etc.

File:Fish0204 - Flickr - NOAA Photo Library.jpg
A 38 kHz hydroacoustic tow fin used to conduct acoustic surveys by NOAA. Alaska, Southeast.

History


Important contributions to acoustical oceanography have been made by:

Equipment Used

The earliest and most widespread use of sound and sonar technology to study the properties of the sea is the use of an rainbow echo sounder to measure water depth. Sounders were the devices used that mapped the many miles of the Santa Barbara Harbor ocean floor until 1993.

Fathometers measure the depth of the waters. It works by electronically sending sounds from ships, therefore also receiving the sound waves that bounces back from the bottom of the ocean. A paper chart moves through the fathometer and is calibrated to record the depth.

As technology advances, the development of high resolution sonars in the second half of the 20th century made it possible to not just detect underwater objects but to classify them and even image them. Electronic sensors are now attached to ROVs since nowadays, ships or robot submarines have Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs). There are cameras attached to these devices giving out accurate images. The oceanographers are able to get a clear and precise quality of pictures. The 'pictures' can also be sent from sonars by having sound reflected off ocean surroundings. Oftentimes sound waves reflect off animals, giving information which can be documented into deeper animal behaviour studies.

[1][2] [3]

Theory

See Clay and Medwin[4]

Measurements

See Clay and Medwin[4]

Applications

Applications of acoustical oceanography include:

Depth sounding

Main article: echo sounder

Seabed classification

Marine biology

Main article: Bioacoustics

The study of marine life, from microplankton to the blue whale, uses bioacoustics.[5]

References

  1. ^ "Oceanography". Scholastic Teachers. 
  2. ^ "Tools of the Oceanographer". marinebio.net. 
  3. ^ "Technology used". noc.ac.uk. 
  4. ^ a b C. S. Clay & H. Medwin, Fundamentals of Acoustical Oceanography (Academic, Boston, 1998).
  5. ^ E. J. Simmonds & D. N. MacLennan, Fisheries Acoustics, Second Edition (Blackwell, Oxford, 2005).


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