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Astrological symbols

Astrological symbols are images used in various astrological systems to denote relevant objects. A number of such images are shown below.

History and origin

Symbols for the classical planets, zodiac signs, aspects, lots, and the lunar nodes appear in the medieval Byzantine codices in which many ancient horoscopes were preserved.[1] In the original papyri of these Greek horoscopes, there were found a circle with the glyph representing shine(old sun symbol) for the Sun and a crescent for the Moon.[2] The written symbols for Mercury, Venus, Jupiter, and Saturn have been traced to forms found in late Greek papyri.[3] The symbols for Jupiter and Saturn are identified as monograms of the initial letters of the corresponding Greek names, and the symbol for Mercury is a stylized caduceus.[3] A. S. D. Maunder finds antecedents of the planetary symbols in earlier sources, used to represent the gods associated with the classical planets. Bianchini's planisphere, produced in the 2nd century,[4] shows Greek personifications of planetary gods charged with early versions of the planetary symbols: Mercury has a caduceus; Venus has, attached to her necklace, a cord connected to another necklace; Mars, a spear; Jupiter, a staff; Saturn, a scythe; the Sun, a circlet with rays radiating from it; and the Moon, a headdress with a crescent attached.[5] A diagram in Johannes Kamateros' 12th century Compendium of Astrology shows the Sun represented by the circle with a ray, Jupiter by the letter zeta (the initial of Zeus, Jupiter's counterpart in Greek mythology), Mars by a shield crossed by a spear, and the remaining classical planets by symbols resembling the modern ones, without the cross-mark seen in modern versions of the symbols.[5] The modern sun symbol, pictured as a circle with a dot (☉), first appeared in the Renaissance.[2]

Symbols for Uranus and Neptune were created shortly after their discovery. For Uranus, two variant symbols are seen. One symbol, Uranus, invented by J. G. Köhler and refined by Bode, was intended to represent the newly discovered metal platinum; since platinum, commonly called white gold, was found by chemists mixed with iron, the symbol for platinum combines the alchemical symbols for iron, ♂, and gold, ☉.[6][7] Another symbol, Uranus, was suggested by Lalande in 1784. In a letter to Herschel, Lalande described it as "un globe surmonté par la première lettre de votre nom" ("a globe surmounted by the first letter of your name").[8] After Neptune was discovered, the Bureau des Longitudes proposed the name Neptune and the familiar trident for the planet's symbol.[9]

The astrological symbols for the first three objects discovered at the beginning of the 19th century —Ceres, Pallas, and Juno—were also created after their discovery. Firstly, they were listed as planets, and half a century later, renamed as Asteroids. Shortly after Giuseppe Piazzi's discovery of Ceres, a group of astronomers ratified the name, proposed by the discoverer, and chose the sickle as a symbol of the planet.[10] The symbol for Pallas, the spear of Pallas Athena, was invented by Baron Franz Xaver von Zach, and introduced in his Monatliche Correspondenz zur Beförderung der Erd- und Himmels-Kunde.[11] Karl Ludwig Harding, who discovered and named Juno, assigned to it the symbol of a scepter topped with a star.[12]

The modern astrological symbol for Vesta was created by Eleanor Bach,[13] who is credited with pioneering the use of the Big Four asteroids with the publication of her Ephemerides of the Asteroids.[14] Bach's symbol for Vesta is a simplified version of other representations of Vesta's altar.[13] The original form of the symbol for Vesta, Vesta, was created by German mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauss. Dr. Olbers, having previously discovered and named one new planet (as the asteroids were then classified), gave Gauss the honor of naming his newest discovery. Gauss decided to name the planet for the goddess Vesta, and also specified that the symbol should be the altar of the goddess with the sacred fire burning on it.[15][16]

