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Alpina

For other uses, see Alpina (disambiguation).
Alpina Burkard Bovensiepen GmbH
Public, GmbH
Industry Automotive
Founded 1965
Headquarters Buchloe, Germany
Key people
Burkard Bovensiepens
Products Automobiles
Parent BMW
Website alpina-automobile.de

Alpina Burkard Bovensiepen GmbH is an automobile manufacturing company based in Buchloe, in the Ostallgäu district of Bavaria, Germany selling their own cars, based on BMW cars.

Alpina works closely with BMW and their processes are integrated into BMW's production lines, thus Alpina is recognized by the German Ministry of Transport as an automobile manufacturer, in contrast to other performance specialists which are aftermarket tuners. For instance, the Alpina B7 is produced at the same assembly line in Dingolfing, Germany, along with BMW's own 7-Series. For the 2011 model year, the B7's twin-turbo 4.4-litre BMW V8 is assembled by hand at Alpina's facility in Buchloe, Germany, before being shipped to BMW for installation, and the assembled vehicle is then sent back to Alpina for finishing touches.[1][2]

The firm was founded in 1965 by Burkard Bovensiepen, a member of the Bovensiepen family of industrialists.

History

The beginnings of Alpina found its roots in 1962 as the Weber dual carburetor was developed for the new BMW 1500. The company would not be officially founded until a few years later as the Weber dual carburetor came to completion and was certified around 1964 by BMW, receiving praise from the chief of sales, Paul Hahnemann.

Alpina was founded by Burkard Bovensiepen (b. 1936) in 1965 as Burkard Bovensiepen KG in Kaufbeuren, Bavaria in southern Germany. The original name can be traced to Dr. Rudolf Bovensiepen, his father, whose company produced office machinery.

Although Alpina started by producing typewriters, the original Alpina ceased to exist at the end of the 1960s in their attempt to move into the textile industry. In 1965, Burkard established a BMW tuning business, following his success with investments in the stock market. He started the tuning business in an outbuilding of the original Alpina typewriter factory. The company worked on carburetors and revised cylinder heads. By 1970, with seventy employees, the original facility changed locations from Kaufbeuren to Buchloe.

The name Alpina would come to be amplified and recognized on new levels in 1967 with the inception its current and ever-enduring company logo and trademark.

Between 1968 and 1977, Alpina cars did very well in competition. The highlight was in 1970, when the team's cars won the European Touring Car Championship, the German Hillclimb Championship, rally and track racing championships and the prestigious Spa 24 Hours.

Alpina officially withdrew from racing in 1988 because of capacity limitations and restrictions. Tied to this was the decision to begin production on a new set of BMW Alpina automobiles.[3]

Brand distinctions

Since 1983 Alpina has been recognized by the German Federal Ministry of Transport as an automobile manufacturer, thus Alpina-built cars are branded and registered as Alpina instead of BMW, although an Alpina can be bought and serviced at local BMW dealerships, and covered if there is a warranty issue.

Distinctive features of Alpina vehicles are 20 spoke alloy wheels, "Alpina Blue" patented metallic paint, in addition to expensive interior materials used to fabricate the exclusive interior appointments. A typical blue and green pattern (same as in the logo) is often used on interior parts such as stitchings on leather and different fabrics used in the upholstery. A thin, pinstriped style outside body decor set in gold or silver is also a trademark of Alpina cars. A metal plate inside also proves the heritage and the serial number of the car.

Compared to cars from BMW's in-house motorsport-rooted subsidiary, BMW M, Alpina's vehicles have more emphasis on luxury, higher torque, and have automatic transmissions instead of manual or semi-automatic transmissions.[4] For instance, regarding the high performance variants of the BMW E60 5-Series, the B5 offers a different take on performance and how to accomplish it. Unlike BMW M's own M5 which has a naturally aspirated, high-revving 5.0L V10, the Alpina B5 uses a supercharged 4.4L V8 which produces similar horsepower and remarkably greater torque at lower rpm.

