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Open Access Articles- Top Results for Apolipoprotein C3

Apolipoprotein C3

Template:Infobox3cols/rowTemplate:Infobox3cols/rowTemplate:Infobox3cols/rowTemplate:Infobox3cols/row
Identifiers
SymbolsAPOC3 ; APOCIII; HALP2
External IDsOMIM107720 MGI88055 HomoloGene81615 GeneCards: APOC3 Gene
RNA expression pattern
File:PBB GE APOC3 205820 s at tn.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
SpeciesHumanMouse
Entrez34511814
EnsemblENSG00000110245ENSMUSG00000032081
UniProtP02656P33622
RefSeq (mRNA)NM_000040NM_023114
RefSeq (protein)NP_000031NP_075603
Location (UCSC)Chr 11:
116.7 – 116.7 Mb
Chr 9:
46.23 – 46.24 Mb
PubMed search[1][2]

Apolipoprotein C-III also known as apo-CIII is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOC3 gene. Apo-CIII is a component of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL).

Structure

ApoC-III
Identifiers
Symbol ApoC-III
Pfam PF05778
InterPro IPR008403

ApoCIII is a relatively small protein containing 79 amino acids that can be glycosylated at threonine-74.[1] The most abundant glycoforms are characterized by an O-linked disaccharide galactose linked to N-acetylgalactosamine (Gal- GalNAc), further modified with up to 2 sialic acid residues. Less abundant glycoforms are characterized by more complex and fucosylated glycan moieties.[2]

Function

APOC3 inhibits lipoprotein lipase and hepatic lipase; it is thought to inhibit hepatic uptake[3] of triglyceride-rich particles. The APOA1, APOC3 and APOA4 genes are closely linked in both rat and human genomes. The A-I and A-IV genes are transcribed from the same strand, while the A-1 and C-III genes are convergently transcribed. An increase in apoC-III levels induces the development of hypertriglyceridemia. Recent evidences suggest an intracellular role for Apo-CIII in promoting the assembly and secretion of triglyceride-rich VLDL particles from hepatic cells under lipid-rich conditions. [4] However, two naturally occurring point mutations in human apoC3 coding sequence, namely Ala23Thr and Lys58Glu have been shown to abolish the intracellular assembly and secretion of triglyceride-rich VLDL particles from hepatic cells.[5] [6]

Clinical significance

Two novel susceptibility haplotypes (specifically, P2-S2-X1 and P1-S2-X1) have been discovered in ApoAI-CIII-AIV gene cluster on chromosome 11q23; these confer approximately threefold higher risk of coronary heart disease in normal[7] as well as non-insulin diabetes mellitus.[8]Apo-CIII delays the catabolism of triglyceride rich particles. Elevations of Apo-CIII found in genetic variation studies may predispose patients to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

Interactive pathway map

Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective articles. [§ 1]

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  1. ^ The interactive pathway map can be edited at WikiPathways: "Statin_Pathway_WP430". 

See also

Apolipoprotein CIII is also on HDL partilcles.

External links


References

  1. ^ Vaith P, Assmann G, Uhlenbruck G (Jun 1978). "Characterization of the oligosaccharide side chain of apolipoprotein C-III from human plasma very low density lipoproteins". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 541 (2): 234–40. PMID 208636. doi:10.1016/0304-4165(78)90396-3. 
  2. ^ Nicolardi S, van der Burgt YE, Dragan I, Hensbergen PJ, Deelder AM (May 2013). "Identification of new apolipoprotein-CIII glycoforms with ultrahigh resolution MALDI-FTICR mass spectrometry of human sera". Journal of Proteome Research 12 (5): 2260–8. PMID 23527852. doi:10.1021/pr400136p. 
  3. ^ Mendivil CO, Zheng C, Furtado J, Lel J, Sacks FM (Feb 2010). "Metabolism of very-low-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein containing apolipoprotein C-III and not other small apolipoproteins". Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 30 (2): 239–45. PMC 2818784. PMID 19910636. doi:10.1161/ATVBAHA.109.197830. 
  4. ^ Sundaram M, Zhong S, Bou Khalil M, Links PH, Zhao Y, Iqbal J et al. (Jan 2010). "Expression of apolipoprotein C-III in McA-RH7777 cells enhances VLDL assembly and secretion under lipid-rich conditions". Journal of Lipid Research 51 (1): 150–161. PMID 19622837. doi:10.1194/M900346-JLR200. 
  5. ^ Sundaram M, Zhong S, Bou Khalil M, Zhou H, Jiang ZG, Zhao Y et al. (Jun 2010). "Functional analysis of the missense APOC3 mutation Ala23Thr associated with human hypotriglyceridemia". Journal of Lipid Research 51 (6): 1524–1534. PMID 20097930. doi:10.1194/jlr.M005108. 
  6. ^ Qin W, Sundaram M, Wang Y, Zhou H, Zhong S, Chang CC et al. (Aug 2011). "Missense mutation in APOC3 within the C-terminal lipid binding domain of human ApoC-III results in impaired assembly and secretion of triacylglycerol-rich very low density lipoproteins: evidence that ApoC-III plays a major role in the formation of lipid precursors within the microsomal lumen". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 286 (31): 27769–27780. PMID 21676879. doi:10.1074/jbc.M110.203679. 
  7. ^ Singh P, Singh M, Kaur TP, Grewal SS (Nov 2008). "A novel haplotype in ApoAI-CIII-AIV gene region is detrimental to Northwest Indians with coronary heart disease". International Journal of Cardiology 130 (3): e93–5. PMID 17825930. doi:10.1016/j.ijcard.2007.07.029. 
  8. ^ Singh P, Singh M, Gaur S, Kaur T (Jun 2007). "The ApoAI-CIII-AIV gene cluster and its relation to lipid levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease: determination of a novel susceptible haplotype". Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research 4 (2): 124–29. PMID 17654446. doi:10.3132/dvdr.2007.030. 

Further reading

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