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Amiens

This article is about the city in France. For the battles which occurred nearby, see Battle of Amiens (disambiguation). For the locality in Australia, see Amiens, Queensland.

<tr class="mergedbottomrow"><td colspan="2" style="text-align:center">

Coordinates: 49°53′31″N 2°17′56″E / 49.892°N 2.299°E / 49.892; 2.299Coordinates: 49°53′31″N 2°17′56″E / 49.892°N 2.299°E / 49.892; 2.299{{#coordinates:49.892|2.299|type:city(139271)_region:FR|||||| |primary |name= }}</td></tr><tr class="mergedtoprow"><th scope="row" style="text-align:left">Country</th><td> France</td></tr><tr class="mergedrow"><th scope="row" style="text-align:left">Region</th><td> Picardy</td></tr><tr class="mergedrow"><th scope="row" style="text-align:left">Department</th><td> Somme</td></tr><tr class="mergedrow"><th scope="row" style="text-align:left">Arrondissement</th><td> Amiens</td></tr><tr class="mergedrow"><th scope="row" style="text-align:left">Intercommunality</th><td> Communauté d'agglomération Amiens Métropole</td></tr><tr class="mergedtoprow"><th colspan="2" style="text-align:center;text-align:left">Government</th></tr><tr class="mergedrow"><th scope="row" style="text-align:left"> • Mayor (2014–2020) </th><td> Brigitte Fouré</td></tr><tr class="mergedtoprow"><th scope="row" style="text-align:left">Area1</th><td> 49.46 km2 (19.10 sq mi)</td></tr><tr class="mergedtoprow"><th scope="row" style="text-align:left">Population (2006)2</th><td> 139,271</td></tr><tr class="mergedrow"><th scope="row" style="text-align:left"> • Density</th><td> 2,800/km2 (7,300/sq mi)</td></tr><tr class="mergedtoprow"><th scope="row" style="text-align:left">INSEE/Postal code</th><td class="adr"> 80021 / 80000</td></tr><tr class="mergedtoprow"><th scope="row" style="text-align:left">Elevation</th><td> Script error: No such module "convert".
(avg. Script error: No such module "convert".)</td></tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="text-align:center;text-align:left; font-size:smaller"> 1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.</td></tr></table>

Amiens (Template:IPA-fr) is a city and commune in northern France, Script error: No such module "convert". north of Paris and Script error: No such module "convert". south-west of Lille. It is the capital of the Somme department in Picardy. The city had a population of 136,105 according to the 2006 census.

The first known settlement is Samarobriva ("Somme bridge"), the central settlement of the Ambiani, one of the principal tribes of Gaul. The town was given the name Ambianum by the Romans, meaning settlement of the Ambiani people. The town has been much fought over, being attacked by barbarian tribes, and later by the Normans. In 1113 the city was recognized by the King of France, and joined to the Crown of France in 1185. In 1597, Spanish soldiers held the city during the six-month Siege of Amiens, before Henry IV regained control. During the 18th and 19th century, the textile tradition of Amiens became famous for its velours. In 1789 the provinces of France were dismantled and the territory was organised into departments. Much of Picardy became the newly created department of Somme, with Amiens as the departmental capital. During the industrial revolution the city walls were demolished, opening up space for large boulevards around the town centre. The Henriville neighbourhood in the south of the city was developed around this time. In 1848, the first railway arrived in Amiens, linking the city to Boulogne-sur-Mer. During the 1870 Battle of Amiens, when the Somme was invaded by Prussian forces, Amiens was occupied.

The town was fought over during both the First and Second World Wars, suffering much damage, and being occupied several times by both sides. The 1918 Battle of Amiens, was the opening phase of the Hundred Days Offensive, which led directly to the Armistice with Germany that ended the war. It was heavily bombed by the Royal Air Force during the Second World War. The city was rebuilt according to Pierre Dufau's plans, with a focus on widening the streets to ease traffic congestion. These newer structures were primarily built of brick, concrete and white stone with slate roofs. The architect Auguste Perret designed the Gare d'Amiens train station and nearby Tour Perret.