Current lineup

  • Alpina D3 Bi-Turbo Sedan / Touring: based on the BMW F30/F31 3 Series - featuring a 3 L straight 6 Bi-Turbo engine, delivering Script error: No such module "convert". Script error: No such module "convert".
  • Alpina B3 Bi-Turbo Sedan / Touring: based on the BMW F30/F31 3 Series - featuring a 3 L straight 6 Bi-Turbo engine, delivering Script error: No such module "convert". Script error: No such module "convert".
  • Alpina XD3 Bi-Turbo: based on the BMW F25 X3 - featuring a 3 L straight 6 Bi-Turbo engine, delivering Script error: No such module "convert". Script error: No such module "convert".
  • Alpina D4 Bi-Turbo Coupé / Cabrio: based on the BMW F32 4 Series - featuring a 3 L straight 6 Bi-Turbo engine, delivering Script error: No such module "convert". Script error: No such module "convert".
  • Alpina B4 Bi-Turbo Coupé / Cabrio: based on the BMW F32 4 Series - featuring a 3 L straight 6 Bi-Turbo engine, delivering Script error: No such module "convert". Script error: No such module "convert".
  • Alpina D5 Bi-Turbo Sedan/Touring: based on the BMW F10/F11 5 Series - featuring a 3 L straight 6 Bi-Turbo engine, delivering Script error: No such module "convert". Script error: No such module "convert"..
  • Alpina B5 Bi-Turbo Edition 50 Sedan/Touring: based on the BMW F10/F11 5 Series - featuring a 4.4 L V8 Bi-Turbo engine. Script error: No such module "convert". / Script error: No such module "convert".
  • Alpina B6 Bi-Turbo Edition 50 Coupé/Convertible: based on the BMW F12/F13 6 Series - featuring a 4.4 L V8 Bi-Turbo engine. Script error: No such module "convert". / Script error: No such module "convert".
  • Alpina B6 Bi-Turbo Gran Coupé: based on the BMW F06[5] - featuring a 4.4 L V8 Bi-Turbo engine. Script error: No such module "convert". / Script error: No such module "convert".
  • Alpina B7 Bi-Turbo: based on the BMW F01 7 Series - featuring a 4.4 L V8 Bi-Turbo engine. Script error: No such module "convert". / Script error: No such module "convert".[6][7]

Alpina B7

The Alpina B7 is one of the two Alpina car offered in the USA, the other one being the Alpina B6.[8] The B7 is produced at the same assembly line in Dingolfing, Germany, along with BMW's own 7-Series.

BMW permitted Alpina to produce a high-performance version of its flagship 7-Series, however they did not want it to be a high-revving, BMW M version (which would have been known as a "BMW M7" under the current nomenclature). It has also been suggested that there was no market for an M7 that would have featured the BMW M's trademark high-rev engine and twin-clutch automated manual transmission, and most customers who desired a performance option in the 7 Series would have gone for the V12-engined BMW 760Li.[9]

Competitors include the Mercedes-Benz S63 AMG and Audi S8.[7]

E65 B7

File:White Alpina B7 (E65) fr.jpg
Alpina B7 Biturbo based on the E65 platform

For the E65 7-Series generation, the Alpina B7 was widely credited with being able to hold its own against top performing offerings from Mercedes (including AMG) such as the S600 and S63 AMG, Audi (particularly quattro's Audi S8), the Bentley Flying Spur, and Jaguar XJ Supercharged, while BMW's own top-of-the-line V12 760Li was considered uncompetitive.[10]

The E65 B7 uses a supercharged version of the 4.4-litre V8 found in the BMW 745i as the 750i and its 4.8-litre engine were not around when development began.[10] The 760Li's naturally aspirated 6.0-litre V12 was deemed too heavy to have a sporty offshoot.[4][11][12] The 2011 Alpina B7, with its twin-turbo 4.4-litre V8 engine and 6-speed automatic transmission, is less expensive and yet faster than its F01 stablemate, the 2010 BMW 760Li powered by a twin-turbo 6.0-litre V12 mated to an 8-speed automatic transmission. The B7's engine, derived from the BMW N63 that is found in the standard BMW lineup, matches the BMW 750i in fuel economy despite increased performance, plus its lighter weight than the 760Li's V12 engine gives the B7 considerably better weight distribution and handling than the 760Li.[1][13]

BMW of North America, LLC offered 800 Alpina B7s as limited edition models for 2007 and 2008, which all quickly sold out.[14]

F01/F02 B7

File:2013 Alpina B7, Greenwich Concours.jpg
2013 Alpina B7, based on the F02 model BMW. Lightly facelifted for 2013.