Pluto, like Uranus, has two symbols in use. One symbol, a monogram of the letters PL (which could be interpreted to stand for Pluto or for astronomer Percival Lowell), was announced with the name of the new planet by the discoverers on May 1, 1930.[17] The other symbol, which was popularized in Paul Clancy's astrological publications, is based on the symbol for Mercury, with the circle and arc of Mercury trading positions. This symbol is described by Dane Rudhyar as "suggest[ing] the planetary character of the Pluto mind by the circle, floating above the open cup." Although, this meaning is readily debatable due to Blavatskian origins, rather than a properly traditional understanding, such as may be found in the hermetic sciences.[18]

The symbol for the centaur Chiron, a key with the letter K (for discoverer Charles T. Kowal) was proposed by astrologer Al Morrison, who presented the symbol as "an inspiration shared amongst Al H. Morrison, Joelle K.D. Mahoney, and Marlene Bassoff."[19]

The symbol for retrograde motion is ℞, a capital R with a tail stroke.[20][21][22] An R with a tail stroke was used to abbreviate many words beginning with the letter R; in medical prescriptions, it abbreviated the word recipe[23] (from the Latin imperative of recipere "to take"[24]), and in missals, an R with a tail stroke marked the responses.[23]

Meanings of the symbols

Astrological planets

Further information: Planets in astrology

The glyphs of the planets are usually (but not always) broken down into four common elements: A circle denoting spirit, a crescent denoting the mind, a cross denoting practical/physical matter and an arrow denoting action or direction.[25]

Name Symbol Symbol represents Meaning of symbol
Sun Sol Solar symbol (circled dot) Divine spirit (circle) surrounding seed of potential
Moon First quarter moon A crescent moon Mind or evolving human spirit through receptivity (crescent)
Mercury Mercury Mercury's winged helmet and caduceus Mind (crescent) poised over divine spirit (circle) and matter (cross)
Venus Venus Venus's hand mirror. Divine spirit (circle) over matter (cross)
Earth Earth Earth; a Solar symbol (sun cross) Planet Earth — the cardinal directions. C.f. Globus cruciger
Mars Mars Mars's shield and spear. Drive (arrow) over divine spirit (circle)
Ceres Ceres Scythe (handle down), emblematic of Ceres as goddess of the Harvest. A stylized sickle, a crescent of receptivity resting on a cross of matter.
Jupiter Jupiter Jupiter's thunderbolt or eagle Mind (crescent) rising above the horizon of matter (cross)
Saturn Saturn Saturn's sickle Matter (cross) taking precedence over mind or human spirit (crescent)
Uranus Uranus H in symbol taken from discoverer's last name, Herschel The circle of spirit and a dominant cross of matter, in form of an antenna that uses matter as a way to insight.
Uranus Derived from a combination of the Mars and Sun symbols Astronomical glyph often used astrologically. Drive over a divine spirit (circle) surrounding seed of potential
Neptune Neptune Neptune's trident Mind or receptivity (crescent) transcending matter (cross)
Pluto Pluto (alternate) Modification of Neptune's astrological symbol Mind (crescent) transcending matter (cross) to reach for divine spirit (circle)
Pluto PL monogram for Pluto and Percival Lowell Astronomical symbol often used astrologically

Signs of the zodiac

Further information: Zodiac and Astrological sign
Name Meaning Symbol Image Symbol Represents
Aries Ram 20px Face and horns of ram
Taurus Bull 20px Face and horns of bull
Gemini Twins 20px Companion
Cancer Crab 20px Crab's claws
Leo Lion 20px A script form of the Greek letter "lambda", which is the first letter of the Greek word leon, which means "lion"
Virgo Virgin 20px Derived from the Greek letters ΠΑΡ, which are the first three letters of the Greek word parthenos, which means "virgin"
Libra Scale 20px Scales
Scorpio Scorpion 20px Stinger of a scorpion
Sagittarius Archer 20px Arrow of the centaur
Capricorn[26] Sea-goat or mountain goat 20px Body and head of a goat with the tail of a fish or face and horns of goat.
x20px
Aquarius Waterbearer 20px Ripples of water; sometimes modernly viewed as bolts of lightning, waves of aether, or electrically-charged water
Pisces Fish 20px Two fish tied together yet swimming in opposite directions

