Open Access Articles- Top Results for Alveolar trill

Alveolar trill

"r (IPA)" redirects here. For the 'r' sound (as in English red) often transcribed /r/ for convenience, see [[Alveolar approximant#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.Alveolar approximant ([ɹ])]].

The alveolar trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents dental, alveolar, and postalveolar trills is r, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is r. It is commonly called the rolled R, rolling R, or trilled R. Quite often, r is used in phonemic transcriptions (especially those found in dictionaries) of languages like English and German that have rhotic consonants that are not an alveolar trill. This is partly due to ease of typesetting and partly because r is the letter used in the orthographies of these languages.

In the majority of Indo-European languages, this sound is at least occasionally allophonic with an alveolar tap [ɾ], particularly in unstressed positions. Exceptions to this include Albanian, Spanish, Cypriot Greek, and a number of Armenian and Portuguese dialects, which treat them as distinct phonemes.

People with ankyloglossia may find it exceptionally difficult to articulate this consonant due to the limited mobility of their tongues.[1][2]

Voiced alveolar trill

Voiced alveolar trill
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IPA number 122
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Kirshenbaum r<trl>
Braille 25px
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Most commonly, the alveolar trill is voiced.


Features of the alveolar trill:



Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
German Standard[4] Schmarrn [ʃmaːr̪n] 'nonsense' Apical.[4] May be alveolar or a tap instead. See German phonology
Hungarian[5] arra [ɒr̪ːɒ] 'that way' See Hungarian phonology
Romanian[6] repede [ˈr̪e̞pe̞d̪e̞] 'quickly' Apical. See Romanian phonology
Russian[7] рьяный [ˈr̪ʲjän̪ɨ̞j] 'zealous' Apical, palatalized. Often a tap.[7] It contrasts with a post-alveolar trill. See Russian phonology