Amiens Cathedral, the tallest of the large, classic, Gothic churches of the 13th century and the largest in France of its kind, is a World Heritage Site. The author Jules Verne lived in Amiens from 1871 until his death in 1905, and served on the city council for 15 years. During December, the town hosts the largest Christmas market in northern France. Amiens is known for a few local foods, including "macarons d'Amiens", almond paste biscuits; "tuiles amienoises", chocolate and orange curved biscuits; "pâté de canard d'Amiens", duck pate in pastry; "la ficelle Picarde", an oven-baked cheese-topped crêpe; and "flamiche aux poireaux", a puff pastry tart made with leeks and cream.

Geography

Location

File:Map commune FR insee code 80021.png
Map of the Amiens and its surrounding communes

Amiens, the regional prefecture of Picardy, is also the prefecture of the Somme, one of the three departments (with Oise and Aisne) in the region. Located in the Paris Basin, across the country the city benefits from a privileged geographical position (proximity to Paris, Lille, Rouen, London and Brussels). At the crossroads of major European routes of movement (A1, A16 and A29), the city is also at the heart of a major rail star.

As the crow flies, the city is Script error: No such module "convert". from Paris, Script error: No such module "convert". from Lille, Script error: No such module "convert". from Rouen, Script error: No such module "convert". from Le Havre and Script error: No such module "convert". from Reims. At the regional level, Amiens is located Script error: No such module "convert". north of Beauvais, Script error: No such module "convert". west of Saint-Quentin, Script error: No such module "convert". from Compiègne and Script error: No such module "convert". from Laon.

In area, it is the third in the Somme, after Crécy-en-Ponthieu and Hornoy-le-Bourg.

Amiens
Amiens
Amiens
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Geology and relief

The area of the commune is Script error: No such module "convert".; the altitude varies between Script error: No such module "convert"..[1]

Hydrography: Somme and canal, Avre and Selle

File:LL 69 - AMIENS - Vue prise dans la vieille ville.JPG
The Somme in the old town at the beginning of the 20th century
File:INCONNU - Vieil Amiens - Pont Becquet.JPG
The Becquet Bridge, at the start of the 20th century

Amiens is crossed by the main stem of the River Somme and is generally quiet, except during exceptional floods, several weeks long (such as spring 2001). It is also, on its southeastern outskirts, close to Camon and Longueau, the confluence with its main tributary on the left bank (to the south), the Avre. The Selle enters from the northwest of Amiens, with two arms (including the Haute Selle) passing behind the Unicorn Stadium, the exhibition park, the megacity and horse racing track, then passing the end of the Promenade de la Hotoie and the zoo of Amiens, and to the right of the water treatment plant, in front of the island Sainte-Aragone, opposite the cemetery of La Madeleine in Amiens.

The city developed in a natural narrowing of the river at the level of the [[Hortillonnages d'Amiens#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.hortillonnages]] (fr), due to the advance of the rim of the Picard plateau in Saint-Pierre (ford crossing). The Amiens citadel is built on this limestone butte and Rue Saint-Pierre is a path slightly inclined path to leave the city from the north. At this narrowing, a network of narrow canals led to the construction of bridges and buildings including textile mills in the Middle Ages.

The hydrographic network has always been an important asset operated by the city. The river helped shape the identity of the landscape, urban and economic territory. It is around the quarters of Saint-Leu, Saint-Maurice bordering the River Somme and most of the administrative and civil area of the current city centre which the city has developed since antiquity.

The Canal de la Somme dates from the beginning of the 19th century and the bridge at the foot of the citadel was built after World War II.

Climate

Amiens has a typical oceanic climate in the north of France, with relatively mild winters, cool summers, and rainfall well distributed throughout the year.

Transport

Amiens is a hub between the Île de France and the rest of the north of France; Normandy and Benelux; and France and Great Britain. Amiens is not directly on principal European road and rail arteries, such as the A1 motorway and the Paris-Lille TGV train line, at present.

However, at halfway between the urban areas of Lille and Paris, Amiens has good conditions of service and accessibility, including motorways (at the junction of the A16 and A29).

A regular bus link with the TGV Haute-Picardie station also provides access to the Charles-de-Gaulle Airport station. On the horizon of 2022,[2] the Roissy–Picardie Link will put Amiens 55 minutes from Paris Charles-de-Gaulle Airport and its TGV station.

