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For other meanings, see Amman (disambiguation)
عمّان ʿAmmān
Amman city landmarks, From right to left and above to below: Amman's skyline as seen from Sport city, Temple of Hercules at Amman Citadel, Omayyad Palace, Ottoman Hejaz Railway station, Roman theater, Abdoun Bridge, King Abdullah I Mosque and Raghadan Flagpole.
Amman city landmarks, From right to left and above to below: Amman's skyline as seen from Sport city, Temple of Hercules at Amman Citadel, Omayyad Palace, Ottoman Hejaz Railway station, Roman theater, Abdoun Bridge, King Abdullah I Mosque and Raghadan Flagpole.
Template:Infobox settlement/columns

Coordinates: 31°56′59″N 35°55′58″E / 31.94972°N 35.93278°E / 31.94972; 35.93278Coordinates: 31°56′59″N 35°55′58″E / 31.94972°N 35.93278°E / 31.94972; 35.93278{{#coordinates:31|56|59|N|35|55|58|E|type:city(4000000)_region:JO |primary |name=

Country Template:Country data Jordan
Governorate Capital Governorate
Founded 7000 BC
Municipality 1909
 • Mayor Akel Biltaji
 • Total 1,680 km2 (650 sq mi)
Highest elevation 1,100 m (3,600 ft)
Lowest elevation 700 m (2,300 ft)
Population (2014)
 • Total 4,000,000
Time zone +2 Eastern European Standard Time
 • Summer (DST) +3 Arabia Standard Time (UTC)
Postal code 11110-17198
Area code(s) +962(6)
Website Amman City

Amman (English pronunciation: /ɑːˈmɑːn/; Arabic: عمّانʿAmmān), is the capital and most populous city of Jordan. It is the country's political, cultural and commercial centre and one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. The municipality's estimated population is 4 million.[1]

The recent economic growth experienced in Amman is unmatched by any other Arab city except those located in the Persian Gulf area. Amman is also the administrative seat of the homonymous governorate. Amman is also ranked a Beta− global city on the World city index, the same category as Abu Dhabi, Kuwait City and Manama.

Amman was named one of the MENA's best cities according to economic, labour, environmental, and socio-cultural factors. Amman is among the most popular locations for multinational corporations to set up their regional offices, alongside Doha and only behind Dubai. Furthermore, it is expected that in the next 10 years these three cities will capture the largest share of multinational corporation activity in the region.[2] It is a major tourist destination in the region and the capital is especially popular among Persian Gulf tourists.[3]


File:Amman BW 2.JPG
Temple of Hercules, Roman Corinthian columns at Citadel Hill.
File:Amman downtown 1970.jpg
Amman in the late 1960s.

In the 13th century BC Amman was called Rabbath Ammon or Rabat Amon by the Ammonites. In the Hebrew Bible, it is referred to as Rabbat ʿAmmon (Tiberian Hebrew Rabbaṯ ʿAmmôn). It was later conquered by the Assyrians, followed by the Persians, and then the Greek Macedonians. Ptolemy II Philadelphus, the Macedonian ruler of Egypt, renamed it Philadelphia (Ancient Greek Φιλαδέλφεια). The city became part of the Nabataean kingdom until 106 AD when Philadelphia came under Roman control and joined the Decapolis.[4]

Amman was then destroyed by several earthquakes and natural disasters and remained a small village and a pile of ruins until the Circassian settlement in 1878.[5] Ottoman records from 1906 shows 5,000 Circassian living in Amman and virtually no inhabitants who spoke Arabic.