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Abkhaz ашəара [aʃʷara] 'measure' See Abkhaz phonology
Adyghe речӀы [retʃʼə] 'crushing'
Afrikaans rooi [rɔɪ] 'red'
Albanian rrush [ruʃ] 'grape' Contrasts with /ɾ/.
Arabic رأس [rɑʔs] 'head' Written ر. See Arabic phonology
Armenian Eastern[8] ռումբ About this sound [rumb]  'cannonball'
Asturian xenru [ˈʃẽ̞nru] 'son-in-law'
Basque errota [erot̪a] 'mill'
Bulgarian награда [nɐɡrada] 'award'
Czech chlor [xlɔ̝ːr] 'chlorine' Contrasts with /r̝/; may be syllabic. See Czech phonology
Danish Few speakers of the Jutlandic dialect[9]  ? Corresponds to much more back [[[voiced uvular fricative#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ʁ]]
~ [[voiced pharyngeal fricative#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ʕ]]
in standard Danish. See Danish phonology
Dutch Many dialects rood About this sound [roːt]  'red' In free variation with [[[alveolar flap#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ɾ]]
]. Pronunciation of /r/ varies regionally. See Dutch phonology
English Scottish curd [kʌrd] 'curd' Only some dialects. Corresponds to [[[alveolar flap#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ɾ]]
~ [[alveolar approximant#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ɹ]]
] in others. See English phonology
Esperanto tri About this sound [tri]  'three' See Esperanto phonology
Estonian narr [nɑrː] 'fool'
Finnish purra [purːɑ] 'to bite' See Finnish phonology
French African French rouge [ruʒ] 'red' May be a tap instead. See Standard and Quebec French phonologies
Rural Acadian
Rural France
Rural Quebec
Southern France
Galician ría [ˈri.a] 'ria', 'estuary' Contrasts with /ɾ/. Does not occur in coda position.
German Northern Schmarrn About this sound [ʃmɑrn]  'nonsense' Only some speakers. May be a tap instead.
Standard[4] Apical.[4] May be dental or a tap instead. See German phonology
Southern May be a tap instead.
Greek Standard[10] άρτος [ˈartos] 'bread' (archaic) or 'Communion bread' Allophone of /r/. Usual in clusters, otherwise a tap or an approximant. See Modern Greek phonology
Cypriot[11][12] βορράς [voˈrːas] 'north' Contrasts with /ɾ/.
Hebrew Mizrahi ראשׁ [roʃ] 'head' See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hindi घर [ɡʱər] 'house' See Hindi-Urdu phonology
Icelandic rós [ˈroːus] 'rose' Contrasts with /r̥/. See Icelandic phonology
Ilokano gurruod [ɡʊˈruʔod] 'thunder' Contrasts with /ɾ/. See Ilokano phonology.
Italian[13] terra About this sound [ˈtɛrra]  'earth' See Italian phonology
Japanese Some dialects 羅針 rashin [raɕĩɴ] 'compass' More commonly [ɾ]. Use of [r] is known in Japanese as makijita (Japanese: 巻き舌, 'rolling tongue'). See Japanese phonology
Kele[14] [ⁿrikei] 'leg'
Kyrgyz[15] ыр [ɯr] 'song'
Latvian[16] rags [räks̪] 'horn' See Latvian phonology
Macedonian игра [iɡra] 'play' See Macedonian phonology
Malay Standard arah [arah] 'direction' See Malay phonology
Marathi Standard [rəbər] 'rubber' See Marathi phonology
Ngwe Njoagwi dialect [lɛ̀rɛ́] 'eye'
Persian رستم Rostam [ˈrostʌm] 'Rostam' Allophone of [ɾ] in word-initial positions. See Persian phonology
Polish[17] krok About this sound [krɔk]  'step' Contrasts with /r̝/ for few speakers. See Polish phonology
Portuguese Some dialects[18] honrar [õˈraɾ] 'to honor' Older rhotic corresponding to guttural R of most dialects; contrasts with /ɾ/. Does not occur in coda position. See Portuguese phonology
Scots wir [wir] 'our'
Serbo-Croatian[19] рт / rt [r̩t] 'cape' May be syllabic. See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Slovak[20] krk [kr̩k] 'neck' May be a tap, particularly when not syllabic.
Slovene[21] r [ríːʃ] 'rice' Also described as tap [ɾ],[22] and variable between trill [r] and tap [ɾ].[23] See Slovene phonology
Spanish[24] perro [ˈpe̞ro̞] 'dog' Contrasts with /ɾ/. See Spanish phonology
Swedish Most dialects rov About this sound [ruːv]  'prey' See Swedish phonology
Tajik арра [ʌrrʌ] 'saw'
Thai Standard Thai พรุ่งนี้ [pʰrûŋ.níː] 'tomorrow'
Titan[14] [ⁿrakeiʔin] 'girls'
Ubykh [bəqˤʼərda] 'to roll around' See Ubykh phonology
Ukrainian рух [rux] 'motion' See Ukrainian phonology
Welsh Rhagfyr [ˈr̥aɡvɨr] 'December' Contrasts with /r̥/. See Welsh phonology
West Frisian rûp [rup] 'caterpillar'
Zapotec Tilquiapan[25] r-ree [rəˀə] 'habitual-go out' Underlyingly two sequences of /ɾ/.


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Catalan[26] roba [ˈr̠ɔβ̞ə] 'clothes' Contrasts with /ɾ/. See Catalan phonology
Gokana[27] bele [bēr̠ē] 'we' Allophone of /l/, medially between vowels within the morpheme,[27] and finally in the morpheme
before a following vowel in the same word.[27] It can be a postalveolar tap or simply [l] instead.[27]
Russian[7] играть [ɪˈɡr̠ätʲ] 'to play' Contrasts with a palatalized dental trill. See Russian phonology

Voiced alveolar raised non-sonorant trill

Raised alveolar trill
IPA number 122 429
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In Czech there are two contrasting alveolar trills. Besides the typical trill, written r, there is another, written ř, in words such as rybáři [ˈrɪbaːr̝ɪ] 'fishermen' and the common surname Dvořák. Its manner of articulation is similar to [r] but the tongue is raised; it is partially fricative, with the frication sounding rather like [ʒ], though not so retracted. Non-native speakers may pronounce it as [rʐ] or [rʒ]. Thus in the IPA it is written as r plus the raising diacritic, . (Before the 1989 IPA Kiel Convention, it had a dedicated symbol ɼ). The Kobon language of Papua New Guinea also has a fricative trill, although the degree of frication is variable.


