|This article needs additional citations for verification. (October 2012)|
|Founder||Moulay Ali Cherif|
|Current head||Mohammed VI|
|Template:Region history sidebar title|
The Alaouite or Alawite dynasty (Arabic: سلالة العلويين الفيلاليين, Sulālat al-ʿAlawiyyīn al-Fīlālīyn) is the current Moroccan royal family. The name Alaouite comes from the ‘Alī of ‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib , whose descendant Sharif ibn Ali became Prince of Tafilalt in 1631. His son Mulay Al-Rashid (1664–1672) was able to unite and pacify the country. The Alaouite family claim descent from Muhammad through his daughter Fāṭimah az-Zahrah and her husband ‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib.
According to tradition, the Alaouites entered Morocco at the end of the 13th century when Al Hassan Addakhil, who lived then in the town of Yanbu in the Hejaz, was brought to Morocco by the inhabitants of Tafilalet to be their imām. They were hoping that, as he was a descendant of Muhammad, his presence would help to improve their date palm crops thanks to his barakah "blessing", an Arabic term meaning a sense of divine presence or charisma. His descendants began to increase their power in southern Morocco after the death of the Saʻdī ruler Ahmad al-Mansur (1578–1603). In 1669, the last Saʻdī sultan was overthrown in the conquest of Marrakesh by Mulay al-Rashid (1664–1672). After the victory over the zāwiya of Dila, who controlled northern Morocco, he was able to unite and pacify the country.
The organization of the sultanate developed under Ismail Ibn Sharif (1672–1727), who, against the opposition of local tribes began to create a unified state. Because the Alaouites had difficult relations with many of the country's Berber and Bedouin-Arab tribes, Isma'īl formed a new army of black slaves, the Black Guard. However, the unity of Morocco did not survive his death—in the ensuing power struggles the tribes became a political and military force once again.
Only with Muhammad III (1757–1790) could the kingdom be pacified again and the administration reorganized. A renewed attempt at centralization was abandoned, and the tribes were allowed to preserve their autonomy. Under Abderrahmane (1822–1859) Morocco fell under the influence of the European powers. When Morocco supported the Algerian independence movement of Emir Abd al-Qadir, it was defeated by the French in 1844 at the Battle of Isly and made to abandon its support.
European contact and the French Protectorate
During the reigns of Muhammad IV (1859–1873) and Hassan I (1873–1894), the Alaouites tried to foster trading links, above all with European countries and the United States. The army and administration were also modernised to improve control over the Berber and Bedouin tribes. With the war against Spain (1859–1860) came direct involvement in European affairs. Although the independence of Morocco was guaranteed at the Conference of Madrid (1880), the French gained ever greater influence. German attempts to counter this growing influence led to the First Moroccan Crisis of 1905–1906 and the Second Moroccan Crisis of 1911.
Eventually the Moroccans were forced to recognise the French Protectorate through the Treaty of Fez, signed on December 3, 1912. At the same time the Rif area of northern Morocco fell under to Spanish control. Under the protectorate (1912–1956), infrastructure was invested in heavily in order to link the Atlantic coastal cities to the hinterland, thus unifying Morocco into a single economic region.
The Protectorate regime faced opposition from the tribes. In 1930, the Berbers were placed under the jurisdiction of French courts, marking the beginning of the independence movement. In 1944, the Istiqlāl was founded and was supported by Sultan Muhammad V (1927–1961). France was obliged to grant Morocco independence on March 2, 1956, leaving behind a legacy of urbanization and industrial economy in some cities—on the one hand—and destruction and isolation in the areas that hosted the Berber resistance against France and Spain on the other.
List of Alaouite rulers
From 1631 to 1666 as princes of Tafilalt.
Sultan Mulay al-Rashid bin Sharif, 1st Alaouite Sultan of Morocco, etc., b. at Sijilmasa (Rissani), Tafilalt, 1631, second son of Prince Moulay Ali Cherif of Tafilalt, educ. privately. Proclaimed at Taza, on the death of his elder half-brother as Sultan of Tafilalt, 2 August 1664. Proclaimed as Sultan of Morocco, etc. at Fez, 1666.