By train, Amiens is located at:

  • 1 hour 5 minutes from Paris (16 round-trip trains per day)
  • 1 hour 15 minutes from Lille
  • 1 hour 15 minutes from Rouen
  • 2 hours 30 minutes from Brussels
  • 3 hours 30 minutes from Lyon
  • 3 hours from London

Roads

See also: [[Rocade d'Amiens (fr)]]

Since antiquity, Amiens has been a crossroads of important routes. The contemporary city is served by the A16 and A29 autoroutes. The [[Viaduc Jules-Verne#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.Jules Verne Viaduct]] (fr), Script error: No such module "convert". long, crosses the River Somme to the east of the city and allows circumvention of the city by motorway-type roads. The A16 and A29 autoroutes, the RN1 and the RN25 form a bypass-type motorway around the city that the population has called the Rocade d'Amiens [ring road of Amiens]. Initially constituting national roads which are downgraded today, mostly as departmental roads, the greater urban area of Amiens is served by:

Amiens is served by several motorways:

Parking

File:Parking-amiens.png
Map of parking in the city centre of Amiens in 2009.
  Town Hall
  Halles
  Jacobins
  Trois Cailloux
  Saint-Leu
  Amiens 2
  Perret
  Free outdoor parking

The underground car parks in the city centre are organised thus:

Name Accessible by Close to Number of spaces
Halles Rue du Général-Leclerc Commercial Centre of Halles, belfry 468
Centrum Rue Frédéric Petit Coliseum 190
Hôtel de ville Rue de Beauvais Espace piétonnier, town hall 80
Jacobins Rue des Jacobins Espace piétonnier, prefecture 587
Saint-Leu Rue des Huchers Faculties of law, political science and economy management; cathedral 585
Trois Cailloux Rue Robert de Luzarches Espace piétonnier, courthouse, cathedral 486
Amiens 2 Boulevard d'Alsace-Lorraine, rue de la Vallée Amiens 2 commercial centre, bus station, SNCF railway station 724
Perret Boulevard de Belfort, rue Vulfran-Warmé Cinema, SNCF railway station 490
Gare La Vallée Rue de la Vallée SNCF railway station, Gare La Vallée development zone 840

Public transport

The town's public transport network is managed by Ametis. It links most of Amiens Metropole's communes. Proposals to build a tram network are under discussion.

Cycle networks

In 2008 the municipality established Vélam, a system of public rental bicycles similar to those in other European cities.

Railways

Amiens has two stations: the Gare d'Amiens (the former Gare du Nord) and the Gare de Saint-Roch (Somme), with connections:

The station Gare TGV Haute-Picardie on the Lille-Paris TGV line is reachable by bus from Amiens.

Air transport

In addition to Amiens – Glisy Aerodrome, bordering the town's eastern edge Script error: No such module "convert". from the centre, there are several airports nearby.

Waterways

The Somme canal runs through the town to the English Channel. This canal is linked to the Canal du Nord (Paris to Lille metropolitan area)

Urbanism

Urban morphology

Amiens comprises a number of neighbourhoods ("quartiers" in French) with their own characteristics, including Saint-Leu, St-Maurice, Henriville, and Saint-Acheul.

Saint-Leu quarter

St-Leu is a part of Amiens north of the town centre. It has many older wooden and brick houses and several canals. It was a poor part of town, but since extensive renovation in the 1990s it has become popular with tourists and students as a pretty area with a high concentration of cafés, restaurants and night clubs. Local culture is offered by Chés Cabotans theatre (puppet shows in the Picard language) and 'La Lune des Pirates', a concert hall.

Amiens University's Faculty of Sciences and its Faculty of Law & Economics are located in Saint-Leu.

Saint-Maurice quarter

Situated in between the east of the citadel and the Madeleine cemetery, St-Maurice is one of the industrial parts of Amiens. It is a working-class area which is currently being renovated and rearranged. The walls of the town's former factory of dye are now those of the École supérieure d'art et de design d'Amiens (fr) (ESAD) as well as those of the Faculty of Arts. The École supérieure d'ingénieurs en électronique et électrotechnique (ESIEE) is in the same neighbourhood.