The F01 B7 will be offered again for the 2011 model year in the USA, with approximately 500 vehicles (half of the annual production of the B7) with a choice of rear-wheel drive or all-wheel drive and/or a standard or long wheelbase (the B7, B7 L (long wheelbase), B7 xDrive (all-wheel drive), and B7 L xDrive), otherwise all configurations have the same equipment.[15][16] Roughly 80 models will be sold in Canada, all of the xDrive variety due to that country's winter weather.[9]

The B7's twin-turbo 4.4-litre V8 is assembled by hand at Alpina's facility in Buchloe, Germany, before being shipped to BMW for installation, and the assembled vehicle is then sent back to Alpina for finishing touches.[1][17] It is based upon BMW's twin-turbo V8 but produces considerable more torque and horsepower, albeit with some turbo lag due to the larger turbos, yet more measured throttle mapping makes the B7 smoother than a stock BMW 750i.[18]

While BMW uses run-flat tires for its 7 Series, the B7 comes with non-reinforced tires with a tire repair kit for emergencies. By using conventional, softer-sidewalled tires, compared to the reinforced sidewalls of run-flats, Alpina engineers were able to stiffen the B7's suspension for better handling and still improve the ride quality over that of a stock BMW 750i.[9]

For the 2013 model year, the Alpina B7 received similar updates to the rest of the 7 Series lineup, including an 8-speed automatic transmission, while its engine adds Valvetronic and now produces 540 hp and 538 pound-feet of torque, which is good for a 0 to 100 km time of just 4.3 seconds and a top speed of 300 km/h. Compared to BMW M's version of the 4.4L twin-turbo engine (such as found in the F10 BMW M5), Alpina's engine has 20 hp less but more maximum torque which is also available at a lower rpm.[9]

The 2013 Alpina B7 handles better than BMW's own 760Li V12.[19]

