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Allahabad Address

The Allahabad Address refers to the presidential address by Muhammad Iqbal to the 25th session of the All-India Muslim League on 29 December 1930, at Allahabad, British India. In his address, Iqbal called for the creation of "a Muslim India within India", especially in North-western India.[1] Iqbal demanded the right of self-government for the Muslims.[2] as he said:

Within his address, Iqbal also touched on his fear that Islam may have a similar fate as Christianity. "To Islam, matter is spirit realising itself in space and time" whereas Europe had "accepted the separation of Church and State and disliked the fact that their leaders were "indirectly forcing the world to accept it as unquestionable dogma [...] I do not know what will be the final fate of the national idea in the world of Islam. Whether Islam will assimilate and transform it as it has before assimilated and transformed many ideas expressive of a different spirit, or allow a radical transformation of its own structure by the force of this idea, is hard to preditct. Professor Wensinck of Leiden (Holland) wrote to me the other day: "It seems to me that Islam is entering upon a crisis through which Christianity has been passing for more than a century. The great difficulty is how to save the foundations of religion when many antiquated notions have to be given up.

Iqbal spoke of:

In regards to the army, Iqbal stated:

Iqbal also address how it was "painful to observe" the failed attempts to "discover such a principle of internal harmony". However, he still felt "hopeful". He expressed great concerns that the British politicians were "cleverly exploiting Hindu-Muslim differences regarding the ultimate form of Central Government" through Princes of the Princely States. He was also critical of the Simon Repord that it did great "injustice to Muslims" to not be given a statutory majority for Punjab and Bengal. Furthermore, he demanded for Sindh to be united with Baluchistan and turned into a separate province as it did not have anything in common with Bombay Presidency.

Comparing the European democracy to Indian democracy, he justified the Muslim demand for a "Muslim India within India", saying:[1][3]

Commenting on the Hindu fears of religious rule in the Muslim autonomous states, Iqbal said:

In his concluding remarks, Iqbal said:


  1. ^ a b Sir Muhammad Iqbal’s 1930 Presidential Address, from Columbia University site
  2. ^ Iqbal Singh Sevea (29 June 2012). The Political Philosophy of Muhammad Iqbal: Islam and Nationalism in Late Colonial India. Cambridge University Press. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-107-00886-1. 
  3. ^ "Sir Muhammad Iqbal's 1930 Presidential Address". Scribd. Retrieved 24 February 2014. 

See also