The tide changed when the Ottoman Sultan decided to build the Hejaz railway, linking Damascus and Medina, facilitating both the annual hajj pilgrimage and permanent trade, putting Amman, a major station, back on the commercial map.[citation needed]

In 1921, king Abdullah I chose Amman instead of Al-Salt as the seat of government for his newly created state, the Emirate of Transjordan, and later as the capital of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. This attracted immigrants fom several places. Most from inside the country came from Al-Salt, a city nearby and at that time the largest urban settlement east of the Jordan River. The early settlers who came from Palestine were overwhelmingly from Nablus, of which many had lived in Al-Salt before, and they were joined by a some from Damascus. Amman later also attracted people from the southern part of the country (especially Kerak and Madaba) and also from Jerusalem, Haifa and Jaffa in Israel. The city's population was 10,000 in the 1930s.[6]

Migrants from other areas in the country continued coming in the 1940s after but it was the 1948 war, 1967 war and the displacement of Palestinians that led to the most unexpected increase in population. Amman's population increased more than 15 times between 1950 and 1990.[6]

In 1970, Amman was the site of major clashes between the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) and the Jordanian army. Everything around the Royal Palace sustained heavy damage from shelling. The city's population continues to expand at a rapid pace (fueled by refugees escaping the wartime events in the West Bank and Iraq). The city received refugees from these countries on a number of occasions.[citation needed]

A second wave arrived after the Six-Day War in 1967. A third wave of Palestinian and Jordanian and Southeast Asians, working as domestic workers, refugees arrived in Amman from Kuwait after the Gulf War of 1991. The first wave of Iraqi refugees settled in the city after the first Gulf War, with a second wave also arriving after the 2003 invasion of Iraq. During the last 10 years the number of new buildings within the city has increased dramatically with new districts of the city being founded at a very rapid pace (particularly so in West Amman), straining the very scarce water supplies of Jordan as a whole, and exposing Amman to the hazards of rapid expansion in the absence of careful municipal planning.[citation needed]

On 9 November 2005, coordinated explosions rocked three hotels in Amman, resulting in the death of 60 people and the injury of 115 others. Al-Qaeda claimed responsibility for the act, which was carried out despite the fact that the birthplace of since-killed Al-Qaeda militant leader Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, is the town of Zarqa, less than Script error: No such module "convert". from Amman. The sheer brutality of the attacks, which targeted, among other things, a wedding party being held at one of the hotels, caused widespread revulsion across the widest range of Jordanians. Large protests and vigils followed in the wake of the attacks.


File:Amman 1940.jpg
Amman in 1940.
Spring in an affluent neighbourhood in the capital.

Amman is situated in a hilly area of north-western Jordan. The city was originally built on seven hills, but it now spans over an area of nineteen hills (each known as a Jabal, Tál, Mount or Mountain). The main areas of Amman gain their names from the hills and mountains on whose slopes they lie. The city's elevation changes from mountain to mountain. They range from 700 to 1,100 m (2,300–3,600 feet).


Amman's position on the mountains near the Mediterranean climate zone places it under the semi-arid climate with (Köppen climate classification: BSk) The city has hot and usually dry summers, whereas the winters are relatively wet and range from mild to cool.[7] Spring is brief and quite warm, where highs clock around Script error: No such module "convert".. It usually lasts a little less than a month, from April to May, leading up to a hot stiff summer where temperatures range between Script error: No such module "convert". and Script error: No such module "convert".. Summer lows are around Script error: No such module "convert"..

Amman has hot summers starting from mid June to early October. Summer's high temperatures averages from Script error: No such module "convert". to Script error: No such module "convert". depending on the elevation, usually with low to moderate humidity. Summers are completely dry with cloudless skies during the noon period.

Winter usually starts in late November or early December and continues from early to mid March. Temperatures are usually near or below Script error: No such module "convert"., with snow occasionally falling every other year.

Rain is quite rare and it's typical for semi-arid zones. Amman averages less than 300mm a year and periodic droughts are common.

Winters are usually foggy with at least 120 days of heavy fog per year.[8] Due to the difference in elevation, snow may accumulate in the northern and western parts of Amman (an average altitude of Script error: No such module "convert". above sea level) while at the same time it could be raining at the city center (elevation of Script error: No such module "convert".). (Script error: No such module "convert".).

It should be noted that Amman has extreme examples of microclimate, and almost every district exhibits its own weather.[9] It is known among locals that some boroughs such as the northern suburb of Abu Nsér are among the coldest in the city, and can be experiencing frost while other warmer districts such as Marka can be providing much warmer temperatures to its inhabitants at the same time.

