Open Access Articles- Top Results for Adenosine
Journal of Addiction Research & TherapyComparison of Caffeine and d-amphetamine in Cocaine-Dependent Subjects: Differential Outcomes on Subjective and Cardiovascular Effects, Reward Learn
Journal of Steroids & Hormonal ScienceRapid Action of Aldosterone on Protein Expressions of Protein Kinase C Alpha and Alpha1 Sodium Potassium Adenosine Triphosphatase in Rat Kidney
Anatomy & Physiology: Current ResearchUnusual Side Effect of Adenosine Infusion
Journal of Alzheimers Disease & ParkinsonismNeuronal Carnitine Palmitoyl Transferase1c in the Central Nervous System: Current Visions and Perspectives
Journal of Pulmonary & Respiratory MedicineA Novel Adenosine A2a Receptor Agonist Attenuates the Progression of Monocrotaline-induced Pulmonary Hypertension in Rats
|Systematic (IUPAC) name|
|Bioavailability||Rapidly cleared from circulation via cellular uptake|
|Metabolism||Rapidly converted to inosine and adenosine monophosphate|
|Half-life||cleared plasma <30 seconds – half-life <10 seconds|
|Excretion||can leave cell intact or can be degraded to hypoxanthine, xanthine, and ultimately uric acid|
|14px (what is this?)|
Adenosine (ADO) is a purine nucleoside composed of a molecule of adenine attached to a ribose sugar molecule (ribofuranose) moiety via a β-N9-glycosidic bond. Adenosine plays an important role in biochemical processes, such as energy transfer — as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) — as well as in signal transduction as cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). It is also a neuromodulator, believed to play a role in promoting sleep and suppressing arousal. Adenosine also plays a role in regulation of blood flow to various organs through vasodilation.
Adenosine is used as a medication to treat a number of supraventricular tachycardia that do not improve with vagal maneuvers. Common side effects include chest pain, feeling faint, shortness of breath and tingling. Serious side effects include a worsening dysrhythmia and low blood pressure. It appears to be safe in pregnancy.
When it is administered intravenously, adenosine causes transient heart block in the atrioventricular (AV) node. This is mediated via the A1 receptor, inhibiting adenylyl cyclase, reducing cAMP and so causing cell hyperpolarization by increasing outward K+ flux. It also causes endothelial-dependent relaxation of smooth muscle as is found inside the artery walls. This causes dilation of the "normal" segments of arteries, i.e. where the endothelium is not separated from the tunica media by atherosclerotic plaque. This feature allows physicians to use adenosine to test for blockages in the coronary arteries, by exaggerating the difference between the normal and abnormal segments.
In individuals suspected of suffering from a supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), adenosine is used to help identify the rhythm. Certain SVTs can be successfully terminated with adenosine. This includes any re-entrant arrhythmias that require the AV node for the re-entry, e.g., AV reentrant tachycardia (AVRT), AV nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT). In addition, atrial tachycardia can sometimes be terminated with adenosine.
Adenosine has an indirect effect on atrial tissue, causing a shortening of the refractory period. When administered via a central lumen catheter, adenosine has been shown to initiate atrial fibrillation because of its effect on atrial tissue. In individuals with accessory pathways, the onset of atrial fibrillation can lead to a life-threatening ventricular fibrillation.
Fast rhythms of the heart that are confined to the atria (e.g., atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter) or ventricles (e.g., monomorphic ventricular tachycardia) and do not involve the AV node as part of the re-entrant circuit are not typically converted by adenosine. However, the ventricular response rate is temporarily slowed with adenosine in such cases.
Because of the effects of adenosine on AV node-dependent SVTs, adenosine is considered a class V antiarrhythmic agent. When adenosine is used to cardiovert an abnormal rhythm, it is normal for the heart to enter ventricular asystole for a few seconds. This can be disconcerting to a normally conscious patient, and is associated with angina-like sensations in the chest.
By nature of caffeine's purine structure, it binds to some of the same receptors as adenosine. With the proviso that theophylline and theobromine cross the blood-brain barrier very poorly (thus, a low CNS effects on the heart), the pharmacological effects of adenosine may therefore be blunted in individuals taking large quantities of methylxanthines (e.g., caffeine, found in coffee, or theophylline in tea, or theobromine, as found in chocolate).
When given for the evaluation or treatment of a supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), the initial dose is 6 mg, given as a rapid parenteral infusion. Due to adenosine's extremely short half-life, the IV line is started as proximal (near) to the heart as possible, such as the cubital fossa. The IV push is often followed with an immediate flush of 10-20 ccs of saline. If this has no effect (i.e., no evidence of transient AV block), a dose of 12 mg can be given 1–2 minutes after the first dose. Some clinicians may prefer to administer a higher dose (typically 18 mg), rather than repeat a dose that apparently had no effect.[dubious ] When given to dilate the arteries, such as in a "stress test", the dosage is typically 0.14 mg/kg/min, administered for 4 or 6 minutes, depending on the protocol.
