Open Access Articles- Top Results for Anogenital distance

Anogenital distance

Anogenital distance (AGD) is the distance from the anus to the genitalia, the base of the penis or vagina. It is considered medically significant for a number of reasons, in both humans and animals. It is regulated by dihydrotestosterone, which can be disrupted by phthalates common in plastics. Such endocrine disruption may affect the development of the brain.

In humans

Studies show that the human perineum is twice as long in males as in females,[1] but males have more variance. Measuring the anogenital distance in neonatal humans has been suggested as a noninvasive method to determine male feminisation and thereby predict neonatal and adult reproductive disorders.[2]

A study by Swan et al. determined that the AGD is linked to fertility in males, not penis size.[3] Males with an abnormally short AGD (lower than the median around 52 mm (2 in)) have seven times the chance of being sub-fertile as those with a longer AGD. It is linked to both semen volume and sperm count.[4] A lower than median AGD also increases the likelihood of undescended testes, and lowered sperm counts and testicular tumors in adulthood. Babies with high total exposure to phthalates were ninety times more likely to have a short AGD, despite not every type of the nine phthalates tested being correlated with shorter AGD.[3]

Swan et al. report that the levels of phthalates associated with significant AGD reductions are found in approximately one-quarter of Americans tested by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for phthalate body burdens.[3]

Women who had high levels of phthalates in their urine during pregnancy gave birth to sons who were ten times more likely to have shorter than expected AGDs.[5]


Hypospadias and cryptorchidism are conditions which may be induced in males with short AGD.,[6] [7] Other problems in males include risk of testicular dysgenesis syndrome.[8]

In animals

There have been extensive studies of AGD effects on animals. In some animals it is routinely measured to determine health.

Experiments have demonstrated that in rodent studies this distance is shortened when the mother is exposed to chemicals that are anti-androgenic, such as dibutyl phthalate (DBP) or benzylbutyl phthalate (BBzP).

Interestingly enough, bisphenol A in certain doses increases the AGD of both genders of a study on mice.[9]


The anogenital index (AGI) is an index used to measure the AGD.[8] It is computed as the AGD divided by weight [AGI = AGD/weight (mm/kg)].[10]

See also


  1. ^ "Validity of anogenital distance as a marker of in utero phthalate exposure". Journal 114 (1): A19–20. January 2006. PMC 1332693. PMID 16393642. doi:10.1289/ehp.114-a19b. 
  2. ^ Welsh, Michelle et al. (13 March 2008). "Identification in rats of a programming window for reproductive tract masculinization, disruption of which leads to hypospadias and cryptorchidism". Journal of Clinical Investigation. 
  3. ^ a b c Swan, Shanna H. et al. (August 2005). "Decrease in Anogenital Distance among Male Infants with Prenatal Phthalate Exposure". Environmental Health Perspectives 8 (113): 1056–1061. doi:10.1289/ehp.8100. Retrieved 2011-08-24. Lay Swan et al., "Decrease in Anogenital Distance among Male Infants with Prenatal Phthalate Exposure". 
  4. ^ Zabarenko, Deborah (4 April 2011). "Key genital measurement linked to male fertility". Reuters. Retrieved 2011-08-24. 
  5. ^ Swan SH, Sathyanarayana S, Barrett ES, Janssen S, Liu F, Nguyen RH, Redmon JB; TIDES Study Team. (April 2015). "First trimester phthalate exposure and anogenital distance in newborns". Human Reproduction 30 (4): 963–972. PMID 25697839. doi:10.1093/humrep/deu363. 
  6. ^ Hsieh MH, Breyer BN, Eisenberg ML, Baskin LS (March 2008). "Associations among hypospadias, cryptorchidism, anogenital distance, and endocrine disruption". Current Urology Report 2 (9): 137–142. PMID 18419998. 
  7. ^ Jain VG, Singal AK (September 2013). "Shorter anogenital distance correlates with undescended testis: a detailed genital anthropometric analysis in human newborns.". Human Reproduction 9 (28): 2343–9. PMID 23838161. doi:10.1093/humrep/det286. 
  8. ^ a b Hood, Ernie (October 2005). "Are EDCs Blurring Issues of Gender?". Environmental Health Perspectives 10 (113): A670–A677. PMC 1281309. PMID 16203228. doi:10.1289/ehp.113-a670. Retrieved 2001-08-24. 
  9. ^ Honma S, Suzuki A, Buchanan DL, Katsu Y, Watanabe H, Iguchi T (2002). "Low dose effect of in utero exposure to bisphenol A and diethylstilbestrol on female mouse reproduction". Reproductive Toxicology 16 (2): 117–22. PMID 11955942. doi:10.1016/S0890-6238(02)00006-0. Retrieved 2001-08-24. 
  10. ^ Swan, S.; Main, K.; Liu, F.; Stewart, S.; Kruse, R.; Calafat, A.; Mao, C.; Redmon, J.; Ternand, C.; Sullivan, S.; Teague, J. L.; Study for Future Families Research Team (2005). "Decrease in anogenital distance among male infants with prenatal phthalate exposure". Environmental health perspectives 113 (8): 1056–1061. PMC 1280349. PMID 16079079. doi:10.1289/ehp.8100.  edit
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