Amman's weather is comparable to the that of Damas.

Note: The temperatures listed below are taken from the weather station at the centre of the city which is at an elevation of Script error: No such module "convert". above sea level. At higher elevations, the temperatures will be lower during winter and higher during summer. For example, in areas such as Al-Jubaiha, Sweileh, Khalda, Abu Nser which are at/higher than Script error: No such module "convert". above sea level have average temperatures of Script error: No such module "convert". in the day and Script error: No such module "convert". at night in January. In August, the average high temperatures in these areas are Script error: No such module "convert". in the day and Script error: No such module "convert". at night.

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This page is a soft redirect. Climate data for Amman
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

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This page is a soft redirect.Source #1: World Meteorological Organization[10]

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This page is a soft redirect.Source #2: Hong Kong Observatory(sun, 1961–1990)[11]

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The city is administered as the Greater Amman Municipality (GAM) and covers 27 districts which include:[12]

1 Âbdali 4 Qwésmé, Jwaydé, Abu Âlanda and Raqim 7 Müwaqar 10 Bader è Jadida 13 Jbeyha 16 Mārka 19 Ohod 22 Şhafa Badran 25 Tlaâ’l Âli
2 Abu Nsér 5 Yarmuk 8 Mqabalayen 11 Basmān 14 Khraybet essouq 17 Médina 20 Rās ıl Êyn 23 Swéyleh 26 Vādi'l Sér
3 Um-Ožayna 6 Jizah 9 Bader 12 Hüsbān 15 Marj ıl Hamām 18 Naûr 21 Sahāb 24 Tariq 27 Zahrān
File:Aerial photograph of Amman (3).JPG
Aerial photograph of Amman
File:Amman Streets.JPG
View of a roundabout in Amman
File:Rainbow Street - 23 July 2008 (7).JPG
The Rainbow Cinema in Jabal Amman, located on Rainbow Street


City bus

The city's largest airport, Queen Alia International Airport, situated about Script error: No such module "convert". south of Amman, is the major international airport in Jordan and the hub for Royal Jordanian, the flag carrier. The airport expanding was recently done and modified, including the decommissiong of the old terminals and the commission a new terminal costing $700M, to handle over 12 million passengers. Amman Civil Airport is a one-terminal airport that serves primarily domestic and nearby international routes and the military.[13]

The Abdoun Bridge spans Wadi Abdoun and connects the 4th Circle to Abdoun Circle. It is considered one of Amman's many landmarks. It is the first curved suspended bridge to be built.

Currently under construction are dedicated lanes for bus services which will operate as part of the new urban rapid transit network (bus rapid transit). The system includes high-quality stations and stops; express buses that can carry more than 120 passengers and will run on a three-minute frequency during peak hours along Amman’s busiest corridors; terminals and park-n-ride facilities, and an integrated fare collection system allowing passengers to pay the fare at stations before embarking on the bus.[14] The BRT is planned to run along three major corridors. The first corridor connects Sweileh with Mahatta via Sport City with major service to the University of Jordan. The second corridor connects Sport City with downtown at Ras El-Ain. The third corridor connects Customs Square with Mahatta.[15]

There are also plans to construct a three-line metro system in Amman. The first phase consists of two lines, the red and green lines, connecting east, central and west Amman with an interchange station (linking the two lines) at Amman Plaza with connections to the northern and southern suburbs. The second phase consists of the yellow line, connecting north and south Amman with an interchange to the red and green lines at the Abdali and City Hall stations.

There are eight circles, or roundabouts, that span and connect west Amman. However, the city lacks an operable railway or metro system which causes severe congestion, especially in old Amman. To add to the congestion, all the Kingdom's highways pass through Amman, further increasing traffic in the capital.