File:Ami1b.JPG
Somme River from the Boulevard de Beauvillé

Henriville quarter

The Henriville neighbourhood was mostly built during the 19th century after the demolition of the city wall. It lies at the south of the town centre. It has numerous bourgeois houses and townhouses, such as Jules Verne's house, in architectural styles of the period, including neoclassical and neogothic.

Saint-Acheul quarter

This is where archaeological excavations in the nineteenth century discovered prehistoric tool sets typical of the "Acheulean" prehistorical era, named after this neighbourhood (also spelled Acheulian, pronounced /əˈʃuːliən/). Not to be confused with the commune of Saint-Acheul situated Script error: No such module "convert". to the north, the quarter of Saint-Acheul is also the site of a military cemetery from the First World War (1914–1918). It contains the so-called "English neighbourhood," with typical English style houses. At the feet of this area lie the hortillonnages (fr), a marshy area criss-crossed by canals.

Other neighbourhoods

There are also other famous working-class areas in Amiens, such as the Pigeonnier famous for its weekend market in the north, Etouvie in the east, and Victorine Autier in the south-east. These areas know lots of social troubles and have regularly been the place for riots.

Housing

Development projects

Toponymy

The toponym is derived from the name of the local Gallic people, the Ambiani, which was replaced in the 4th century to the old name of the town Samarobriva (the bridge on the Samara - Somme). Amiens then became the episcopal headquarters.[4] In Picard, Amiens is called Anmyen.

History

File:AMIENS - La Place Gambetta.JPG
Gambetta Square at the end of the 19th century

The first known settlement is Samarobriva ("Somme bridge"), the central settlement of the Ambiani, one of the principal tribes of Gaul, who were issuing coinage, probably from Amiens, in the 1st century BC. The Ambiani derive their name from the Gaulish word ambe meaning river – a reference to the Somme that flows through Amiens.[5] The town was given the name Ambianum by the Romans, meaning settlement of the Ambiani people. By tradition, it was at the gates of Amiens that Saint Martin of Tours, at the time still a Roman soldier, shared his cloak with a naked beggar. The prosperity of the city made it a target for barbarian tribes such as the Alans, the Burgundians or the Vandals, who attacked the city several times.

During the 5th century, Chlodio rose to power among the Franks, and Merovech was elected in Amiens by his comrades in arms. Saint Honorius (Honoré) (d. 600 AD) became the seventh bishop of the city. Normans sacked the city 859 and again in 882. During the second sacking, the city's cathedral was burned. During the early part of the 10th century, Count Herbert de Vermandois united the regions of Amiens, Vexin, Laon, and Reims.[6] In 1095, the people of Amiens began to form a rough municipal organization. In 1113 the city was recognized by the King of France; the city was joined to the Crown of France in 1185.

In 1264, Amiens was chosen as the seat of arbitrations when King Louis IX of France settled the conflict between King Henry III of England and his rebellious barons, led by Simon de Montfort. The arbitrations led to Louis deciding on the Mise of Amiens – a one-sided settlement in favor of Henry. This decision almost immediately led to the outbreak of the Barons' War.[7]

In 1435 the city was among the possessions granted to Philip the Good of Burgundy by the Congress of Arras. It was re-acquired again by King Louis XI in 1477 after the death of Charles the Bold.[6] In 1597, Spanish soldiers disguised as peasants entered the city and mounted a surprise attack. After the six-month Siege of Amiens, the forces of Henry IV regained control of the city and put an end to its autonomous rule.

During the 18th and 19th century, the textile tradition of Amiens became famous for its velours. The Cosserat family rose to prominence as one of the wealthiest of Amiens' textile manufacturing families. In 1789 the provinces of France were dismantled and the territory was organised into departments. Much of Picardy became the newly created department of Somme, with Amiens as the departmental capital.

File:Amiens - Hotel de Ville de nuit.jpg
Amiens' 18th-century City Hall

In November 1801, British and French delegates began discussing terms of peace at the Amiens Congress. On 25 March 1802, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the First French Republic signed the Treaty of Amiens, putting an end to the Second Coalition against France.

