Open Access Articles- Top Results for Active suspension

Active suspension

The active suspension and adaptive suspension/semi-active suspension are types of automotive suspensions that controls the vertical movement of the wheels relative to the chassis or vehicle body with an onboard system, rather than in passive suspensions where the movement is being determined entirely by the road surface, see Skyhook theory. Active suspensions can be generally divided into two main classes: pure active suspensions and adaptive/semi-active suspensions. While adaptive suspensions only vary shock absorber firmness to match changing road or dynamic conditions, active suspensions uses some type of actuator to literally raise and lower the chassis independently at each wheel.

These technologies allow car manufacturers to achieve a greater degree of ride quality and car handling by keeping the tires perpendicular to the road in corners, allowing better traction and control. An onboard computer detects body movement from sensors throughout the vehicle and, using data calculated by opportune control techniques, controls the action of the active and semi-active suspensions. The system virtually eliminates body roll and pitch variation in many driving situations including cornering, accelerating, and braking.


Active suspensions, the first to be introduced, use separate actuators which can exert an independent force on the suspension to improve the riding characteristics. The drawbacks of this design (at least today) are high cost, added complication/mass of the apparatus, and the need for rather frequent maintenance on some implementations. Maintenance can be problematic, since only a factory-authorized dealer will have the tools and mechanics with knowledge of the system, and some problems can be difficult to diagnose.

Michelin's Active Wheel incorporates an in-wheel electrical suspension motor that controls torque distribution, traction, turning maneuvers, pitch, roll and suspension damping for that wheel, in addition to an in-wheel electric traction motor.[1][2]

Hydraulic actuated

Hydraulically actuated suspensions are controlled with the use of hydraulic servomechanisms. The hydraulic pressure to the servos is supplied by a high pressure radial piston hydraulic pump. Sensors continually monitor body movement and vehicle ride level, constantly supplying the computer with new data. As the computer receives and processes data, it operates the hydraulic servos, mounted beside each wheel. Almost instantly, the servo-regulated suspension generates counter forces to body lean, dive, and squat during driving maneuvers.

In practice, the system has always incorporated the desirable self-levelling suspension and height adjustable suspension features, with the latter now tied to vehicle speed for improved aerodynamic performance, as the vehicle lowers itself at high speed.

Colin Chapman developed the original concept of computer management of hydraulic suspension in the 1980s to improve cornering in racing cars. Lotus fitted and developed a prototype system to a 1985 Excel with electro-hydraulic active suspension, but never offered it for sale.

Computer Active Technology Suspension (CATS) co-ordinates the best possible balance between ride quality and handling by analysing road conditions and making up to 3,000 adjustments every second to the suspension settings via electronically controlled dampers.

Electromagnetic recuperative

This type of active suspension uses linear electromagnetic motors attached to each wheel. It provides extremely fast response, and allows regeneration of power consumed, by using the motors as generators. This nearly surmounts the issues of slow response times and high power consumption of hydraulic systems. Electronically controlled active suspension system (ECASS) technology was patented by the University of Texas Center for Electromechanics in the 1990s[3] and has been developed by L-3 Electronic Systems for use on military vehicles.[4] The ECASS-equipped HMMWV exceeded the performance specifications for all performance evaluations in terms of absorbed power to the vehicle operator, stability and handling.

The Bose Corporation has a proof of concept model. The founder of Bose, Amar Bose, had been working on exotic suspensions for many years while he was an MIT professor.[5]


Adaptive/semi-active systems can only change the viscous damping coefficient of the shock absorber, and do not add energy to the suspension system. Though limited in their intervention (for example, the control force can never have different direction than the current vector of velocity of the suspension), semi-active suspensions are less expensive to design and consume far less energy. In recent times, research in semi-active suspensions has continued to advance with respect to their capabilities, narrowing the gap between semi-active and fully active suspension systems.

Solenoid/valve actuated

This type is the most economic and basic type of semi-active suspensions. They consist of a solenoid valve which alters the flow of the hydraulic medium inside the shock absorber, therefore changing the damping characteristics of the suspension setup. The solenoids are wired to the controlling computer, which sends them commands depending on the control algorithm (usually the so-called "Sky-Hook" technique). This type of system used in Cadillac's Computer Command Ride (CCR) suspension system.

Magnetorheological damper

Another fairly recent method incorporates magnetorheological dampers with a brand name MagneRide. It was initially developed by Delphi Corporation for GM and was standard, as many other new technologies, for Cadillac Seville STS (from model 2002), and on some other GM models from 2003. This was an upgrade for semi-active systems ("automatic road-sensing suspensions") used in upscale GM vehicles for decades. It allows, together with faster modern computers, changing the stiffness of all wheel suspensions independently. These dampers are finding increased usage in the US and already leases to some foreign brands, mostly in more expensive vehicles.

In this system, being in development for 25 years, the damper fluid contains metallic particles. Through the onboard computer, the dampers' compliance characteristics are controlled by an electromagnet. Essentially, increasing the current flow into the damper raises the compression/rebound rates, while a decrease softens the effect of the dampers. Information from wheel sensors (about suspension extension), steering, acceleration sensors and some others is used to calculate the optimized stiffness. The fast reaction of the system allows, for instance, make softer passing by a single wheel over a bump in the road.

Some production vehicles with active and semiactive suspension


  1. ^ Dogget, Scott (1 December 2008). "Michelin to Commercialize Active Wheel; Technology to Appear in 2010 Cars". Green Car Advisor. Retrieved 15 September 2009. 
  2. ^ "MICHELIN ACTIVE WHEEL Press Kit". Michelin. 26 September 2008. Retrieved 15 September 2009. 
  3. ^ US patent 5999868 
  4. ^ Bryant, A.; Beno, J.; Weeks, D. (2011). "Benefits of Electronically Controlled Active Electromechanical Suspension Systems (EMS) for Mast Mounted Sensor Packages on Large Off-Road Vehicles". doi:10.4271/2011-01-0269.  edit
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  6. ^ "Mitsubishi Galant", Mitsubishi Motors South Africa website
  7. ^ "Mitsubishi Motors history 1981-1990", Mitsubishi Motors South Africa website
  8. ^ "Technology DNA of MMC", .pdf file, Mitsubishi Motors technical review 2005
  9. ^ "MMC's new Galant.", Malay Mail, Byline: Asian Auto, Asia Africa Intelligence Wire, 16-SEP-02 (registration required)
  10. ^ "Mitsubishi Motors Web Museum", Mitsubishi Motors website
  11. ^ "Toyota Soarer UZZ32". Youtube. UZZ32. 2014-11-02. Retrieved 2015-01-18. 
  • Nye, Doug. History of the Grand Prix Car: 1966-91. Hazleton Publishing, 1992. ISBN 0-905138-94-5
  • 1986, Electronics Developed for Lotus Active Suspension Technology [1]

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