By land, the city has frequent bus connections to other cities in Jordan, as well as to major cities in neighbouring countries; the latter are also served by service taxis. Internal transport is served by a number of bus routes and taxis. Service taxis, which most often operate on fixed routes, are readily available and inexpensive. The two main bus and taxi stations are Abdali (near the King Abdullah Mosque, the Parliament and Palace of Justice) and the newly built Rağadan Central Bus Station (near the Roman Amphitheatre in the city centre). The city can suffer from considerable traffic congestion at peak hours, especially during the summer months when affluent holidaymakers from the Persian Gulf region spend the summer in Amman to take advantage of its comparatively mild weather.[citation needed]


Amman skyline
Rendered picture of the Al Abdali New Downtown which is currently under construction
File:Souk Jara 4 Jul 2008 (7).JPG
Souk JARA is one of the most famous outdoor markets managed by the Jabal Amman Residents Association (JARA)

Amman is positioning itself as a hub for business, and new projects are continually transforming the city's skyline. Following the 2003 Iraq War, a significant portion of business dealings with Iraq flow through Amman in some way. Its airport, Queen Alia International Airport, is the hub of the national carrier, Royal Jordanian, which is a major airline in the region.[16] The airline is headquartered in central Amman.[17]

Amman, and Jordan as a whole for that matter, is the Middle East's hub for medical tourism as the kingdom receives the most medical tourists in the region and the 5th highest in the world. Amman receives 250,000 foreign patients a year and receives over $1 billion annually.[18]

Rubicon Group Holding and Maktoob, two major regional information technology companies, are based in Amman.

Foreign Investment and Business: In a report by Dunia Frontier Consultants, Amman along with Doha and Dubai are the favored hubs for multinational corporations operating in the Middle East and North Africa region.[2] In FDI magazine, Amman was chosen as the Middle Eastern city with the most potential to be a leader in foreign direct investment in the region, beating Dubai.[19] One of the Middle East's largest banks, Arab Bank, is headquartered in Amman. Also based in Amman is Aramex, the Middle East's largest logistics and transportation company.[19][20] It is also one of the world's largest logistics and transportation companies in the world alongside DHL, FedEx, and UPS. Furthermore, several of the world's largest investment banks have offices in Amman including HSBC, Standard Chartered, Societe Generale, and Citibank.[21]

Tourism: Amman is the 8th most visited city by tourists and business travelers in the Middle East and Africa as well as the 9th highest recipient of international visitor spending. 1.8 million tourists visited the Jordanian capital in 2011 and spent over $1.3 billion in the city.[22] If the entire kingdom is taken into account, there were 8 million tourists in 2010 and $4.4 billion in visitor expenditure, including medical tourists.[23]

The Greater Amman Municipality's heavy investment in its infrastructure, such as the expansion of Queen Alia International Airport, the construction of a state of the art public transportation system, a national railway, and expansion of road works, will ease the arrival of millions of new visitors and tonnes of cargo through this soon to be regional hub.

New developments

New projects and proposals in and around the city include:

  • The Abdali Downtown project: this new development in the heart of Amman is among the largest projects under construction in the kingdom, and is a mixed-use development consisting of retail, outdoor shopping and restaurants, residential and office buildings. The master plan includes a large public green park, along with an outdoor pedestrian strip. The $5 billion project will contain some of Jordan's tallest buildings and most prominent real estate. Jordan's largest skyscraper Capital Tower, Rotana Hotel-Amman, W Hotel-Amman, Business Heights, and the Abdali Central Market Place, Jordan's soon to be largest mall and shopping center, are located in this mammoth redevelopment.[24] The first phase of the project is expected to be completed by the end of 2011 or early 2012. The entire project should be completed by 2015.
  • The construction of the Jordan Gate Towers near the 6th Circle, which has been left uncompleted is being funded by Bahraini and Kuwaiti entrepreneurs. The two identical skyscrapers will house office buildings and a five star hotel.
  • The St. Regis Amman in the Abdoun District is worth $300 million and is planned to open in the first quarter of 2014.[25][26] The project includes a hotel with 270 rooms, 80 luxury apartments and 25 shops.[26]
  • Al Andalucia, being constructed near Amman. This project will include over 600 villas, and consists of many facilities such as spas, fitness and health centres, swimming pools, and a recreation area.