During the 19th century, Amiens began to feel the effects of the industrial revolution. The city walls were demolished, opening up space for large boulevards around the town centre. The Henriville neighborhood in the south of the city was developed around this time. In 1848, the first railway arrived in Amiens, linking the city to Boulogne-sur-Mer. After this time, the city began to grow beyond the river and into the surrounding hills. During the 1870 Franco-Prussian War, Somme was invaded by Prussian forces and Amiens was occupied.

Early science fiction author Jules Verne took up residence in Amiens in 1871, having met his wife there at a wedding in 1856. He was later elected city councilman in 1888.[8] In 1889, Jules Verne presided over the opening of the Amiens circus, including a courthouse, a police station and a museum dedicated to the history of Picardy.[6]

Beginning in 1905, Victor Commont, called "the founding father of modern Prehistoric science,"[9] performed important archaeological work in the Picardy area.[6]

The First World War

At the start of the war, in August 1914, Amiens had been the Advance Base for the British Expeditionary Force. It was captured by the German Army on 31 August 1914, but recaptured by the French on 28 September. The proximity of Amiens to the Western Front and its importance as a rail hub, made it a vital British logistic centre, especially during the Battle of the Somme in 1916.[10]

Amiens was one of the key objectives of the German Spring Offensive which was launched on 27 March 1918. The German 2nd Army pushed back the British 5th Army, who fought a series of defensive actions. Eventually, on 4 April, the Germans succeeded in capturing Villers-Bretonneux which overlooked Amiens, only for it to be retaken by an Australian counterattack that night. During the fighting, Amiens was bombarded by German artillery and aircraft; more than 2,000 buildings were destroyed.[11] On 8 August 1918, a successful Allied counter stroke, the Battle of Amiens, was the opening phase of the Hundred Days Offensive, which led directly to the Armistice with Germany that ended the war.[12]

The Second World War

In World War II, during the Battle of France, Amiens was captured by the German Army's 1st Panzer Division on 20 May 1940, following two days of heavy air raids. It had been defended by a battalion, the 7th Battalion, Royal Sussex Regiment, a Territorial infantry battalion of the British Army.[13] Of 581 men with the battalion, 132 men are commemorated in CWGC burials, 165 are known to have become prisoners of war and many escaped back to Britain and formed 109th Light Anti-Aircraft Regiment, Royal Artillery.[14]

On 18 February 1944, British aircraft bombed the prison in Amiens as part of Operation Jericho. The raid was intended to aid the escape of members of the French Resistance and political prisoners being held there. In all, 258 prisoners escaped.[15]

Prior to the Normandy landings of 6 June 1944, Allied aircraft concentrated on disabling communications in occupied France, and the railway junction at Longueau to the south east of Amiens was attacked by 200 bombers of the Royal Air Force on the night of the 12 and 13 June. There was much damage in the town itself.[16] Amiens was liberated on 31 August 1944 by the 11th Armoured Division, part of 30 Corps commanded by Lieutenant-General Brian Horrocks.[17]

Post-War Amiens and the French cultural revolution

The city was rebuilt according to Pierre Dufau's plans, with a focus on widening the streets to ease traffic congestion. These newer structures were primarily built of brick, concrete and white stone with slate roofs. The architect Auguste Perret designed the Gare d'Amiens train station and nearby Tour Perret.

On 2 June 1960, the new region of Picardy was formed from the departments of Aisne, Oise and Somme.[6] In May 1968, students in Amiens joined in a large-scale strike that began in Paris. Factory and the railway workers in the city joined them a few days later. Amiens was paralyzed by fighting between conservatives and leftist groups. After President Charles de Gaulle's radio address on 31 May, his supporters demonstrated in the streets. The following October, the University of Amiens (Université d'Amiens) was founded on a campus in the southwestern suburbs of the city.

The city suffered the loss of many jobs as manufacturing plants in the region closed during the late 1970s and 1980s. Despite the hardships, the city made an effort to renovate the degraded area of St-Leu during this time.