Previous models

Petrol engines

Alpina Previous Models (Petrol engines)[20][21]
Alpina model BMW donor model Alpina Engine Power Torque Production
A1/3 E21 320 A1/3 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 5800 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 4000 1975–1977
A2/3 E21 320 A2/3 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 6900 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 5500 1975–1977
A4/3 E21 320i A4/3 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 6700 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 5500 1976–1977
A4S/3 E21 320i A4S/3 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 6700 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 5500 1976–1977
C1 2,3 E21 323i C1 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 6000 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 4500 1980–1983
B6 2,8 E21 323i B6 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 6200 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 4500 1978–1981
B6 2,8 E21 323i B6 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 6000 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 5000 1981–1983
C1 2,3 / 1 E30 323i C1/1 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 6000 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 5000 1983–1985
C1 2,5 E30 325i C2/3 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 5800 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 5000 1983–1985
C2 2,5 E30 325i C2 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 5800 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 4800 1986-1986
C2 2,7 E30 325i C2/1 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 5800 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 4500 1986–1987
C2 2,7 E30 325i C2/2 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 6000 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 4800 1987-1987
B3 2,7 E30 325i C2/2 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 6000 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 4800 1987–1992
B6 2,8 / 1 E30 323i/325i B6/2 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 6100 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 5000 1984–1986
B6 3,5 E30 323i/325i B10/2 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 6000 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 4000 1985–1987
B6 3,5 E30 325i B10/3 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 5900 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 4000 1986–1987
B6 3,5 E30 325i B10/5 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 5900 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 4000 1987–1990
B6 3,5 S E30 M3 B10/5 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 5900 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 4000 1987–1990
B6 2,8 E36 325i E1 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 5900 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 4700 1992–1993
B3 3,0 E36 325i E3 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 5700 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 4400 1993–1996
B3 3,2 E36 328i E4 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 5800 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 4400 1996–1999
B8 4,6 E36 328i F2/1 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 5700 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 3900 1995–1998
B3 3,3 E46 328i E4/4 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 6200 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 4500 1999–2002
B3 3,3 ALLRAD E46 330ix E4/8 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 6200 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 4500 2001–2005
B3 S E46 330i E5/1 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 6300 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 4800 2002–2006
B3 Bi-Turbo E90/E91/E92/E93 335i K2 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 5500 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 3800 2007–2010
B3 Bi-Turbo Allrad E90/E91/E92 335xi K2 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 5500 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 3800 2008–2010
B7 Turbo E12 528i B7 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 6000 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 3000 1978–1982
B7 S Turbo E12 528i B7S Script error: No such module "convert". @ 5800 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 3000 1981–1982
B9 3,5 E28 528i B9 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 5700 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 4000 1981–1983
B9 3,5 / 1 E28 528i B9/1 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 5700 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 4000 1983–1985
B7 Turbo / 1 E28 528i/535i B7/1 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 5800 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 3000 1984–1987
B10 3,5 E28 535i B10 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 5800 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 4000 1985–1987
B7 Turbo / 1 E28 535i B7/3 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 5700 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 2400 1986–1987
B10 3,5 / 1 E34 535i B11/3 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 6000 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 4000 1988–1992
B10 Bi-Turbo E34 535i B7/5 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 6000 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 4000 1989–1994
B10 3,0 ALLRAD E34 525ix E3/1 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 5800 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 4200 1993–1996
B10 4,0 E34 540i F1 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 5800 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 4600 1993–1996
B10 4,6 E34 540i F2 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 5700 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 3900 1994–1996
B10 3,2 E39 528i E4/3 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 5900 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 4300 1997–1998
B10 3,3 E39 528i E4/5 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 6200 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 4500 1999–2003
B10 V8 E39 540i F3 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 5700 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 3900 1997–1998
B10 V8 E39 540i F4 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 5700 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 3700 1998–2002
B10 V8 S E39 540i F5 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 5800 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 3800 2002–2004
B5 E60/E61 545i H1 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 5500 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 4250 2005–2007
B5S E60/E61 550i H2 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 5500 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 4750 2007–2010
B7 Turbo Coupé E24 630CSi B7 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 6000 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 2500 1978–1982
B7 S Turbo Coupé E24 635CSi B7S Script error: No such module "convert". @ 5800 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 3000 1982-1982
B9 3,5 Coupé E24 635CSi B9 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 5700 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 4000 1982-1982
B9 3,5 Coupé / 1 E24 635CSi B9/1 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 5700 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 4000 1982–1985
B7 Turbo Coupé / 1 E24 635CSi B7/2 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 5700 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 2400 1984–1987
B10 3,5 Coupé E24 635CSi B10 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 6000 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 4000 1985–1987
B7 Turbo Coupé / 1 E24 635CSi B7/3 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 5700 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 2400 1986–1988
B6 E63/E64 650i H1 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 5500 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 4250 2006–2008
B11 3,5 E32 735i B11 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 5700 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 4000 1987-1987
B11 3,5 E32 735i B11/1 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 5700 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 4500 1987-1987
B11 3,5 E32 735i B11/3 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 6000 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 4000 1987–1993
B11 4,0 E32 740i F1 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 5800 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 4600 1993–1994
B12 5,0 E32 750i D1 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 5300 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 4000 1988–1994
B12 5,7 E-KAT E38 750i D3 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 5200 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 4100 1995–1998
B12 6,0 E-KAT E38 750i D3/2 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 5400 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 4200 1999–2001
B7 E65/E66 745i H1 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 5500 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 4250 2003–2008
B12 5,0 Coupé E31 850i/850Ci D1/1 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 5300 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 4000 1990–1994
B12 5,7 Coupé E31 850CSi D2 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 5400 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 4000 1992–1996
Roadster Limited Edition Z1 C2/6 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 6000 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 4900 1990–1991
Roadster V8 Limited Edition E52 Z8 F5 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 5800 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 3800 2002–2003
Roadster S E85 Z4 E5/2 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 6300 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 4800 2003–2005

