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Open Access Articles- Top Results for Arab Winter

Arab Winter

The Arab Winter[1][2][3][4][5] is a term for the wide-scale violence and instability evolving in the aftermath of the 2013 Arab Spring protests in Arab League countries. The Arab Winter is referring to the events across the Arab World, including the Syrian Civil War,[6][7] the Iraqi insurgency,[8] the Egyptian Crisis,[9] and the Crisis in Yemen.[10] Political developments, particularly the restoration of authoritarianism and suppression of civil liberties, in Egypt since 3 July 2013 have been described as constituting a "military winter" that functioned in opposition to the goals of the Arab Spring.[11][12] The arenas of Lebanon, Libya and Bahrain were also identified as areas of the Arab Winter.[13] Libya was put as a scene of the Arab Winter, together with Syria, by Prof. Sean Yom.[14] The Northern Mali conflict was often described as part of the "Islamist Winter".[15] The Arab Winter is characterized by the emergence of multiple regional civil wars, mounting regional instability,[16] economic and demographic decline of Arab countries,[13] and ethno-religious sectarian strife.[17] According to a study by the American University of Beirut, as of summer 2014 the Arab Winter resulted in nearly a quarter of a million deaths and millions of refugees.[18]

According to the Moshe Dayan Center for Middle Eastern and African Studies, as of January 2014, the cost of Arab Winter upheaval across the Arab World is some 800 billion USD.[13] Some 16 million people in Syria, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, and Turkey are expected to require humanitarian assistance in 2014.[13]

The Syrian conflict began with protests against president Bashar al-Assad. After armed conflict broke out, support for Islamist groups such as the al-Nusra front grew as other groups like the Free Syrian Army were accused of corruption and criminality.[19][20] This war has also created spillovers in Lebanon[21] and Iraq.[22]

Events have taken place in Egypt that led to the removal of Mohamed Morsi and institution of military rule from al-Sisi in an anti-Muslim brotherhood campaign.[23] Various militias and tribes have started fighting in Libya after a breakdown in negotiations.[14] Changes have also occurred in Tunisia involving a change in government.[23]

See also

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References

  1. ^ "Middle East review of 2012: the Arab Winter". The Telegraph. Retrieved 2014-07-19. 
  2. ^ "Analysis: Arab Winter is coming to Baghdad". The Telegraph. The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 8 October 2014. 
  3. ^ "Expert Warns of America's Coming 'Arab Winter'". CBN. Retrieved 8 October 2014. 
  4. ^ "The Arab Winter". The New Yorker. Retrieved 8 October 2014. 
  5. ^ "Arab Spring or Arab Winter?". The New Yorker. Retrieved 8 October 2014. 
  6. ^ Fear and Faith in Paradise. Retrieved 23 October 2014. 
  7. ^ "Arab Winter". America Staging. Retrieved 23 October 2014. 
  8. ^ "Analysis: Arab Winter is coming to Baghdad". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 23 October 2014. 
  9. ^ "Egypt and Tunisia’s new ‘Arab winter’". Euro news. Retrieved 23 October 2014. 
  10. ^ "Yemen’s Arab winter". Middle East Eye. Retrieved 23 October 2014. 
  11. ^ "The Coup in Egypt: An Arab Winter?". The Nation. 5 July 2013. Retrieved 1 November 2014. 
  12. ^ "In Egypt, Arab Spring Gives Way To Military Winter". The World Post. The Huffington Post. 21 January 2014. Retrieved 1 November 2014. 
  13. ^ a b c d Rivlin, P (Jan 2014), Iqtisadi (PDF), Dayan Research Center .
  14. ^ a b "Lecture Explores Past and Future Arab Spring". The Daily Gazette. Oct 10, 2014. Retrieved 19 October 2014. 
  15. ^ "In Mali AQ achieved to infiltrate and take over Tuareg insurgency. If AQ succeeds to keep the Arab Spring countries destabilized, this will lead to a viral reproduction of Azawad scenario. AQ is the “Islamic Winter”." [1]
  16. ^ "From Egypt to Syria, this could be the start of the Arab Winter". The Conversation. 17 April 2014. Retrieved 23 October 2014. 
  17. ^ Malmvig, Lassen (2013), Arab uprisings: regional implication (PDF), IEMED .
  18. ^ "Displacement in the Middle East and North Africa – between the Arab Winter and the Arab Spring" (PDF), International Affairs (LB: AUB), Aug 28, 2013 .
  19. ^ "Jabhat Al Nusra", The Economis, Dec 2012 .
  20. ^ Syrian opposition groups compete for influence, Stratfor .
  21. ^ "Lebanon under fire", The Daily Star (LB) 
  22. ^ "Iraq, Syria civil war challenges both us & Iran", The Nation .
  23. ^ a b "Egypt & Tunisia’s new Arab winter", Euro news, Feb 8, 2013 .

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