The 1990s saw a great period of rebirth in the city. The St-Leu renovations were completed, and parts of the University were moved to the city center. The Vallée des Vignes neighborhood was developed in the south of the city, and large parts of the city center were converted to pedestrian areas. The Gare du Nord was renovated with a controversial new glass roof. The Tour Perret was renovated as well and a new cinema complex was built. The area around the train station began a reorganization.

Politics and administration

Twin towns – sister cities

Amiens is twinned with:

Population and society

Demography

The inhabitants of Amiens are called the Amiénois[20] and their nom jeté (fr) is Chés maqueux d'gueugues (the eaters of nuts).

The population of Amiens has risen sharply since the mid-19th century: Its population doubled between 1850 and 1960, from 50,000 to 100,000 inhabitants, i.e. a gain of 50,000 people over this period of 110 years, and gaining about 30,000 others since (over 50 years only this time).

Demographic evolution

In 2012, the commune had 132,727 inhabitants. The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known through the population censuses carried out in the town since 1793. From the 21st century, the communes with more than 10,000 inhabitants census takes place every year as a result of a sample survey, unlike the other communes which have a real census every five years.[note 1][note 2]

Historical population
YearPop.±%
179340,000—    
180041,279+3.2%
180639,853−3.5%
182141,107+3.1%
183145,001+9.5%
183646,129+2.5%
184147,117+2.1%
184649,591+5.3%
185152,149+5.2%
YearPop.±%
185656,587+8.5%
186158,780+3.9%
186661,063+3.9%
187263,747+4.4%
187666,896+4.9%
188174,170+10.9%
188680,288+8.2%
189183,654+4.2%
189688,731+6.1%
YearPop.±%
190190,758+2.3%
190690,920+0.2%
191193,207+2.5%
192192,780−0.5%
192691,576−1.3%
193190,211−1.5%
193693,773+3.9%
194684,761−9.6%
195492,506+9.1%
YearPop.±%
1962105,433+14.0%
1968117,888+11.8%
1975131,476+11.5%
1982131,332−0.1%
1990131,872+0.4%
1999135,501+2.8%
2006136,105+0.4%
2011133,327−2.0%
2012132,727−0.5%
From 1962 to 1999: Population without double counting; for the years following: municipal population.
Source: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1999[21] then INSEE from 2004[22]

Age structure

Education

The city has several schools and colleges

  • The University of Picardy which has a broad range of courses
    • Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy
    • Faculty of Law, Politics and Economics
    • Faculty of Sciences
    • IUP MIAGE (computing in companies)
    • Faculty of Human Sciences, Literature, Languages, Sport Sciences
    • IUT (Institut Universitaire Technique) of Management, Administration, Computing, Mechanical Engineering, Biological Engineering, Commercial Management.
    • Faculty of Arts
    • Free training courses
  • Preparatory courses for sciences, economics, biology schools and others
  • ESIEE(Engineering School of Electronics and Electrical Technology)
  • Business school
  • ISAM (Institute of Management and Administration)
  • ESAD (School of Art and Design)
  • Brevet de technicien supérieur (advanced vocational diploma) in audio-visual methods
  • School of Nursing
  • Midwifery college
  • Physiotherapy and Massage School
  • Teacher training college

Media

Newspapers
Radio
TV channels

Economy

Both industrial hub and services centre, Amiens enjoys a large pool of workers, a labour pool of over 350,000 inhabitants and many professional training courses.

Proof of dynamism, the magazine [[L'Entreprise (magazine)#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.L'Entreprise]] (fr) elected Amiens "Most attractive city of France" for businesses (category less than 200,000 inhabitants) in 2009 and 2007. The city finished second in 2010, 2008 and 2006. The strengths of the city include a developed real estate business and taxation around the average for French cities. In addition, its geographical position square in the centre of the triangle "Paris - London - Brussels", that is at the heart of the richest Europe.

The magazine Challenges has also designated Amiens as "Best managed city of France" (category large cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants) in 2011, 2010 and 2008.