Features of the voiced alveolar raised non-sonorant trill:


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Czech[28][29][30][31] čtyři About this sound [ˈt͡ʃtɪr̝ɪ]  'four' May be a non-sibilant fricative[29] or a fricative flap instead.[31] It contrasts with /r/ and /ʒ/. See Czech phonology
Kashubian[32] [example needed] Only some northern[32] and northwestern[32] speakers.
Kobon [example needed] Amount of frication variable. May also be a fricative flap
Polish Some dialects[33] rzeka [ˈr̝ɛkä] 'river' Contrasts with /r/ and /ʐ/. Present in areas from Starogard Gdański to Malbork[33] and those south, west and northwest of them,[33] area from Lubawa to Olsztyn to Olecko to Działdowo,[33] south and east from Wieleń,[33] around Wołomin,[33] southeast from Ostrów Mazowiecka[33] and west from Siedlce,[33] from Brzeg to Opole and those north of them,[33] and roughly from Racibórz to Nowy Targ.[33] Most speakers, as well as standard Polish merge it with /ʐ/,[33] and speakers maintaining the distinction (which is mostly the elderly) sporadically do that too.[33] See Polish phonology
Portuguese[34] os rins [u ˈr̝ĩʃ] 'the kidneys' Possible realization of the sequence /sr/ for speakers who realize /r/ as [r].[34] See Portuguese phonology
Silesian Gmina Istebna[35] [example needed] Contrasts with /r/ and /ʒ/. Merges with /ʐ/ in most Polish dialects.
Slovak Northern dialects[33] [example needed] Only in few dialects near the Polish border.[33]

See also


  1. ^ Chaubal & Dixit (2011:270–272)
  2. ^ Mayo Clinic (2012)
  3. ^ Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:228)
  4. ^ a b c d Mangold (2005:53)
  5. ^ Siptár & Törkenczy (2000:75–76), Szende (1999:104)
  6. ^ Ovidiu Drăghici, Limba Română contemporană. Fonetică. Fonologie. Ortografie. Lexicologie (PDF), retrieved April 19, 2013 [dead link]
  7. ^ a b c Skalozub (1963:?); cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:221)
  8. ^ Dum-Tragut (2009:19)
  9. ^ Torp (2001:78)
  10. ^ Arvaniti (2007:14–18)
  11. ^ Arvaniti (2010:3–4)
  12. ^ "βορράς", Cypriot Greek Lexicographic Database (Ερευνητικό Πρόγραμμα Συντυσές), 2011, retrieved 5 March 2014 
  13. ^ Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004:117)
  14. ^ a b Ladefoged (2005:165)
  15. ^ Kara (2003:11)
  16. ^ Nau (1998:6)
  17. ^ Jassem (2003:103)
  18. ^ In much of Africa, some communities of non-Portuguese European immigrants (it may be weakly trilled in the former ones), inland northern Portugal, and places near Hispanic countries.
  19. ^ Kordić (2006:5), Landau et al. (1999:66)
  20. ^ Hanulíková & Hamann (2010:374)
  21. ^ Pretnar & Tokarz (1980:21)
  22. ^ Šuštaršič, Komar & Petek (1999:135)
  23. ^ Greenberg (2006:17 and 20)
  24. ^ Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:255)
  25. ^ Merrill (2008:109)
  26. ^ Recasens & Pallarès (1995:288)
  27. ^ a b c d L.F. Brosnahan, Outlines of the phonology of the Gokana dialect of Ogoni (PDF), retrieved 2013-11-24 
  28. ^ Dankovičová (1999:70-71)
  29. ^ a b Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:228-230 and 233)
  30. ^ Lodge (2009:46)
  31. ^ a b Šimáčková, Podlipský & Chládková (2012:226)
  32. ^ a b c Jerzy Treder. "Fonetyka i fonologia". 
  33. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Gwary polskie - Frykatywne rż (ř),, retrieved 2013-11-06 
  34. ^ a b Grønnum (2005:157)
  35. ^ a b Dąbrowska (2004:?)


  • "Tongue-tie (ankyloglossia)", Mayo Clinic (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research), May 16, 2012, retrieved 22 October 2013 
  • Arvaniti, Amalia (2007), "Greek Phonetics: The State of the Art" (PDF), Journal of Greek Linguistics 8: 97–208, doi:10.1075/jgl.8.08arv 
  • Arvaniti, Amalia (2010), "A (brief) review of Cypriot Phonetics and Phonology", The Greek Language in Cyprus from Antiquity to the Present Day (PDF), University of Athens, pp. 107–124 
  • Chaubal, Tanay V.; Dixit, Mala Baburaj (2011), "Ankyloglossia and its Management", Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology 15 (3): 270–272, PMID 22028516, doi:10.4103/0972-124X.85673 
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