East Amman is the historic city centre. Eastern Amman is more traditional and older than the newer West. Small shops and single-family houses are dominant in East Amman's landscape. East Amman is the hub for the capital's historic sites and cultural activities.

West Amman is the current economic city centre, and is the modern, stylish extension of Amman. Malls, shopping centres, expensive hotels, bars and international restaurants are part of West Amman's development.


In 2010, there were as many as 14 universities in Amman. University of Jordan is the largest university in Amman,[27] Applied Science University was ranked as the largest private university.

See Also: List of universities in Jordan


During its long history, Amman has been inhabited by several civilizations. The first culture on record is during the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B period, around 7250 BC, when archaeological discoveries in 'Ain Ghazal, located in eastern Amman, showed evidence of not only a settled life but also the growth of artistic work, which suggests that a well-developed culture inhabited the area at that time.[28] A megalithic menhir has also been found in Amman at Wadi Saqra.[29]

The archaeological site at the Amman Citadel, also called Jabal al-Qal'a in Arabic, shows evidence of continuous occupation from the Middle Bronze Age to occupation by the MamluksTemplate:Disambiguation needed. It is a major tourist attraction in Amman.[30]


File:Jabel Webdeh Cafe Mbareh.JPG
A historic building in Jabel Lweibdeh
File:Moabite Sarcophagus.jpg
A Moabite sarcophagus in Jordan Archaeological Museum


The New York Times praised the cuisine of Amman. "You’ll find the bright vegetables from Lebanon, crunchy falafels from Syria, juicy kebabs from Egypt and, most recently, spicy meat dishes from Jordan’s neighbor, Iraq. It’s known as the food of the Levant — an ancient word for the area bounded by the Mediterranean Sea and the Arabian peninsula. But the food here isn’t just the sum of its calories. In this politically, religiously and ethnically fraught corner of the world, it is a symbol of bloodlines and identity."[31]

More recently, there has been growing interest in Organic and 'Natural' food (i.e. hormones and chemical free food). This is due to the growing global and local concerns regarding the use of hormones, chemicals, and GMO seeds in industrial agriculture. One way of accessing Organic and Natural Food is through membership schemes offered by Jabbok Farms.[32] Other ways include seasonal farmers markets and retail sales through high-end supermarkets and health stores.


During the 2004 Amman Message conference, edicts from various clergy-members afforded the following schools of thought as garnering collective recognition; Hanafi, Hanbali, Maliki, Shafi'i, Ja'fari, Zahiri, Zaydi, Ibadi, tassawuf-related Sufism, and genuine Salafi/Muwahhidism.[citation needed]


Amman-based football (soccer)clubs Al-Wehdat and Al-Faisaly have won the national football league championship several times.

The 2007 Asian Championships in Athletics and 2009 IAAF World Cross Country Championships were held in the city.

Amman hosts the Jordan Rally, which form part of the FIA World Rally Championship, becoming the biggest sporting event ever held in Jordan. Amman also hosts the Sama Tournament which is a part of the Trillium Championship.

Amman is home to a growing skateboarding community. In 2014, German non-profit organization Make Life Skate Life completed construction of the 7Hills Skatepark, a 650 sq. meter concrete skatepark located at Samir Rifai park in downtown Amman.[33]


There are many radio stations in Jordan, mostly based in Amman. The majority of English speaking stations are targeted to suit the younger listeners playing hit music. There are many Arabic speaking stations that cover the Religious, Factual, Arabic music and other general local topics:

Most Jordanian newspapers and news stations are situated in Amman. Most Jordanian daily newspapers are published in Amman such as Alghad,[34] Ad-Dustour,[35] and the The Jordan Times.[34] In 2010, Alghad newspaper was ranked as 10th most popular newspaper in the Arab World by Forbes Middle-East magazine.[36] Al-Arab Al-Yawm is the only daily pan-Arab newspaper in Jordan.