Income of the population and taxation

In 2010, the median taxable household income was €22,539, which placed Amiens at 177th place among the 31,525 communes with more than 39 households in metropolitan France.[23]

In 2009, the proportion of taxable households was 48.1%.[Insee 1]

Employment

Businesses and shops

Culture, tourism and heritage

There are three cinemas and four theatres: La Comédie de Picardie, La Maison de la Culture, Chés Cabotans, and La Maison du Théâtre; three museums – the Museum of the Hôtel Berny, the Museum of Picardy, and a Museum of Natural History; the city has a number of concert spaces, mostly small venues, which include Le Zénith Amiens and La Lune des Pirates. Pubs also host numerous concerts throughout the year. Exhibition halls include Maison de la culture. The local football club is Amiens SC.

During December, the town hosts the largest Christmas market in northern France.[24] Amiens is known for a few local foods, including "macarons d'Amiens", small, round-shaped biscuit-type macaroons made from almond paste, fruit and honey, which were first recorded in 1855;[25] "tuiles amienoises", chocolate and orange curved "tuiles" or biscuits; "pâté de canard d'Amiens" - duck pate in pastry, made since the 17th century;[26] and "la ficelle Picarde", an oven-baked cheese-topped crêpe with ham and mushroom filling.[24][27] The region is also known for "flamiche aux poireaux", a puff pastry tart made with leeks and cream.[28]

The Summer Rambo apple cultivar originated near Amiens in the 16th century.

Main sights

Amiens Cathedral (a World Heritage Site) is the tallest of the large 'classic' Gothic churches of the 13th century and is the largest in France of its kind. After a fire destroyed the former cathedral, the new nave was begun in 1220 – and finished in 1247. Amiens Cathedral is notable for the coherence of its plan, the beauty of its three-tier interior elevation, the particularly fine display of sculptures on the principal façade and in the south transept, and the labyrinth, and other inlays of its floor. It is described as the "Parthenon of Gothic architecture", and by John Ruskin as "Gothic, clear of Roman tradition and of Arabian taint, Gothic pure, authoritative, unsurpassable, and unaccusable."

File:Cirque Amiens foule début XXe.jpg
Amiens' municipal Circus in 1912

The Municipal Circus, also known as the "Cirque Jules Verne", is one of the few remaining permanent circuses (in French: "Cirque en dur") in the world, one of seven in France and is still in use today.[29] Originally built from timber it is now a stone structure.

Amiens is also known for the hortillonnages (fr), gardens on small islands in the marshland between the River Somme and River Avre, surrounded by a grid network of man-made canals (locally known as "rieux"). They are also known as the "floating gardens of Amiens".[30] Because of the canals, the hortillonnages are sometimes called "Little Venice of the North".

The Madeleine Cemetery (Cimetière de la Madeleine)[31][32] contains a number of listed monuments including the sculpture on the grave of Jules Verne.

Notable people

Notes

  1. ^ At the beginning of the 21st century, the terms of census have been amended by Act No. 2002-276 of 27 February 2002, called "grassroots democracy law" on the democracy of proximity and in particular Title V "of census operations", in order, after a power transition period from 2004 to 2008, the annual publication of the legal population of the different French administrative districts. For municipalities with populations greater than 10,000 inhabitants, a sample survey is carried out annually, the entire territory of these municipalities is included at the end of the same period of five years. The first post-legal population from 1999, and fitting in the new system which came into force on 1 January 2009, is the census of 2006.
  2. ^ In the census table, by Wikipedia convention, the principle was retained for subsequent legal populations since 1999 not to display the census populations in the table corresponding to the year 2006, the first published legal population calculated according to the concepts defined in Decree No. 2003-485 of 5 June 2003, and the years corresponding to an exhaustive census survey for municipalities with less than 10,000 inhabitants, and the years 2006, 2011, 2016, etc. For municipalities with more than 10,000, the latest legal population is published by INSEE for all municipalities.

References

INSEE

  1. ^ REV T1 - Impôts sur le revenu des foyers fiscaux.