The recommended dose may be increased in patients on theophylline, since methylxanthines prevent binding of adenosine at receptor sites. The dose is often decreased in patients on dipyridamole (Persantine) and diazepam (Valium) because adenosine potentiates the effects of these drugs. The recommended dose is also reduced by half in patients presenting congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, shock, hypoxia, and/or hepatic or renal insufficiency, and in elderly patients.
Dopamine may precipitate toxicity in the patient. Carbamazepine may increase heart block. Theophylline and caffeine (methylxanthines) competitively antagonize adenosine's effects; an increased dose of adenosine may be required. Dipyridamole potentiates the action of adenosine, requiring the use of lower doses.
Common contraindications for adenosine are:
- Second- or third-degree heart block (without a pacemaker)
- Sick sinus syndrome (without a pacemaker)
- Long QT syndrome
- Severe hypotension
- Decompensated heart failure
- Asthma, traditionally considered an absolute CI. This is being contended and it is now considered a relative CI (however, selective adenosine antagonists are being investigated for use in treatment of asthma)
- Poison/drug-induced tachycardia
In Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome, adenosine may be administered if equipment for cardioversion is immediately available as a backup.
Many individuals experience facial flushing, a temporary rash on the chest, lightheadedness, diaphoresis, or nausea after administration of adenosine due to its vasodilatory effects. Metallic taste is a hallmark side-effect of adenosine administration. These symptoms are transitory, usually lasting less than one minute. It is classically associated with a sense of "impending doom", more prosaically described as apprehension. This lasts a few seconds after administration of a bolus dose, during transient asystole induced by intravenous administration. In some cases, adenosine can make patients' limbs feel numb for about 2–5 minutes after administration intravenously depending on the dosage (usually above 12 mg).
Adenosine is an endogenous purine nucleoside that modulates many physiological processes. Cellular signaling by adenosine occurs through four known adenosine receptor subtypes (A1, A2A, A2B, and A3).
Extracellular adenosine concentrations from normal cells are approximately 300 nM; however, in response to cellular damage (e.g. in inflammatory or ischemic tissue), these concentrations are quickly elevated (600–1,200 nM). Thus, in regard to stress or injury, the function of adenosine is primarily that of cytoprotection preventing tissue damage during instances of hypoxia, ischemia, and seizure activity. Activation of A2A receptors produces a constellation of responses that in general can be classified as anti-inflammatory.
In the US, Adenosine is marketed as Adenocard.
All adenosine receptor subtypes (A1, A2A, A2B, and A3) are G-protein-coupled receptors. The four receptor subtypes are further classified based on their ability to either stimulate or inhibit adenylate cyclase activity. The A1 receptors couple to Gi/o and decreases cAMP levels, while the A2 adenosine receptors couple to Gs, which stimulates adenylate cyclase activity. In addition, A1 receptors couple to Go, which has been reported to mediate adenosine inhibition of Ca2+ conductance, whereas A2B and A3 receptors also couple to Gq and stimulate phospholipase activity. Researchers at Cornell University have recently shown adenosine receptors to be key in opening the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Mice dosed with adenosine have shown increased transport across the BBB of amyloid plaque antibodies and prodrugs associated with Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's, multiple sclerosis, and cancers of the central nervous system.
Adenosine deaminase deficiency is a known cause of immunodeficiency.
The adenosine analog NITD008 has been reported to directly inhibit the recombinant RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of the dengue virus by terminating its RNA chain synthesis. This suppresses peak viremia and rise in cytokines and prevented infected animal from death, raising the possibility of a new treatment for this flavivirus. The 7-deaza-adenosine analog has been shown to inhibit the replication of the hepatitis C virus. BCX4430 is protective against Ebola and Marburg viruses. Such adenosine analogs are potentially clinically useful since they can be taken orally.
Adenosine is believed to be an anti-inflammatory agent at the A2A receptor. Topical treatment of adenosine to foot wounds in diabetes mellitus has been shown in lab animals to drastically increase tissue repair and reconstruction. Topical administration of adenosine for use in wound-healing deficiencies and diabetes mellitus in humans is currently under clinical investigation.
Central nervous system
In general, adenosine has an inhibitory effect in the central nervous system (CNS). Caffeine's stimulatory effects are credited primarily (although not entirely) to its capacity to block adenosine receptors, thereby reducing the inhibitory tonus of adenosine in the CNS. This reduction in adenosine activity leads to increased activity of the neurotransmitters dopamine and glutamate. Experimental evidence suggests that adenosine and adenosine agonists can activate Trk receptor phosphorylation through a mechanism that requires the adenosine A2A receptor.
Adenosine has been shown to promote thickening of hair on people with thinning hair. A 2013 study compared topical adenosine to minoxidil for in male androgenetic alopecia, finding it was not superior to minoxidil and further trials were needed.
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- Costa, F; Biaggioni, I (May 1998). "Role of nitric oxide in adenosine-induced vasodilation in humans". Hypertension 31 (5): 1061–4. PMID 9576114. doi:10.1161/01.HYP.31.5.1061.
- Morgan, JM; McCormack, DG; Griffiths, MJ; Morgan, CJ; Barnes, PJ; Evans, TW (September 1991). "Adenosine as a vasodilator in primary pulmonary hypertension". Circulation 84 (3): 1145–9. PMID 1884445. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.84.3.1145.
