Antley–Bixler syndrome, also called trapezoidocephaly-synostosis syndrome, is a rare, very severe autosomal recessive congenital disorder characterized by malformations and deformities affecting the majority of the skeleton and other areas of the body.
Antley–Bixler syndrome presents itself at birth or prenatally. Features of the disorder include brachycephaly (flat forehead), craniosynostosis (complete skull-joint closure) of both coronal and lambdoid sutures, facial hypoplasia (underdevelopment); bowed ulna (forearm bone) and femur (thigh bone), synostosis of the radius (forearm bone), humerus (upper arm bone), and trapezoid (hand bone); camptodactyly (fused interphalangeal joints in the fingers), thin ilial wings (outer pelvic plate), and renal malformations.
Other symptoms, such as cardiac malformations, proptotic exophthalmos (bulging eyes), arachnodactyly (spider-like fingers), as well as nasal, anal, and vaginal atresia (occlusion) have been reported.
There are two distinct genetic mutations associated with the Antley–Bixler syndrome phenotype, which suggests the disorder may be genetically heterogeneous.
Antley–Bixler syndrome is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, which means the defective gene is located on an autosome, and two copies of the gene (one inherited from each parent) are required to be born with the disorder. The parents of an individual with an autosomal recessive disorder both carry one copy of the defective gene but are usually not affected by the disorder.
Antley–Bixler syndrome is named after Drs. Ray M. Antley (b. 1936) and David Bixler (b. 1940), who first described the disorder in a journal report from 1975.
- ^ Online 'Mendelian Inheritance in Man' (OMIM) 207410
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- ^ synd/226 at Who Named It?
- ^ Antley R, Bixler D (1975). "Trapezoidocephaly, midfacial hypoplasia and cartilage abnormalities with multiple synostoses and skeletal fractures". Birth Defects Orig. Artic. Ser. 11 (2): 397–401. PMID 1227559.