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Arabinose

Arabinose
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IUPAC name
Arabinose
Other names
Pectinose
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147-81-9 7pxY
10323-20-3 (D) 7pxY
5328-37-0 (L) 7pxY
ChEBI CHEBI:46983 7pxY
ChemSpider 59687 7pxY
EC-number 205-699-8
Jmol-3D images Image
Image
PubChem Template:Chembox PubChem/format
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C5H10O5
Molar mass Lua error in Module:Math at line 495: attempt to index field 'ParserFunctions' (a nil value). g·mol−1
Appearance Colorless crystals as prisms or needles
Density 1.585 g/cm3 (20 ºC)
Melting point Script error: No such module "convert".
Soluble
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NFPA 704

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Related aldopentoses
Ribose
Xylose
Lyxose
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Arabinose is an aldopentose – a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms, and including an aldehyde (CHO) functional group.

For biosynthetic reasons, most saccharides are almost always more abundant in nature as the "D"-form, or structurally analogous to D-glyceraldehyde.[note 1] However, L-arabinose is in fact more common than D-arabinose in nature and is found in nature as a component of biopolymers such as hemicellulose and pectin.

The L-arabinose operon, also known as the araBAD operon, has been the subject of much biomolecular research. The operon directs the catabolism of arabinose in E. coli, and it is dynamically activated in the presence of arabinose and the absence of glucose.[2]

A classic method for the organic synthesis of arabinose from glucose is the Wohl degradation.[3]

D-Arabinose
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α-D-Arabinofuranose
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β-D-Arabinofuranose
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α-D-Arabinopyranose
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β-D-Arabinopyranose

Etymology

Arabinose gets its name from gum arabic, from which it was first isolated.[4]

Use

In synthetic biology, arabinose is often used as a one-way or reversible switch for protein expression under the Pbad promoter in E. coli. This on-switch can be negated by the presence of glucose or reversed off by the addition of glucose in the culture medium which is a form of catabolite repression.[5]

Some organic acid tests check for the presence of arabinose, which may indicate overgrowth of intestinal yeast such as Candida albicans or other yeast/fungus species.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ For sugars, the D/L nomenclature does not refer to the molecule's optical rotation properties but to its structural analogy to glyceraldehyde.

References

  1. ^ Weast, Robert C., ed. (1981). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (62nd ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. p. C-110. ISBN 0-8493-0462-8. 
  2. ^ Watson, James (2003). Molecular Biology of the Gene. p. 503. 
  3. ^ Braun, Géza (1940). "D-Arabinose". Org. Synth. 20: 14. ; Coll. Vol. 3, p. 101 
  4. ^ Merriam Webster Dictionary
  5. ^ Guzman LM, Belin D, Carson MJ, Beckwith J. Tight regulation, modulation, and high-level expression by vectors containing the arabinose PBAD promoter. J Bacteriol. 1995 Jul;177(14):4121-30