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Open Access Articles- Top Results for Araucaria angustifolia

Araucaria angustifolia

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Araucaria angustifolia
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Scientific classification
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This page is a soft redirect. Araucaria angustifolia
(Bertol.) Kuntze

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Araucaria angustifolia, the Paraná pine, Brazilian pine or candelabra tree (pinheiro-do-paraná, araucária or pinheiro brasileiro), is a species in the conifer genus Araucaria. Although the common names in various languages refer to the species as a "pine", it is not a true pine.

Distribution

Covering an original area of Script error: No such module "convert".,[2] it is native to southern Brazil (sometimes found in high-altitude areas of southern Minas Gerais, southern Rio de Janeiro and in the east and south of São Paulo, but more typically in the states of Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul), according to a study made by the Brazilian researcher, Maack, the original area of occurrence represented 36.67% of the Paraná state (Script error: No such module "convert".), 60.13% of the Santa Catarina state (Script error: No such module "convert".), 21.6% of the São Paulo state (Script error: No such module "convert".) and 17.38% of the Rio Grande do Sul state (Script error: No such module "convert".);[2] it is also found in the northeast of Argentina (Misiones and Corrientes) and locally in Paraguay (Alto Paraná), growing in low mountains at altitudes of Script error: No such module "convert"..

Description

File:Auraucaria angsmall1.jpg
A very young Araucaria angustifolia
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Araucaria angustifolia cones (pinhas) and nuts (pinhões)

It is an evergreen tree growing to Script error: No such module "convert". tall and Script error: No such module "convert". diameter at breast height. The leaves are thick, tough and scale like, triangular, Script error: No such module "convert". long, Script error: No such module "convert". broad at the base, and with razor-sharp edges and tip. They persist 10 to 15 years, so cover most of the tree except for the trunk and older branches. It is closely related to Araucaria araucana from further southwest in South America, differing most conspicuously in the narrower leaves.

It is usually dioecious, with the male and female cones on separate trees. The male (pollen) cones are oblong, Script error: No such module "convert". long at first, expanding to Script error: No such module "convert". long by Script error: No such module "convert". broad at pollen release. Like all conifers it is wind pollinated. The female cones (seed), which mature in autumn about 18 months after pollination, are globose, large, Script error: No such module "convert". in diameter, and hold about 100–150 seeds. The cones disintegrate at maturity to release the approximately Script error: No such module "convert". long nut-like seeds, which are then dispersed by animals, notably the azure jay, Cyanocorax caeruleus.

Uses

The seeds, similar to large pine nuts, are edible, and are extensively harvested in southern Brazil (Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul states), a habit particularly important for the region's small population of Native Americans. The seeds, called pinhão [piˈɲɐ̃w̃] are popular as a winter snack. The city of Lages, in Santa Catarina state, holds a popular pinhão fair, in which hot wine and boiled araucaria seeds are consumed. In Brazil, Script error: No such module "convert". of seeds are collected annually which, combined with extensive logging, seriously threatens the regeneration of the species. The seeds are very important for the native animals. Several mammals and birds eat pinhão, and it has an important ecological role in Araucaria moist forests (a sub-type of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest). The species is widely used in folk medicine.[3]

It prefers well drained, slightly acidic soil but will tolerate almost any soil type provided drainage is good. It requires a subtropical climate with abundant rainfall, tolerating occasional frosts down to about Script error: No such module "convert".. It is a popular garden tree in subtropical areas, planted for its unusual effect of the thick, 'reptilian' branches with a very symmetrical appearance.

See also

References

  1. ^ Thomas, P. (2013). "Araucaria angustifolia". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved March 23, 2014. 
  2. ^ a b Helton Damin da Silva, Antonio F. Jurado Bellote, Carlos Alberto Ferreira & Itamar Antonio Bognola (2001). "Recomendação de solos para Araucaria angustifolia com base nas suas propriedades físicas e químicas" (PDF). Boletim de Pesquisa Florestal 43: 61–74. 
  3. ^ A. M. Freitas, M. T. R. Almeida, C. R. Andrighetti-Fröhner, F. T. G. S. Cardozo, C. R. M. Barardi, M. R. Farias & C. M. O. Simões (2009). "Antiviral activity-guided fractionation from Araucaria angustifolia leaves extract". Journal of Ethnopharmacology 126 (3): 512–517. PMID 19761825. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2009.09.005. 

External links