Main sights

File:Amman Citadel.jpg
Umayyad Palace on the summit of Citadel Hill

Much of Amman's tourism is focused in the older downtown area, which is centred around the old souk (a colourful traditional market) and the King Hussein Mosque. The main touristic sites in the city are:

File:King hussein mosque.jpg
King Hussein Mosque
  • The city centre area (known locally as al-Balad) has been completely dwarfed by the sprawling urban area that surrounds it. Despite the changes, much remains of its old character. Jabal Amman is a known touristic attraction in old Amman, the capital's greatest souks, fine museums, ancient constructions, monuments, and cultural sites are found in Jabal Amman.
  • The Citadel hill of Amman, known as Jabal al-Qal'a, is home to the Temple of Hercules which is said to have been constructed under the Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius who reigned from 161 to 180 AD, is similar to the Temple of Artemis in Ephesus. It has been inhabited for centuries, important as a military and religious site. It dates back to Roman and Byzantine times, and later work was carried out in the early Islamic era. Remains unearthed at the northern and eastern ends of the Citadel, possibly date back to the Bronze Age.
  • The Roman forum and the Roman theatre — the largest theatre in Jordan — with room for 6,000 spectators. Thought to have been built between 138 and 161 AD by the Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius, it is constructed into the side of the mountain and is still used for sports displays and cultural events.

The Jordan Archaeological Museum is home to ancient findings from the whole country.

The newest of mosques is the enormous King Abdullah I Mosque, built between 1982 and 1989. It is capped by a magnificent blue mosaic dome beneath which 3,000 Muslims may offer prayer. The most unusual mosque in Amman is the Abu Darweesh Mosque atop Jabal Ashrafieh (the highest point in the city). It is covered with black and white checkered pattern and is unique to Jordan. It is visible from quite some distance. In contrast, the interior is totally free of the black and white scheme. Instead, there are light coloured walls and Persian carpets. This religious building was erected by one of Amman's Circassian minority.

Tourism and lifestyle

Amman is considered one of the most westernized and liberal cities in the Arab World. Amman has become one of the most popular destinations for Western expats and college students who seek to live, study, or work in the Middle East or the Arab World in general.[37][38] The city's culinary scene has expanded from its shwarma stands and falafel joints to embrace many popular American restaurants and fast-food outlets like McDonald's and T.G.I. Friday's,[39] Asian fusion restaurants, French bistros such as La Maison Verte and Italian trattorias. The city has become famous for its fine dining scene among Western expats and Persian Gulf tourists. Alcohol is widely available in restaurants, bars, nightclubs, and even supermarkets.[40]

There are numerous nightclubs and bars across the city especially in West Amman. As of 2011, there were 77 registered nightclubs in Jordan (excluding bars and pubs), overwhelmingly located in the capital city.[41] Abdoun Circle (not one of the eight) is a major center of the city’s night life where the chicest clubs maintain a strict “couples only” policy, meaning no unescorted men. Sweifieh is considered to be the unofficial red-light district of Amman as it holds most of the city's nightclubs, bars, strip-clubs, massage parlors, and other adult entertainment venues. Jabal Amman and Jabal al-Weibdeh are home to many pubs and bars as well making the area popular among bar hoppers.[40]

One of Amman's new up-scale suburbs
File:Tila' al Ali.jpg
Tela' al Ali, Amman

Nightclubs, music bars and shisha lounges have sprouted across Amman, changing the city's old image as the conservative capital of the kingdom. Jordan's young population is helping shape this new burgeoning nightlife scene.[42]

As well as the wide range of drinking and dancing venues on the social circuit of the city's affluent crowd, Amman has much cultural entertainment to indulge in like the annual Amman Summer Festival and Souk Jara.[43]

Valued at more than US $5 Billion, the Abdali project is planned to create a new visible center for Amman and act as the major business district. The project includes Jordan's new high street and mall, luxury hotels and apartments as well as start-of-the-art offices. The entire project is expected to be finished by 2015.[44]

File:City Mall Amman (P).jpg
City Mall, one of Amman's mega malls

Large malls were built during the 2000s in Amman, including the Mecca Mall, Abdoun Mall, Amman Mall, City Mall, Plaza Mall, Albaraka Mall, Istikal Mall, Taj Mall (in Abdoun), Zara Shopping Center, Sweifieh Avenue Mall, and Mukhtar Mall. Further, Abdali Mall in Al Abdali is under construction. The Wakalat Street ("Agencies Street") is Amman's first pedestrian-only street and carries a lot of label name clothes. The Sweifieh area in general is considered to be the main shopping district of Amman.

