Open Access Articles- Top Results for Andropause


Andropause — also known as male menopause[1] — is said to be the result of a gradual drop in testosterone, which is an androgen. The medical community is currently debating whether or not men really do go through a well-defined menopause.[1] The condition "andropause" is currently not recognized by the World Health Organization. When andropause occurs, it is considered to be a deficiency state in which the hormone testosterone goes below the normal range for an aging male.[2][verification needed]

Andropause is caused by the reduction of hormones testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone in middle-aged men. Testosterone assists the male body in building protein and it is crucial for normal sexual drive and stamina. Testosterone also contributes to several metabolic functions including bone formation, and liver function. Andropause is also associated with a decrease in Leydig cells.[3] A steady decline in testosterone levels with age (in both men and women) is well documented.[4]

Risk factors

External factors that can[5] cause testosterone levels to fall include certain forms of medication, poor diet, excessive alcohol consumption, illness, lack of sleep, lack of sex, stress, or surgery. It can also be a symptom of neuroendocrine dysfunction after a mild traumatic brain injury.[6]

Internal causes

Andropause is preceded by a condition called Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.[7] A downturn in the circulation of testosterone can cause the hypothalamus and pituitary gland to trigger a release of brain hormones that stimulate the testicles to ramp up production of testosterone.[8]

Although, as men age, despite low testosterone the levels of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) will not rise. The luteinizing hormone, gonadotropic releasing hormone, and testosterone all are dropping below what is considered normal. Low GnRH, low LH, low testosterone indicate the syndrome of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and it is a downward trend that takes men closer to andropause. This phenomenon typically begins in the early forties.

Eventually, testosterone levels drop to such low levels, the hypothalamus and pituitary kick in and produce high levels of GnRH and LH to compensate. This triggers the production of testosterone, which will generally work for a while, but then will fall again. That's when men enter andropause. They have a low testosterone and a high LH and GnRH, whereas before they had a low testosterone as well as low LH and GnRH.

This shift in hormonal patterns occurs in all men at some point. The female version, a similar hormonal shift that occurs in women happens in a more narrow age grouping, from early forties to late fifties.[9]


Testosterone levels decline gradually with age. Unlike females going through menopause, the decline in testosterone in men is gradual, and there is variation among individuals.[10] Upon reaching 80 years of age, the rate of testosterone secretion has decreased about 50% for men.[10]

The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists defines hypogonadism as a testosterone level that is below the lower limit of normal for young adult control subjects[11]

Researchers conclude there is no black-and-white cutoff for "low" or "suboptimal" testosterone. Different symptoms show up at different testosterone thresholds: Muscle mass and strength do not decline until testosterone drops quite low (significantly below normal levels) whereas libido may dampen with relatively small decreases in the hormone.[12] According to Joel Finkelstein, associate director of the Bone Density Center at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, men’s functioning is not impaired solely by a loss of testosterone, but by a loss of estrogen as well.[11]

Agreement on the threshold of testosterone values below which a man would be considered hypogonadal has not been reached. Testosterone can be measured as "free" (that is, bioavailable and unbound) or, more commonly, "total" (including the percentage that is chemically bound and unavailable). In the United States, male total testosterone levels below 300 ng/dl from a morning serum sample (most accurate measurement) are generally considered low.[13] To confirm the low levels of testosterone, doctors recommend repeating the measurement of morning total testosterone.[14]


Proponents of andropause as a distinct condition claim that it is a biological change experienced by men during mid-life, and often compare it to female menopause. Menopause, however, is a complete cessation of reproductive ability caused by the shutting down of the female reproductive system. Andropause is a decline in the male hormone testosterone. This drop in testosterone levels is considered to lead to in some cases erectile dysfunction, diabetes, loss of energy and concentration, depression, and mood swings. While andropause does not cause a man's reproductive system to stop working altogether, many experience symptoms of it impotence.

