Adverts

Open Access Articles- Top Results for Aluminium phosphide

Aluminium phosphide

Not to be confused with Aluminium phosphate.
Template:Chembox UNII
Aluminium phosphide
Aluminium phosphide
colspan=2 style="background:#f8eaba; border-top:2px solid transparent; border-bottom:2px solid transparent; text-align:center;" #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. Names

#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.-


Other names
Aluminum phosphide
Aluminium(III) phosphide
Aluminium monophosphide
Phostoxin
Fumitoxin
colspan=2 style="background:#f8eaba; border-top:2px solid transparent; border-bottom:2px solid transparent; text-align:center;" #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. Identifiers#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.-



20859-73-8 7pxY
ChemSpider 28171 7pxY
EC number 244-088-0
Jmol-3D images Image
PubChem Template:Chembox PubChem/format
RTECS number BD1400000
colspan=2 style="background:#f8eaba; border-top:2px solid transparent; border-bottom:2px solid transparent; text-align:center;" #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. Properties

#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.-

AlP
Molar mass 57.9552 g/mol
Appearance Yellow or gray crystals
Odor garlic-like
Density 2.85 g/cm3
Melting point Script error: No such module "convert".
reacts
Band gap 2.5 eV (indirect)[1]
2.75 (IR), ~3 (Vis) [1]
colspan=2 style="background:#f8eaba; border-top:2px solid transparent; border-bottom:2px solid transparent; text-align:center;" #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. Structure

#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.-

Crystal structure Zincblende
Space group T2d-F43m
Lattice constant a = 546.35 pm
Tetrahedral
colspan=2 style="background:#f8eaba; border-top:2px solid transparent; border-bottom:2px solid transparent; text-align:center;" #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. Thermochemistry

#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.-

47.3 J/mol K
-164.4 kJ/mol
colspan=2 style="background:#f8eaba; border-top:2px solid transparent; border-bottom:2px solid transparent; text-align:center;" #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. Hazards

#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.-

SDS External MSDS
EU classification Toxic T
Dangerous for the Environment (Nature) N
NFPA 704

Error: Must specify an image in the first line.

4
4
2
Flash point Script error: No such module "convert".
11.5 mg/kg
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
 14pxY verify (what is10pxY/10pxN?)
Infobox references

Aluminium phosphide (aluminum phosphide) is a highly toxic inorganic compound with the chemical formula AlP used as a wide band gap semiconductor and a fumigant. This colorless solid is generally sold as a grey-green-yellow powder due to the presence of impurities arising from hydrolysis and oxidation.

Properties

AlP crystals are dark grey to dark yellow in color and have a zincblende crystal structure[2] with a lattice constant of 5.4510 Å at 300 K.[3] They are thermodynamically stable up to Script error: No such module "convert"..[4]

Aluminium phosphide reacts with water or acids to release phosphine:[5]

AlP + 3 H2O → Al(OH)3 + PH3
AlP + 3 H+ → Al3+ + PH3

Preparation

AlP is synthesized by combination of the elements:[4][6]

4Al + P4 → 4AlP

Caution must be taken to avoid exposing the AlP to any sources of moisture, as this generates toxic phosphine gas.

Uses

Pesticide

AlP is used as a rodenticide, insecticide, and fumigant for stored cereal grains. It is used to kill small verminous mammals such as moles and rodents. The tablets or pellets, known as "wheat pills", typically also contain other chemicals that evolve ammonia which helps to reduce the potential for spontaneous ignition or explosion of the phosphine gas.

AlP is used as both a fumigant and an oral pesticide. As a rodenticide, aluminium phosphide pellets are provided as a mixture with food for consumption by the rodents. The acid in the digestive system of the rodent reacts with the phosphide to generate the toxic phosphine gas. Other pesticides similar to aluminium phosphide are zinc phosphide and calcium phosphide. In this application, aluminium phosphide can be encountered under various brand names, e.g. Celphos, Fumitoxin, Phostoxin, Talunex and Quick Phos. It generates phosphine gas according to the following hydrolysis equation.[6]

2 AlP + 6 H2O → Al2O3∙3 H2O + 2 PH3

It is used as a fumigant when other pesticide applications are impractical and when structures and installations are being treated, such as in ships, aircraft, and grain silos. All of these structures can be effectively sealed or enclosed in a gastight membrane, thereby containing and concentrating the phosphine fumes. Fumigants are also applied directly to rodent burrows.[7]

