Open Access Articles- Top Results for African Resistance Movement

African Resistance Movement

The African Resistance Movement (ARM) was a militant anti-apartheid resistance movement, which operated in South Africa during the early and mid-1960s. It was founded in 1960, as the National Committee of Liberation (NCL), by members of South Africa’s Liberal Party, which advocated for the dismantling of apartheid and gradually transforming South Africa into a free multiracial society. It was renamed "African Resistance Movement" in 1964.[1]


Immediately after the 1960 Sharpeville Massacre, the apartheid government imposed a state of emergency, which allowed it to apply a broad range of sanctions against its political opponents, such as detention without trial and banning meetings, and enabled the Special Branch to secretly detain and interrogate whomever it deemed a threat to the government, without due process.

After the state of emergency was lifted, the new Minister of Justice, B.J. Vorster, introduced legislation that made many parts of the emergency regulations permanent (the Sabotage Act of 1962, and the 90-day Detention Act of 1963). Much of the Liberal party’s leadership was banned, detained or forced underground, rendering it impotent.[2]

A number of young Liberals became increasingly frustrated, and, in 1960, formed the National Liberation Committee (NLC).[3] Initially focused on helping hunted people escape the country, the NLC progressed to sabotage government installations and services, explicitly eschewing violence against people. It launched its first operation in September 1963. From then, until July 1964, the NLC/ARM bombed power lines, railroad tracks and rolling stock, roads, bridges and other vulnerable infrastructure, without any civilian casualties. It aimed to turn the white population against the government by creating a situation that would result in capital flight and collapse of confidence in the country and its economy. It launched four attacks in 1961, three in 1962, eight in 1963, and ten in 1964.[4]

In May 1964, the NLC was renamed the African Resistance Movement. The name change coincided with increased internal debate about the use of violence against people, i.e. guerrilla warfare.[5]

Discovery, arrests and convictions

On 4 July 1964, the security police carried out a series of raids, including one on the flat of Adrian Leftwich in Cape Town. Leftwich, a former president of the South African Union of Students, and one of the organizers of ARM, possessed a collection of documents in his possession which described virtually the entire history of the NLC, and included a notebook containing the names of and dues paid by each member.[6][7] During interrogation by the security forces, Leftwich informed on his colleagues. In July, the security police arrested 29 ARM members. After brutal interrogation, several pleaded guilty.[8] Leftwich turned state witness in the trial of five members of the Cape Town group, and in the Johannesburg trial of four members of the Johannesburg group.[9] Of the 29 arrested, 14 were charged and 10 were convicted, receiving jail sentences of between 5 and 15 years.[10]

Train station bombing

On 24 July, one of the few ARM members still at large, John Frederick Harris, placed a phosphorus incendiary device in the whites-only waiting room of Johannesburg Park Station. He telephoned a bomb warning to the police, who did not respond before it exploded, killing a woman and severely burning 23 others. Harris was arrested, following a confession by one of his colleagues, John Lloyd. Harris was convicted of murder and hanged on 1 April 1965, singing We Shall Overcome on his way to the gallows.[11]


  1. ^ Gunther, Magnus (2004). Chapter 5 in The Road to Democracy in South Africa. Pretoria University of South Africa 2004. ISBN 1-86872-906-0. p. 210.
  2. ^ Robertson (1971), pp. 219-21.
  3. ^ Daniels, Eddie (1998). There and Back: Robben Island, 1964-1979.  p. 105.
  4. ^ Gunter (2004), p. 246.
  5. ^ Gunter (2004), pp. 246-47.
  6. ^ Lewin (1974), p. 17.
  7. ^ Daniels, Eddie (1998). There and Back: Robben Island, 1964-1979.  p. 113.
  8. ^ Lewin (1974), pp. 34-37, Driver (1969) p. 2 of e-document
  9. ^ Leftwich, Adrian (2002). "I gave the names". Granta.  pp. 20-21.
  10. ^ Gunter (2004), p. 247.
  11. ^ Gunter (2004), p. 249.


Daniels, Eddie (1998). There and Back: Robben Island, 1964-1979. Bellville, South Africa: Mayibuye Books. ISBN 0-620-26786-0. 

Driver, C.J. (2002). "Used to be Great Friends". Granta 80, winter 2002, pp. 7-26. Retrieved 2011-10-05. 

Driver, C.J. (1969). Elegy for a Revolutionary (A Novel). Faber & Faber 1969, William Morrow 1970, David Philip (Africa South Editions) 1984, Faber Finds, 2010. 

Gunther, Magnus (2004). Chapter 5 in The Road to Democracy in South Africa. Pretoria University of South Africa 2004. [1]

Lewin, Hugh (1974). Bandiet: Seven Years in a South African Prison. London: Barrie and Jenkins. ISBN 0-214-66893-2. 

Lewin, Hugh; Strachan, Harold (2002). Bandiet: Out of Jail. Johannesburg: Random House. ISBN 0-9584468-1-4. 

Lewin, Hugh (2011). Stones against the Mirror. Johannesburg/Cape Town: Imuzi. p. 192. ISBN 978-1-4152-0148-0. 

Robertson, Janet (1971). Liberalism in South Africa, 1948-1963. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-821666-1. 

Vigne, Randolph. (1997). Liberals against Apartheid: A History of the Liberal Party of South Africa, 1953-68. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: MacMillan Press Ltd. ISBN 0-312-17738-0.