Aspects

Further information: Astrological aspects
Name Symbol Angle Explanation
Conjunction 20px Two or more planets in the same sign

A circle with a line implying two objects are in the same place (also, the starting point of an angle)

Semisextile 20px 30° One sign apart

The intersecting lines from the inner angles of the upper half of a hexagon (see Sextile)

Semi-square 25px 45° (also known as the "octile" or "semiquartile")

The bisecting line of a right angle (see Square)

Sextile 25px 60° Two signs apart

The intersecting lines from the inner angles of a hexagon

Quintile 25px 72°
Square 20px 90° (also known as the "quartile")/Three signs apart/Same modality

A regular quadrilateral that represents the right angle

Trine 25px 120° Four signs apart/Same elemental triplicity

An equilateral triangle.

Sesquiquadrate 20px 135° (also known as the "sesquisquare," "square-and-a-half," and/or "trioctile")

The glyph of the Semi-Square under the glyph of the Square, implying the sum of them both

Biquintile 25px 144°
Quincunx 25px 150° (also known as the "inconjunct")/Five signs apart

The intersecting lines from the inner angles of the lower half of a hexagon (see Sextile)

Opposition 20px 180° Six signs apart

The glyph of the Conjunction plus a circle on top of its line, implying two objects are in front (opposed) of each other.

Lunar phases

Further information: Lunar phase and Lunation type
Name Symbol[27][28] Explanation
New moon New moon Denotes the new moon or a soli-lunar arc in the range 0°-45°.
Crescent moon Crescent moon Denotes a waxing crescent moon or a soli-lunar arc in the range 45°-90°.
First quarter moon First quarter moon Denotes a first quarter moon or a soli-lunar arc in the range 90°-135°.
Gibbous moon Gibbous moon Denotes a waxing gibbous moon or a soli-lunar arc in the range 135°-180°.
Full moon Full moon Denotes a full moon or a soli-lunar arc in the range 180°-225°.
Disseminating moon Disseminating moon Denotes a waning gibbous moon or a soli-lunar arc in the range 225°-270°.
Last quarter moon Last quarter moon Denotes a last quarter moon or a soli-lunar arc in the range 270°-315°.
Balsamic moon Balsamic moon Denotes a waning crescent moon or a soli-lunar arc in the range 315°-360°.

Miscellaneous symbols

Name Symbol Symbol represents Explanation
Ascendant 20px Angle The ascendant (also known as the "ascensum coeli") is the rising intersection of the ecliptic with the celestial horizon at a particular moment in time; it is used in the construction of a horoscope/natal chart
Midheaven 20px Angle The midheaven (also known as the "medium coeli") is the point where the ecliptic crosses the local meridian; it is used in the construction of a horoscope/natal chart
Ascending Node 20px Lunar node Not all astrologers use the lunar nodes; however, their usage is very important in Vedic astrology. They are alternately known as the "Dragon's Head" (Rahu, Caput Draconis, or Anabibazon) and the "Dragon's Tail" (Ketu, Cauda Draconis, or Catabibazon). The two nodes together are most commonly referred to simply as the nodal axis, the lunar nodes, or the Moon's nodes.
Descending Node 20px Lunar node
Black Moon Lilith 25px Lunar apogee The traditional Black Moon Lilith is the position of the mean lunar apogee as measured from the geocenter; variants of the Black Moon include replacing the mean orbit with a "true" osculating orbit or with an interpolated orbit; charting the empty focus of the Moon's orbit instead of the apogee; and measuring the desired point's barycentric or topocentric position instead of its geocentric position.[29]
Retrograde motion 20px Apparent retrograde motion Symbol represents the apparent retrograde motion of a planet in an astrological chart
Comet 25px Comet Different comets often use different symbols, but the use of comets is not widespread in mainstream astrology
2 Pallas Pallas Asteroid A spear (variant has triangle on top)
Alchemical symbol for sulfur (both variants) see also Asteroids in astrology)
10 Hygiea Hygiea Asteroid A serpent coiled around Asclepius' rod
Hygiea Two serpents coiled around the rod. (Alternative astrological symbol)
3 Juno Juno Asteroid The scepter (of a queen, Juno is the Roman equivalent of Greek Hera) topped with a star
4 Vesta Vesta Asteroid The fire on the hearth or altar (Roman equivalent of Greek Hestia)
2060 Chiron Chiron Centaur Stylized body of a centaur (the circle is the horse part, the K-like glyph is the human part)
Lot of fortune 15px Lot Glyph for planet Earth rotated 45 degrees.
Eris Eris Dwarf planet An Eye of Providence; proposed by astrologer Zane B. Stein[30]
Eris The Hand of Eris; also used non-astrologically by Discordians[30]
Eris In use by astrologers in Poland and by the astrology software Urania[30][31]
Eris Based on the symbols for Pluto, Mars, and Venus; proposed by Henry Seltzer and used in Time Passages[30][32]