Semiconductor applications

Industrially, AlP is a semiconductor material that is usually alloyed with other binary materials for applications in devices such as light-emitting diodes (e.g. aluminium gallium indium phosphide).[8]

Toxicology

Evidently poisonous, aluminium phosphide has been used for suicide.[9] Fumigation has also caused unintentional deaths, such as examples in Saudi Arabia[10] and the United States.[11] Known as "rice tablet" in Iran, for its use to preserve rice, there have been frequent incidents of accidental or intentional death. There is a campaign by the Iranian Forensic Medicine Organization to stop its use as a pesticide.[12][13]

Recycling of plastic bottle caps containing aluminium phosphide caused the death of three family members in Alcalá de Guadaira, Spain. They had been keeping them in plastic sacks in their bathroom. The deaths occurred accidentally due to aluminum phosphide reacting with water or moisture, and becoming phosphine, leading to their death within hours.[14]

Aluminium phosphide poisoning is considered a wide-scale problem in the Indian subcontinent.[15][16]

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Berger, L. I. (1996). Semiconductor Materials. CRC Press. p. 125. ISBN 0-8493-8912-7. 
  2. Van Zeghbroeck, B. J. (1997). "Bravais Lattices; Zincblende Lattice". University of Colorado. 
  3. "Lattice Constants". SiliconFarEast.com. 2004. Retrieved 10/02/2011.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  4. 4.0 4.1 White, W. E.; Bushey, A. H.; Holtzclaw, H. F.; Hengeveld, F. W. (1953). Bailar, J. C., ed. "Aluminum Phosphide". Inorganic Syntheses 4: 23–25. doi:10.1002/9780470132357.ch7. 
  5. Holleman, A. F.; Wiberg, E. (2001), Inorganic Chemistry, San Diego: Academic Press, ISBN 0-12-352651-5 
  6. 6.0 6.1 White, W. E.; Bushey, A. H. (1944). "Aluminum Phosphide – Preparation and Composition". Journal of the American Chemical Society 66 (10): 1666. doi:10.1021/ja01238a018. 
  7. Buckle, A. (2005), "Rodenticides", Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Weinheim: Wiley-VCH, doi:10.1002/14356007.a23_211 
  8. Corbridge, D. E. C. (1995). Phosphorus: An Outline of its Chemistry, Biochemistry, and Technology (5th ed.). Amsterdam: Elsevier. ISBN 0-444-89307-5. 
  9. "Millionaire's death sparks poison scare". BBC News. 2002-10-10. Retrieved 2009-04-05. 
  10. "Fumes kill two Danes in Jeddah". BBC News. 2009-02-24. Archived from the original on 25 February 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-25. 
  11. "Family loses 2nd child in suspected pesticide poisoning". KSL-TV. 2010-02-09. Archived from the original on 11 February 2010. Retrieved 2010-02-09. 
  12. Shadnia, S.; Sasanian, G.; Allami, P.; Hosseini, A.; Ranjbar, A.; Amini-Shirazi, N.; Abdollahi, M. (2009). "A Retrospective 7-Years Study of Aluminum Phosphide Poisoning in Tehran: Opportunities for Prevention". Human & Experimental Toxicology 28 (4): 209–213. PMID 19734272. doi:10.1177/0960327108097194.  edit
  13. Mehrpour, O.; Singh, S. (2010). "Rice Tablet Poisoning: A Major Concern in Iranian Population". Human & Experimental Toxicology 29 (8): 701–702. PMID 20097728. doi:10.1177/0960327109359643. 
  14. "La familia de Alcalá de Guadaira murió tras inhalar plaguicida". La Vanguardia. Agencia EFE. 3 February 2014. Retrieved 3 February 2014. 
  15. Siwach, SB; Gupta, A (1995). "The profile of acute poisonings in Harayana-Rohtak Study". The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 43 (11): 756–9. PMID 8773034. 
  16. Singh, D; Jit, I; Tyagi, S (1999). "Changing trends in acute poisoning in Chandigarh zone: A 25-year autopsy experience from a tertiary care hospital in northern India". The American journal of forensic medicine and pathology 20 (2): 203–10. PMID 10414665. doi:10.1097/00000433-199906000-00019. 

Lua error in Module:Authority_control at line 346: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).