Alpina C2

An interesting variant of the M20 engine was Alpina's C2. The first C2 combined the wider bore of the M20B25 with the slightly larger crankshaft of an M20B23, to create a torquier engine of 2,552 cc. This version put out Script error: No such module "convert". and Script error: No such module "convert"., 74 units were built between 1985 and 1988.[22]

The larger yet 2.7 litre unit was introduced in February 1986 in uncatalyzed C2/1 form.[22] This engine, sharing the dimensions of the M20B27, develops a whopping Script error: No such module "convert". at 5,800 rpm and shows what the engine was really capable of.[23] Originally installed in the E30-based Alpina C2 2.7, with available four-wheel drive, the catalyzed C2/2 appeared in the interim C2 2.7 Kat in March 1987. This was then renamed "B3 2.7" five months later, by which time the "C2" labelled cars were discontinued. The B3 2.7 continued to be available until June 1992, in all body variants and drivetrain configurations (excepting automatics) in which the E30 was offered.[22] Around 1988, 26 "B6"-labelled C2-engined E30s were built for export to Japan, where the B6 3.5 had a hard time passing emissions regulations.

B10 BiTurbo

Based on the E34 535i and developed at a cost of $3.2 million, the B10 BiTurbo was introduced at the Geneva Motor Show in March 1989.

To build each B10 BiTurbo powerunit Alpina dismantled a BMW M30 engine, replaced the stock pistons with forged Mahle units, installed two Garrett T25 water-cooled turbochargers, and added a Bosch variable boost control with range of 0.4-0.8 bar, adjustable from the driver's seat. Additional modifications helped raise the horsepower of the stock M30 engine from 155 kW/208 hp at 5700 rpm and 305 Nm/225 lb-ft at 4000 rpm to 265 kW/360 hp at 6000 rpm and 520Nm/384 lb-ft at 4000 rpm. A Getrag 290 5-speed manual transmission was specified to handle the power.

Modifications to the suspension included Alpina-spec springs and anti-roll bars. Bilstein shocks were used on front and automatic-load levelling units by Fictel & Sachs were used in the rear. Front rotors were large 13.1-inch discs from UK-based Lucas Girling, bigger even than the 12.8-inch pieces found on the E34 M5. Michelin MXX tires were standard as was BMW's Automatic Stability Control (ASC).[24]

The company claimed a 0–100 km/h time of 5.6 sec and a top speed over 290 km/h[25] putting it in the same league as a Ferrari Testarossa. In the September 1991 issue of Road & Track Paul Frere wrote: “For me this is the car … I think this is the best 4-door in the world.”[26] Despite a base price tag of 146,800 DM, nearly twice the price of an E34 M5, the B10 Biturbo became the best-selling single model in Alpina history up until that point. The six year production run beginning in 1989 ended in August 1994 with 507 examples produced. Production ended with the termination of M30 motors by BMW in 1993. The final 50 M30 blocks were shipped to Alpina for use in the final 50 B10 Biturbos.[27]

Alpina B3 GT3

To celebrate Alpina's victory in the 2011 ADAC GT Masters with an Alpina B6 GT3, Alpina decided to produce a limited run of the Alpina B3 S Bi-Turbo, called the Alpina B3 GT3.[28] Modifications on the exhaust system (especially developed in collaboration with Akrapovic) increased power to Script error: No such module "convert".. The brake system and suspension were upgraded and designed for intensive usage.

But the most noticeable was the exterior: The B3 GT3 sports a carbon fibre rear wing, a special front splitter and 19" lightweight Alpina GT3 Classic wheels, painted in Himalaya Grey. The B3 GT3 was available in Black Sapphire metallic, Mineral White metallic, Alpina Blue metallic or with a full body vinyl wrap in the official GT3 design. The car could be ordered with an extra set of lightweight wheels (also 19" Alpina GT3 Classic, but equipped with Michelin Pilot Sport Cup+ tires) for use on the track.