Much of the current popular interest in the concept of andropause has been fueled by the book Male Menopause, written by Jed Diamond, a lay person.[15] According to Diamond's view, andropause is a change of life in middle-aged men, which has hormonal, physical, psychological, interpersonal, social, sexual, and spiritual aspects. Diamond claims that this change occurs in all men, generally between the ages of 40 and 55, though it can occur as early as 35 or as late as 65. The term "male menopause" may be a misnomer, as unlike women, men's reproductive systems do not cease to work completely in mid-life; some men continue to father children late into their lives (at age 90 or older[16]). But Diamond claims that, in terms of other life impacts, women's and men’s experience are somewhat similar phenomena.[17][18][19]

The concept of andropause is perhaps more widely accepted in Australia and some parts of Europe than it is in the United States.[20]


Many clinicians believe that andropause is not a valid concept. Men can continue to reproduce into old age; their reproductive systems do not stop working completely in midlife, and therefore they do not exhibit the sudden and dramatic drops in hormone levels characteristic of women going through menopause.

Other clinicians have the opinion that andropause is simply synonymous with hypogonadism or unusually low testosterone levels.[19] There is opposition to the concept of andropause in Europe as well as the U.S.[21]

Some clinicians argue that many of the cited symptoms are not specific enough to warrant describing a new condition. For example, people who are overweight may be misguided into treating a new illness rather than addressing the lifestyle that led to their being overweight. Similarly, energy levels vary from person to person, and for people who are generally inactive, energy levels will automatically be lower overall.

While it is true that active and otherwise healthy men could in theory develop andropause-like symptoms, how common and widespread the phenomenon is, and whether genetics, lifestyle, environment, or a combination of factors are responsible, is not yet known.


The significance of a decrease in testosterone levels is debated and its treatment with replacement is controversial. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) stated in 2015 that neither the benefits nor the safety of testosterone have been established for low testosterone levels due to aging.[22][23] The FDA has required that testosterone pharmaceutical labels include warning information about the possibility of an increased risk of heart attacks and stroke.[22][23]

According to the The American Society of Andrology in 2009, testosterone replacement therapy is recommended when both clinical symptoms and signs of androgen deficiency and decreased testosterone levels are present in aging men.[24]

People with borderline testosterone levels may warrant a trial of testosterone according to some endocrinologists in 2003.[25]

Testosterone supplemental therapy is sometimes recommended to improve sense of well being, muscle mass, strength, and bone density in men.[26]

Adverse effects

Adverse effects of testosterone supplementation include increased cardiovascular events (including strokes and heart attacks) and deaths).[27] The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) stated in 2015 that neither the benefits nor the safety of testosterone have been established for low testosterone levels due to aging.[22][23] The FDA has required that testosterone pharmaceutical labels include warning information about the possibility of an increased risk of heart attacks and stroke.[22][23]

Other significant adverse effects of testosterone supplementation include acceleration of pre-existing prostate cancer growth in individuals who have undergone androgen deprivation; increased hematocrit, which can require venipuncture in order to treat; and, exacerbation of sleep apnea.[28] Adverse effects may also include minor side-effects such as acne and oily skin, as well as, significant hair loss and/or thinning of the hair, which may be prevented with 5-alpha reductase inhibitors ordinarily used for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia, such as finasteride or dutasteride.[29] Exogenous testosterone may also cause suppression of spermatogenesis, leading to, in some cases, infertility.[30] It is recommended that physicians screen for prostate cancer with a digital rectal exam and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level before starting therapy, and monitor PSA and hematocrit levels closely during therapy.[31]


The impact of low levels of testosterone has been previously reported. In 1944, Heller and Myers identified symptoms of what they labeled the "male climacteric" including loss of libido and potency, nervousness, depression, impaired memory, the inability to concentrate, fatigue, insomnia, hot flushes, and sweating. Heller and Myers found that their subjects had lower than normal levels of testosterone, and that symptoms decreased dramatically when patients were given replacement doses of testosterone.[32]

Andropause may also be associated with Alzheimer's disease, according to a 2007 study.[33]

Society and culture


The term "symptomatic late onset hypogonadism" (or "SLOH") is sometimes considered to refer to the same condition as the word "andropause".[34][35]