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- Mitchell J, Lazarenko G (November 2008). "Wide QRS complex tachycardia. Diagnosis: Supraventricular tachycardia with aberrant conduction; intravenous (IV) adenosine". CJEM 10 (6): 572–3, 581. PMID 19000353.
- Pijls, Nico H. J.; Bernard De Bruyne (2000). Coronary Pressure. Springer. ISBN 0-7923-6170-9.
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- Brown RA, Spina D, Page CP (March 2008). "Adenosine receptors and asthma". Br. J. Pharmacol. 153 Suppl 1 (S1): S446–56. PMC 2268070. PMID 18311158. doi:10.1038/bjp.2008.22.
- Haskó G, Linden J, Cronstein B, Pacher P (September 2008). "Adenosine receptors: therapeutic aspects for inflammatory and immune diseases". Nat Rev Drug Discov 7 (9): 759–70. PMC 2568887. PMID 18758473. doi:10.1038/nrd2638.
- Haskó, G (January 2004). "Adenosine: an endogenous regulator of innate immunity". Trends in Immunology 25 (1): 33–39. doi:10.1016/j.it.2003.11.003.
- Miller-Patrick K, Vincent DL, Early RJ et al. (1993). "Effects of the purine biosynthesis pathway inhibitors azaserine, hadacidin, and mycophenolic acid on the developing ovine corpus luteum". Chin J Physiol 36 (4): 245–52. PMID 8020339.
- Yin Z, Chen YL, Schul W, Wang QY, Gu F, Duraiswamy J, Reddy Kondreddi R, Niyomrattanakit P, Lakshminarayana SB, Goh A, Xu HY, Liu W, Liu B, Lim JY, Ng CY, Qing M, Lim CC, Yip A, Wang G, Chan WL, Tan HP, Lin K, Zhang B, Zou G, Bernard KA, Garrett C, Beltz K, Dong M, Weaver M, He H, Pichota A, Dartois V, Keller TH, Shi PY. (2009). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 106: 20435–20439 doi:10.1073/pnas.0907010106 PMID 19918064
- Olsen, DB; Eldrup, AB; Bartholomew, L; Bhat, B; Bosserman, MR; Ceccacci, A; Colwell, LF; Fay, JF; Flores, OA; Getty, K. L.; Grobler, J. A.; Lafemina, R. L.; Markel, E. J.; Migliaccio, G.; Prhavc, M.; Stahlhut, M. W.; Tomassini, J. E.; MacCoss, M.; Hazuda, D. J.; Carroll, S. S. (2004). "A 7-Deaza-Adenosine Analog Is a Potent and Selective Inhibitor of Hepatitis C Virus Replication with Excellent Pharmacokinetic Properties". Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy 48 (10): 3944–53. PMC 521892. PMID 15388457. doi:10.1128/AAC.48.10.3944-3953.2004.
- Nakav S, Chaimovitz C, Sufaro Y (2008). Bozza, Patricia, ed. "Anti-Inflammatory Preconditioning by Agonists of Adenosine A1 Receptor". PLoS ONE 3 (5): e2107. Bibcode:2008PLoSO...3.2107N. PMC 2329854. PMID 18461129. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0002107. open access publication - free to read
- Trevethick MA, Mantell SJ, Stuart EF, Barnard A, Wright KN, Yeadon M (October 2008). "Treating lung inflammation with agonists of the adenosine A2A receptor: promises, problems and potential solutions". Br. J. Pharmacol. 155 (4): 463–74. PMC 2579671. PMID 18846036. doi:10.1038/bjp.2008.329.
- Lee, FS; Chao, MV; Lee (March 2001). "Activation of Trk neurotrophin receptors in the absence of neurotrophins". PNAS 98 (6): 3555–3560. PMID 11248116. doi:10.1073/pnas.061020198.
- Oura, H; Iino, M; Nakazawa, Y; Tajima, M; Ideta, R; Nakaya, Y; Arase, S; Kishimoto, J (December 2008). "Adenosine increases anagen hair growth and thick hairs in Japanese women with female pattern hair loss: a pilot, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial". The Journal of dermatology 35 (12): 763–7. PMID 19239555. doi:10.1111/j.1346-8138.2008.00564.x.
- Hwang, KA; Hwang, YL; Lee, MH; Kim, NR; Roh, SS; Lee, Y; Kim, CD; Lee, JH; Choi, KC (February 2012). "Adenosine stimulates growth of dermal papilla and lengthens the anagen phase by increasing the cysteine level via fibroblast growth factors 2 and 7 in an organ culture of mouse vibrissae hair follicles". International journal of molecular medicine 29 (2): 195–201. PMID 22020741. doi:10.3892/ijmm.2011.817.
- "Comparison of the efficacy of topical minoxidil 5% and adenosine 0.75% solutions on male androgenetic alopecia and measuring patient satisfaction rate.". Acta Dermatovenerol Croat. 21 (3): 155–9. 2013. PMID 24183218.