Twin towns — sister cities

Amman is twinned with:[45]

  1. REDIRECT Template:Country data Honduras Tegucigalpa, Honduras (2002)

See also

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  1. ^ Amman’s population rises to around 4 million — Biltaji
  2. ^ a b "Dunia Frontier Consultants » Doha, Amman Favored by MNCs as New Regional Hubs". 2012-01-25. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  3. ^ IANS/WAM (2010-11-26). "Abu Dhab duke City' in MENA region". sify news. 
  4. ^ "Amman". Retrieved 2013-11-24. 
  5. ^ "Amman Centennial | From the end of the Umayyad era till 1878". 2010-02-12. Archived from the original on 2010-02-12. Retrieved 2013-03-25. 
  6. ^ a b Reem Khamis-Dakwar; Karen Froud (2014). Perspectives on Arabic Linguistics XXVI: Papers from the annual symposium on Arabic Linguistics. New York, 2012. John Benjamins Publishing Company. p. 31. ISBN 9027269688. 
  7. ^ "Average Weather In October For Amman, Jordan". WeatherSpark. 2012-10-26. Retrieved 2013-03-25. 
  8. ^ Cite error: The named reference was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  9. ^ ""Ever-growing Amman", Jordan: Urban expansion, social polarisation ands contemporary urban planning issues" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-11-24. 
  10. ^ "World Weather Information Service – Amman". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved February 22, 2013. 
  11. ^ "Climatological Information for Amman, Jordan". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved February 22, 2013. 
  12. ^ "Greater Amman Municipality - GAM Interactive". Retrieved 2013-11-24. 
  13. ^ "Accelerating passenger growth at Jordan’s QAIA suggests confidence returning". Al Bawaba. 2011-08-01. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  14. ^ "BRT project on track – GAM | Jordan Business News | Amman Social Business Events | Press Release & opinions". Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  15. ^ "Internet Archive Wayback Machine". 2010-08-30. Archived from the original on 2010-08-30. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  16. ^ "Royal Jordanian". oneworld. Retrieved 2010-07-04. 
  17. ^ [1][dead link]
  18. ^ "‘Jordan remains medical tourism hub despite regional unrest’". The Jordan Times. 2012-03-18. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  19. ^ a b "Foreign Direct Investment | Iraq Business News – Part 2". Iraq Business News. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  20. ^ Hussein Hachem (2011-05-24). "Aramex MEA: the Middle East's biggest courier firm – Lead Features – Business Management Middle East | GDS Publishing". Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  21. ^ "Courier Companies of the World". PRLog. 2009-08-18. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  22. ^ MasterCard Worldwide. "MasterCard Worldwide's Global Destination Cities Index". Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  23. ^ "Periodical Islamic Chamber Of Commerce & Industry Magazine". Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  24. ^ "The Abdali Boulevard". Retrieved 2010-07-04. 
  25. ^ "Starwood Hotels & Resorts And Al Maabar Announce Plans To Debut The First St. Regis Hotel In Jordan". Zawya. 11 January 2011. Retrieved 26 October 2013. 
  26. ^ a b "$300m hotel for Jordan". The National. 10 January 2011. Retrieved 26 October 2013. 
  27. ^ [2][dead link]
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  29. ^ BAR S2317, Maison de l’Orient Méditerranéen, "Pierres levées, stèles anthropomorphes et dolmens / Standing stones, anthropomorphic stelae and dolmens" edited by Tara Steimer-Herbet; Maison de l’Orient et de la Méditerranée Jean Pouilloux. ISBN 9781407309002, 210 pages; illustrated throughout; papers in English and French, 2011
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External links

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This page is a soft redirect. rowspan=11 style="text-align: center" #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.Amman

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