Only 99 units were produced.

Diesel engines

Alpina Previous Models (Diesel engines)
Alpina model BMW donor model Alpina Engine Power Torque Production
D10 BITURBO E39 530d G1 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 4200 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 3500 2000–2003
D3 E90/E91 320d M47 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 4000 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 2000 2005–2008

Gallery

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Elsinore, Bradford (2010-05-20). "2011 BMW 750Li Alpina B7 First Drive". Insideline.com. Retrieved 2012-06-05. 
  2. "2011 BMW ALPINA B7". Autoblog.com. 
  3. "Alpinas Long Enduring Successes". Max Rodgers. 2014-05-17. Retrieved 2014-05-26. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 July 2007 BY DAVE VANDERWERP PHOTOGRAPHY BY AARON KILEY. "2007 BMW Alpina B7 - Road Test - Car Reviews". Car and Driver. Retrieved 2012-06-05. 
  5. Vaughn, Mark (7 July 2014). "To The Max". Autoweek 64 (14): 22–23. 
  6. Noah Joseph RSS feed. "Geneva 2009: An M7 by any other name - 2009 BMW Alpina B7 Bi-Turbo". Autoblog.com. Retrieved 2012-06-05. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 "2011 BMW Alpina B7 First Drive". Motor Trend. 2010-05-19. Retrieved 2012-06-05. 
  8. Meiners, Jens (April 2014). "2015 BMW Alpina B6 xDrive Gran Coupe". Car and Driver. Retrieved 2015-02-10. 
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 "Preview: 2013 Alpina B7 offers outrageous performance | Driving | National Post". Life.nationalpost.com. Retrieved 2012-10-07. 
  10. 10.0 10.1 "2007 BMW ALPINA B7 Review by Cars.com Staff". Cars.com. 2007-05-02. Retrieved 2012-06-05. 
  11. "Chicago 2010: BMW Alpina B7 Sedan Making a Comeback". Nitrobahn.com. 2010-02-11. Retrieved 2012-10-07. 
  12. "2007 BMW ALPINA B7 Review by Cars.com Staff". Cars.com. 2007-05-02. Retrieved 2012-06-05. 
  13. "2011 BMW ALPINA B7". Autoblog.com. 
  14. "7-series [E6x]". Alpina-Archive. Retrieved 2015-04-25. 
  15. "2011 BMW ALPINA B7". Autoblog.com. 
  16. "Handler". Bmwusa.com. Retrieved 2012-06-05. 
  17. "2011 BMW ALPINA B7". Autoblog.com. 
  18. Lorio, Joe (2012-08-28). "First Drive: 2013 BMW 7-series". Automobile Magazine. Retrieved 2013-06-08. 
  19. "2013 BMW 750Li, 760Li, and Alpina B7 First Drive". Motor Trend. 2012-08-28. Retrieved 2012-10-07. 
  20. "Alpina Typentabelle". Allegos.com. Retrieved 2012-06-05. 
  21. "Alpina Modellhistorie". Alpina-automobiles.com. 2011-09-07. Retrieved 2012-06-05. 
  22. 22.0 22.1 22.2 Ritter, Marc. "Alpina Typentabelle". alpinacars. Archived from the original on 2011-07-07. 
  23. Heitz, Rudolf, ed. (1986-08-01). Auto Katalog 1987 (in German) 30. Stuttgart: Vereinigte Motor-Verlage GmbH & Co. KG. p. 212. 
  24. Palevsky, Alexander. "Blown Away". Bimmer Magazine (October 2007): 61–64. 
  25. [1] Alpina company website
  26. The Race to Excellence Alpina company website
  27. Palevsky, Alexander. "Blown Away". Bimmer Magazine (October 2007): 62. 
  28. "Official Alpina Website, February 2012". Alpina-automobiles.com. 2012-03-06. Retrieved 2012-06-05. 

External links