Some researchers prefer the term "androgen deficiency of the aging male" ("ADAM"), to more accurately reflect the fact that the loss of testosterone production is gradual and asymptotic[36] (in contrast to the more abrupt change associated with menopause.[37]) The "D" is sometimes given as "decline" instead of "deficiency". In some contexts, the term "partial androgen deficiency in aging males" ("PADAM") is used instead.[38]

See also


  1. ^ a b "Male Menopause". Archived from the original on 12 December 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-17. 
  2. ^ “MedPage Today”, Testosterone Decline With Aging: What Is Normal?, October 3, 2012
  3. ^ Mahmoud A, Comhaire FH (2006). "Mechanisms of disease: late-onset hypogonadism". Nat Clin Pract Urol 3 (8): 430–8. PMID 16902519. doi:10.1038/ncpuro0560. 
  4. ^ Mooradian AD, Korenman SG (2006). "Management of the cardinal features of andropause". Am J Ther 13 (2): 145–60. PMID 16645432. doi:10.1097/01.mjt.0000132252.80403.c9. 
  5. ^ "Male Menopause". NHS Choices. Retrieved 15 October 2014. 
  6. ^ "DCoE Clinical Recommendation [[File:Redirect arrow without text.svg|46px|#REDIRECT|link=]][[:mw:Help:Magic words#Other|mw:Help:Magic words#Other]]
    This page is a [[Wikipedia:Soft redirect|soft redirect]].[[Category:Wikipedia soft redirects|Andropause]] August 2012 Indications and Conditions for Neuroendocrine Dysfunction Screening Post Mild Traumatic Brain Injury"
    (PDF). DCOE Defense Centers of Excellence. Retrieved 2 December 2013.
      Wikilink embedded in URL title (help)
  7. ^ "Testosterone Deficiency (Primary Hypogonadism and Secondary/Hypogonadotrophic Hypogonadism)". What is Testosterone Deficiency. Virtual Medical Center. 
  8. ^ Florence Comite (November 21, 2013). "Why You Should Avoid Carbs at Bedtime". Men's Health. Retrieved October 24, 2014. 
  9. ^ "Hormonal Expression of Androgen Decline in Aging Men (ADAM)". Florence Comite. The Endocrine Society. 
  10. ^ a b Borst, S.E.; Mulligan, T (2007). "Testosterone Replacement Therapy for Older Men". Clinical Interventions in Aging 4 (2). 
  11. ^ a b “US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health”, Differential effects on bone of estrogen receptor α and androgen receptor activation in orchidectomized adult male mice, October 22, 2003
  12. ^ “WebMD”, Testosterone Not the Whole Story in 'Male Menopause', September 11, 2014
  13. ^ ‘’The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Blood Testosterone Threshold for Androgen Deficiency Symptoms, July 2, 2013
  14. ^
  15. ^ Diamond, Jed (1998). Male Menopause. Naperville, Ill: Sourcebooks. ISBN 1-57071-397-9. 
  16. ^ "Father, 90, shows off new baby" -, retrieved 9/08/07
  17. ^ Cetel, Nancy (2002). Double Menopause: What to Do When Both You and Your Mate Have Hormonal Changes Together. New York: Wiley. ISBN 0-471-40262-1. 
  18. ^ Diamond, Jed (2000). Surviving Male Menopause. A Guide for Women and Men. Naperville, Ill: Sourcebooks. ISBN 1-57071-433-9. 
  19. ^ a b Tan, Robert S. (2001). The andropause mystery: unraveling truths about the male menopause. Houston, Tex: AMRED Pub. ISBN 0-9707061-0-3. 
  20. ^ Carruthers, Malcolm (2004). Androgen Deficiency in the Aging Male. London: Taylor & Francis Group. ISBN 1-84214-032-9. 
  21. ^ Juul, A.; Skakkebaek, N. E. (2002). "Testosterone treatment of elderly men. The so called andropause doesn't exist.". Ugeskr. Laeg. (in Danish) 164 (42): 4941–2. PMID 12416079. 