Other references

  1. ^ "Répertoire géographique des communes 2012". Institut géographique national. Retrieved 1 June 2015. 
  2. ^ Tissot, Nathalie (20 February 2015). "SNCF : quels sont les chantiers prévus en Picardie en 2015 ?". France 3 Picardie. 
  3. ^ "TGV Picardie-Roissy: le ministre des Transports valide le projet". Le Courrier picard. 1 May 2013. 
  4. ^ Chaurand, Jacques; Lebègue, Maurice (1990). Noms de lieux de Picardie. Condé-sur-Noireau: Bonneton. p. 35. ISBN 978-2-86253-265-3. .
  5. ^ Placenames of the world: origins and ... – Google Books. Books.google.ca. Retrieved 14 March 2011. 
  6. ^ a b c d e [1][dead link]
  7. ^ Maddicott, John (1994). Simon de Montfort. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 257–8. ISBN 0-521-37493-6. 
  8. ^ "Translation result for http://www.jules-verne.net/". Babelfish.yahoo.com. Retrieved 14 March 2011. 
  9. ^ "Le Tourisme dans la Somme". Uk.somme-tourisme.com. Retrieved 14 March 2011. 
  10. ^ Reading Room Manchester. "Commonwealth War Graves Commission – ST. PIERRE CEMETERY, AMIENS – Historical Information". Cwgc.org. Retrieved 2013-03-01. 
  11. ^ "Australians on the Western Front – France 1918: Defence of Amiens". Ww1westernfront.gov.au. 1918-09-07. Retrieved 2013-03-01. 
  12. ^ "History of War – Rickard, J (5 September 2007), ''Battle of Amiens, 8 August-3 September 1918''". Historyofwar.org. Retrieved 2013-03-01. 
  13. ^ "Major L. F. Ellis, ''THE WAR IN FRANCE AND FLANDERS, 1939–1940'', HMSO 1954 (p.80)". Ibiblio.org. 1940-05-20. Retrieved 2013-03-01. 
  14. ^ Osborne, Dan. "7th Battlion Royal Sussex Regiment: May 1940". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-03-01. 
  15. ^ [2][dead link]
  16. ^ "The National Collection of Aerial Photography: Sortie 106G/3133 – Longueau railway depot". Aerial.rcahms.gov.uk. Retrieved 2013-03-01. 
  17. ^ "IWM Collections – 30TH CORPS CAPTURES AMIENS". Iwm.org.uk. Retrieved 2013-03-01. 
  18. ^ a b "List of Twin Towns in the Ruhr District" (PDF). Twins2010.com. 2009. Retrieved 28 October 2009. [dead link]
  19. ^ "British towns twinned with French towns [via WaybackMachine.com]". Archant Community Media Ltd. Archived from the original on 5 July 2013. Retrieved 2013-07-20. 
  20. ^ "Nom des habitants des communes françaises". habitants.fr of Lionel Delvarre. 
  21. ^ "Amiens". EHESS. Retrieved 26 May 2015. 
  22. ^ "80021-Amiens 2006" [80021-Amiens 2006] (in français). Retrieved 26 May 2015. , "80021-Amiens 2011" [80021-Amiens 2011] (in français). Retrieved 26 May 2015.  and "80021-Amiens 2012" [80021-Amiens 2012] (in français). Retrieved 26 May 2015. 
  23. ^ "Fichier RFDM2010COM : Revenus fiscaux localisés des ménages - Année 2010". Insee. 
  24. ^ a b Hugh McKnight (1 Sep 2005). Cruising French Waterways. Sheridan House, Inc. p. 35. 
  25. ^ Nick Rider (1 May 2005). Short Breaks Northern France. New Holland Publishers. p. 135. 
  26. ^ Michelin (16 Apr 2010). Michelin Green Guide Northern France & Paris Region. Michelin. p. 62. 
  27. ^ Russel Cousins, Ron Hallmark, Ian Pickup (15 Dec 1994). Studying and Working in France: A Student Guide. Manchester University Press ND. p. 111. 
  28. ^ Alan Rogers (1 Jan 2007). Alan Rogers France 2007. Alan Rogers Guides Ltd. p. 88. 
  29. ^ "The Cirque Jules Verne Website". Cirquejulesverne.com. Retrieved 2013-03-01. 
  30. ^ "The Visit Amiens Website" (in français). Visit-amiens.com. Retrieved 2013-03-01. 
  31. ^ "Somme Tourism Website (in French)" (in français). Somme-tourisme.com. Retrieved 2013-03-01. 
  32. ^ Madeleine Cemetery in the French Wikipedia (in French)

Further reading

External links

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