Unicode encodings

Symbol Image Unicode[33] Glyph
Sun Sol U+2609
Sol U+1F71A 🜚
Moon First quarter moon U+263D
Last quarter Moon U+263E
Mercury Mercury U+263F
Venus Venus U+2640
Earth Earth U+1F728 🜨
Mars Mars U+2642
Jupiter Jupiter U+2643
Saturn Saturn U+2644
Uranus Uranus U+2645
Uranus U+26E2
Neptune Neptune U+2646
1 Ceres Ceres U+02A1 ʡ
2 Pallas Pallas U+26B4
3 Juno Juno U+26B5
4 Vesta Vesta U+26B6
10 Hygiea Hygiea U+2695
2060 Chiron Chiron U+26B7
Eris Eris not present --
Eris not present --
Eris ≈ U+2641
Eris ≈ U+29EC
Pluto Pluto U+2647
Pluto (alternate) not present --
Aries 25px U+2648
Taurus 25px U+2649
Gemini 25px U+264A
Cancer 25px U+264B
Leo 25px U+264C
Virgo 25px U+264D
Libra 25px U+264E
Scorpio 25px U+264F
Sagittarius 14px U+2650
Capricorn 25px U+2651
x25px
Aquarius 25px U+2652
Pisces 25px U+2653
Conjunction 25px U+260C
Semisextile 25px U+26BA
Semi-square 25px ≈ U+2220
Sextile 25px U+26B9
Quintile 25px U+0051 Q
Square 25px U+25A1
Trine 25px U+25B3
Sesquiquadrate 25px U+26BC
Biquintile 25px U+0062 U+0051 bQ
Quincunx 25px U+26BB
Opposition 25px U+260D
New moon New moon U+1F311 🌑
Crescent moon Crescent moon U+1F312 🌒
First quarter moon First quarter moon U+1F313 🌓
Gibbous moon Gibbous moon U+1F314 🌔
Full moon Full moon U+1F315 🌕
Disseminating moon Disseminating moon U+1F316 🌖
Last quarter moon Last quarter moon U+1F317 🌗
Balsamic moon Balsamic moon U+1F318 🌘
Ascendant 25px not plain text ASC
Midheaven 25px not plain text MC
Ascending node 25px U+260A
Descending node 25px U+260B
Black Moon Lilith 25px U+26B8
Retrograde motion 25px ≈ U+211E
Lot of fortune 25px ≈ U+2297
Comet 25px U+2604