- Al-Rashid (1666–1672)
- Mawlay Ismail Ibn Sharif (1672–1727)
- Abu'l Abbas Ahmad II (1727–1728) (first time)
- Abdalmalik (1728)
- Abu'l Abbas Ahmad II (1728–1729) (second time)
- Abdallah (1729–1734) (first time)
- Ali (1734–1736)
- Abdallah (1736) (second time)
- Mohammed II (1736–1738)
- Al-Mostadi (1738–1740) (first time)
- Abdallah (1740–1741) (third time)
- Zin al-Abidin (1741)
- Abdallah (1741–1742) (fourth time)
- Al-Mostadi (1742–1743) (second time)
- Abdallah (1743–1747) (fifth time)
- Al-Mostadi (1747–1748) (third time)
- Abdallah (1748–1757) (sixth time)
- Mohammed III (1757–1790)
- Yazid (1790–1792)
- Slimane of Morocco (1792–1822)
- Abderrahmane (1822–1859)
- Mohammed IV (1859–1873)
- Hassan I (1873–1894)
- Abdelaziz (1894–1908)
- Abdelhafid (1908–1912)
Under French Protectorate (1912–1956):
- Yusef (1912–1927)
- King Mohammed V (1927–1961), changed title of ruler from Sultan to King in 1957. Deposed and exiled to Corsica and Madagascar (1953–1955)
- Mohammed Ben Aarafa, French Puppet (1953–1955)
Restored Independence (1956 onwards):
<timeline> ImageSize = width:1000 height:auto barincrement:12 PlotArea = top:10 bottom:30 right:130 left:20 AlignBars = justify
DateFormat = yyyy Period = from:1600 till:2013 TimeAxis = orientation:horizontal ScaleMajor = unit:year increment:100 start:1600 ScaleMinor = unit:year increment:25 start:1625
id:canvas value:rgb(1,1,1) id:m value:rgb(0.4,0.8,0.4) id:w value:rgb(1,0.5,0.5) id:n value:rgb(0.5,0.5,0.5) id:a value:rgb(1,0.8,0.8) id:l value:rgb(0.6,0.4,1) id:y value:rgb(0.6,0.5,1) id:t value:rgb(0.5,0.8,0.5) id:s value:rgb(1,0.6,0.6) id:cw value:rgb(0.8,0.8,0.8) id:eon value:Black
Backgroundcolors = canvas:canvas
align:center textcolor:black fontsize:8 mark:none width:20 shift:(0,-5) bar:eon color:eon from: 1631 till: 1664 color: a text:Pr. of Tafilalt from: 1664 till: 1957 color: w text:Sultans of Morocco from: 1957 till: end color: s text:Kings of Morocco
width:5 align:left fontsize:S shift:(5,-4) anchor:till barset:Rulers
from:1631 till: 1635 color:a text:"Moulay Ali Cherif" from:1635 till: 1664 color:a text:"Muhammad ibn Sharif"
from:1664 till: 1672 color:w text:"Al-Rashid" from:1672 till: 1727 color:w text:"Ismail" from:1727 till: 1757 color:n text:"Alaouite Succession Crisis" from:1727 till: 1728 color:w text:"Abu'l Abbas Ahmad II" from:1728 till: 1728 color:w text:"Abdalmalik" from:1728 till: 1729 color:w text:"Abu'l Abbas Ahmad II" from:1729 till: 1734 color:w text:"Abdallah" from:1734 till: 1736 color:w text:"Ali" from:1736 till: 1736 color:w text:"Abdallah" from:1736 till: 1738 color:w text:"Muhammad II" from:1738 till: 1740 color:w text:"Al-Mostadi" from:1740 till: 1741 color:w text:"Abdallah" from:1741 till: 1741 color:w text:"Zin al-Abidin" from:1741 till: 1742 color:w text:"Abdallah" from:1742 till: 1743 color:w text:"Al-Mostadi" from:1743 till: 1747 color:w text:"Abdallah" from:1747 till: 1748 color:w text:"Al-Mostadi" from:1748 till: 1757 color:w text:"Abdallah" from:1757 till: 1790 color:w text:"Mohammed III" from:1790 till: 1792 color:w text:"Yazid" from:1792 till: 1822 color:w text:"Slimane" from:1822 till: 1859 color:w text:"Abderrahmane" from:1859 till: 1873 color:w text:"Mohammed IV" from:1873 till: 1894 color:w text:"Hassan I" from:1894 till: 1908 color:w text:"Abdelaziz" from:1908 till: 1912 color:w text:"Abdelhafid" from:1912 till: 1956 color:eon text:"French-Spanish Protectorate" from:1912 till: 1927 color:w text:"Yusef" from:1927 till: 1953 color:w text:"Mohammed V" from:1953 till: 1955 color:n text:"M. Ben Aarafa (French Puppet)" from:1955 till: 1961 color:s text:"Mohammed V" from:1961 till: 1999 color:s text:"Hassan II" from:1999 till: end color:s text:"Mohammed VI"
|Monarch Moulay Ali Cherif|
|Monarch Mohammed I||Monarch Ismail||Monarch Rachid|
|Monarch Ahmad||Monarch Abdul Malek||Monarch Abdallah II||Monarch Mohammed II||Monarch Ali||Monarch Al-Mustadi'||Monarch Zin al-Abidin|
|Monarch Mohammed III|
|Monarch Al-Yazid||Hisham||Monarch Sulayman|
|Monarch Abd al-Rahman |
|Monarch Mohammed IV|
|Monarch Hassan I||Aarafa|
|Monarch Abd al-Aziz||Monarch Abd al-Hafid||Monarch Youssef||Tahar||Monarch Mohammed |
|Monarch Mohammed V |
|1° spouse |
Lalla Abla bint Tahar
|Monarch Hassan II|
Lalla Latifa Hammou
|Monarch Mohammed VI|
|Crown Prince |
- List of rulers of Morocco
- History of Morocco
- Order of Ouissam Alaouite
- List of Sunni Muslim dynasties
- Waterbury, John. Commander of the Faithful
— Royal house —
House of Alaoui
|Ruling house of Morocco
1666 – present
Lua error in Module:Navbar at line 23: Invalid title Template:If empty.