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Open Access Articles- Top Results for Aldrin

Aldrin

For other uses, see Aldrin (disambiguation).
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Aldrin
Aldrin
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IUPAC names
1,2,3,4,10,10-Hexachloro-
1,4,4a,5,8,8a-hexahydro-
1,4:5,8-dimethanonaphthalene
Other names
HHDN[1]
octalene[1]
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309-00-2 7pxY
ChemSpider 10292747 7pxY
Jmol-3D images Image
KEGG C07552 7pxY
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C12H8Cl6
Molar mass Lua error in Module:Math at line 495: attempt to index field 'ParserFunctions' (a nil value). g·mol−1
Appearance colorless solid
Density 1.60 g/mm3[1]
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slightly soluble (0.003%)[1]
Vapor pressure 7.5 × 10−5 mmHg @ 20 °C
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Main hazards potential occupational carcinogen[1]
NFPA 704

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2
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US health exposure limits (NIOSH):

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Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Aldrin is an organochlorine insecticide that was widely used until the 1970s, when it was banned in most countries. It is a colourless solid. Before the ban, it was heavily used as a pesticide to treat seed and soil. Aldrin and related "cyclodiene" pesticides (a term for pesticides derived from Hexachlorocyclopentadiene) became notorious as persistent organic pollutants.[2]

Production

Aldrin is produced by combining hexachlorocyclopentadiene with norbornadiene in a Diels-Alder reaction to give the adduct.[3]


Similarly, an isomer of aldrin, known as isodrin, is produced by reaction of hexachloronobornadiene with cyclopentadiene.[4]

Aldrin is named after the German chemist Kurt Alder, one of the coinventors of this kind of reaction. An estimated 270 million kilograms of aldrin and related cyclodiene pesticides were produced between 1946 and 1976.

In soil, on plant surfaces, or in the digestive tracts of insects, aldrin oxidizes to the epoxide dieldrin, which is more strongly insecticidal.

Environmental impact and regulation

Like related polychlorinated pesticides, aldrin is highly lipophilic. Its solubility in water is only 0.027 mg/L, which exacerbates its persistence in the environment. It was banned by the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. In the U.S., aldrin was cancelled in 1974. The substance is banned from use for plant protection by the EU.[5]

Safety and environmental aspects

Aldrin has rat LD50 of 39 to 60 mg/kg (oral in rats). For fish however, it is extremely toxic, with an LC50 of 0.006 – 0.01 for trout and bluegill.[2]

In the US, aldrin is considered a potential occupational carcinogen by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health; these agencies have set an occupational exposure limit for dermal exposures at 0.25 mg/m3 over an eight-hour time-weighted average.[6] Further, an IDLH limit has been set at 25 mg/m3, based on acute toxicity data in humans to which subjects reacted with convulsions within 20 minutes of exposure.[7]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h "NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards #0016". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). 
  2. ^ a b Robert L. Metcalf "Insect Control" in Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry" Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2002. doi:10.1002/14356007.a14_263
  3. ^ Jubb, A. H. (1975). Basic Organic Chemistry, Part 5 Industrial products. London: Wiley. ISBN 0-471-85014-4. 
  4. ^ Bird, C. W.; Cookson, R. C.; Crundwell, E. (1961). "946. Cyclisations and rearrangements in the isodrin?aldrin series". Journal of the Chemical Society (Resumed): 4809. doi:10.1039/JR9610004809. 
  5. ^ Chemicals Regulation Directorate. "Banned and Non-Authorised Pesticides in the United Kingdom". Retrieved 1 December 2009. 
  6. ^ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (4 April 2011). "Aldrin". NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. Retrieved 13 November 2013. 
  7. ^ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (May 1994). "Aldrin". Documentation for Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentrations (IDLHs). Retrieved 13 November 2013.