See also

References

  1. Neugebauer, Otto (1975). A history of ancient mathematical astronomy. pp. 788–789. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 Neugebauer, Otto; Van Hoesen, H. B. (1987). Greek Horoscopes. pp. 1, 159, 163. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 Jones, Alexander (1999). Astronomical papyri from Oxyrhynchus. pp. 62–63.  "It is now possible to trace the medieval symbols for at least four of the five planets to forms that occur in some of the latest papyrus horoscopes ([ P.Oxy. ] 4272, 4274, 4275 [...]). That for Jupiter is an obvious monogram derived from the initial letter of the Greek name. Saturn's has a similar derivation [...] but underwent simplification. The ideal form of Mars' symbol is uncertain, and perhaps not related to the later circle with an arrow through it. Mercury's is a stylized caduceus."
  4. "Bianchini's planisphere". Florence, Italy: Istituto e Museo di Storia della Scienza (Institute and Museum of the History of Science). Retrieved 2010-03-17. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 Maunder, A. S. D. (1934). "The origin of the symbols of the planets". The Observatory 57: 238–247. Bibcode:1934Obs....57..238M. 
  6. Bode, J. E. (1784). Von dem neu entdeckten Planeten. pp. 95–96. 
  7. Gould, B. A. (1850). Report on the history of the discovery of Neptune. Smithsonian Institution. p. 5. 
  8. Francisca Herschel (1917). "The meaning of the symbol H+o for the planet Uranus". The Observatory. Bibcode:1917Obs....40..306H. 
  9. Gould, B. A. (1850). Report on the history of the discovery of Neptune. Smithsonian Institution. p. 22. 
  10. Bode, J. E., ed. (1801). Berliner astronomisches Jahrbuch führ das Jahr 1804. pp. 97–98. 
  11. von Zach, Franz Xaver (1802). Monatliche Correspondenz zur Beförderung der Erd- und Himmels-Kunde, Volume 6. pp. 95-96.
  12. von Zach, Franz Xaver (1804). Monatliche Correspondenz zur Beförderung der Erd- und Himmels-Kunde 10. p. 471. 
  13. 13.0 13.1 "Asteroid Symbols". Retrieved 2010-05-20. 
  14. "Memorial for Astrologer, Eleanor Bach". Retrieved 2010-05-20. 
  15. von Zach, Franz Xaver (1807). Monatliche Correspondenz zur Beförderung der Erd- und Himmels-Kunde 15. p. 507. 
  16. Carlini, Francesco (1808). Effemeridi astronomiche di Milano per l'anno 1809. 
  17. Rudhyar, Dane (1966). "PART FIVE: Mercury and Pluto". The Planets and their Symbols. Retrieved 2010-05-20. 
  18. Morrison, Al H. (1977). "Chiron". CAO Times 3: 57. 
  19. Randall, Sidney (2006). The ABC of the Old Science of Astrology. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-59605-920-7. ...the ℞ with the stroke across the tail stands for Retrograde. 
  20. Lilly, William (1659). Christian Astrology. pp. 35, 37.  A chart with ℞ by a retrograde Jupiter appears on p. 35; on p. 37, describing the construction of the chart, Lilly says: "And because [Jupiter] is noted Retrograde I place the letter R, the better to informe my judgement."
  21. (Booth, Janet (2005). "Mercury Retrograde". JanetsPlan-Its.com. Retrieved 2010-10-20. The symbol for retrograde looks like an ”R” with an “X” going through it, the same as the symbol for a prescription. 
  22. 23.0 23.1 Smith, Frances Gurney, ed. (1852). "The Medical Examiner, and record of medical science" 8. p. 804. 
  23. "Recipe definition". M-w.com. 2007-04-25. Retrieved 2010-01-22. 
  24. Glyphs of the general astrological and Uranian planets
  25. Behari, Bepin (2003). Myths & Symbols of Vedic Astrology. p. 155. Of the two emblems related to [Capricorn], one is a horizontal line terminating with a downward moving arc ending with a loop having an extended arc x15px, and the other has a V-shaped beginning whose downward arc convexing to the right x15px. 
  26. Rudhyar, Dane. "The Eight Lunation Types", from Your Lunation Birthday.
  27. Meyer, Michael R. "Key to Symbols", from KhaldeaEphemeris7z, p. 5.
  28. Revilla, Juan Antonio. "The Black Moon Apogee and its Variants". Retrieved 2010-08-20. 
  29. 30.0 30.1 30.2 30.3 Stein, Zane. Chiron and Friends - What's Out Past Pluto?
  30. Astrological symbols of planets, zodiac signs and aspects
  31. Seltzer, Henry. Hail Eris!
  32. "Unicode 6.0 Character Code Charts". Archived from the original on 10 October 2010. Retrieved 2010-10-11. 

External links