  22. ^ a b c d Staff (3 March 2015). "Testosterone Products: Drug Safety Communication - FDA Cautions About Using Testosterone Products for Low Testosterone Due to Aging; Requires Labeling Change to Inform of Possible Increased Risk of Heart Attack And Stroke". FDA. Retrieved 5 March 2015. 
  23. ^ a b c d Tavernise, Sabrina (March 3, 2015). "Drugs Using Testosterone Will Label Heart Risks". New York Times. Retrieved March 19, 2015. 
  24. ^ “Harvard Medical School and Harvard Health Publication”, A Harvard expert shares his thoughts on testosterone-replacement therapy, March, 2009
  25. ^ Guay AT, Spark RF, Bansal S, Cunningham GR, Goodman NF, Nankin HR, Petak SM, Perez JB (2003). "American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists medical guidelines for clinical practice for the evaluation and treatment of male sexual dysfunction: a couple's problem—2003 update" (PDF). Endocr Pract 9 (1): 77–95. PMID 12917096. doi:10.4158/EP.9.1.77. 
  26. ^ Bhasin, S.; Cunningham, G.R; Hayes, F.J; Matsumoto, A. M; Snyder, P.J; Swerdloff, R.S; Montori, V.M (2010). "Testosterone Therapy in Men with Androgen Deficiency Syndromes: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 95 (6). doi:10.1210/jc.2009-2354. 
  27. ^ Finkle WD, Greenland S, Ridgeway GK, Adams JL, Frasco MA, Cook MB, Fraumeni JF, Hoover RN (January 2014). "Increased Risk of Non-fatal Myocardial Infarction Following Testosterone Therapy Prescription in Men" (PDF). PLoS ONE 9 (1): e85805. PMC 3905977. PMID 24489673. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0085805. 
  28. ^ Pastuszak, A. W.; Pearlman, A. M.; Lai, W. S.; Godoy, G; Sathyamoorthy, K; Liu, J. S.; Miles, B. J.; Lipshultz, L. I.; Khera, M (2013). "Testosterone replacement therapy in patients with prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy". The Journal of Urology 190 (2): 639–44. PMID 23395803. doi:10.1016/j.juro.2013.02.002.  edit
  29. ^ “Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety”, Adverse effects of testosterone replacement therapy: an update on the evidence and controversy, October 2004
  30. ^ "Contraceptive efficacy of testosterone-induced azoospermia in normal men. World Health Organization Task Force on methods for the regulation of male fertility". Lancet 336 (8721): 955–9. October 1990. PMID 1977002. doi:10.1016/0140-6736(90)92416-F. 
  31. ^ “National Academy of Sciences”, Testosterone and Aging: Clinical Research Directions, 2004
  32. ^ Heller, C.G., Myers, G.B., "The Male climacteric: Its symptomatology, diagnosis and treatment." JAMA 1944; 126:472-77.
  33. ^ Fuller SJ, Tan RS, Martins RN (2007). "Androgens in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease in aging men and possible therapeutic interventions". J. Alzheimers Dis. 12 (2): 129–42. PMID 17917157. 
  34. ^ "Columbia Presbyterian - Department of Urology". Retrieved 2007-12-17. [dead link]
  35. ^ "There's help for "grumpy old men", but they're reluctant to admit to problem, says Queen's urologist". Retrieved 2007-12-17. 
  36. ^ Morales A (2004). "Andropause (or symptomatic late-onset hypogonadism): facts, fiction and controversies". Aging Male 7 (4): 297–303. PMID 15799125. doi:10.1080/13685530400016664. 
  37. ^ "What is Hypogonadism". AgeWait. 
  38. ^ Tancredi A, Reginster JY, Luyckx F, Legros JJ (2005). "No major month to month variation in free testosterone levels in aging males. Minor impact on the biological diagnosis of 'andropause'". Psychoneuroendocrinology 30 (7): 638–46. PMID 15854780. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2005.02.002. 

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