|Symbols||; ALL; BCR1; CML; D22S11; D22S662; PHL|
|External IDs||IUPHAR: ChEMBL: GeneCards:|
|Bcr-Abl oncoprotein oligomerisation domain|
File:PDB 1k1f EBI.jpg|
structure of the bcr-abl oncoprotein oligomerization domain
The breakpoint cluster region protein (BCR) also known as renal carcinoma antigen NY-REN-26 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BCR gene. BCR is one of the two genes in the BCR-ABL complex, which is associated with the Philadelphia chromosome. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.
Although the BCR-ABL fusion protein has been extensively studied, the function of the normal BCR gene product is not clear. The protein has serine/threonine kinase activity and is a GTPase-activating protein for RAC1 and CDC42.
A reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 22 and 9 produces the Philadelphia chromosome, which is often found in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia. The chromosome 22 breakpoint for this translocation is located within the BCR gene. The translocation produces a fusion protein that is encoded by sequence from both BCR and ABL, the gene at the chromosome 9 breakpoint.
The Bcr-Abl oncoprotein oligomerisation domain found at the N-terminus of BCR is essential for the oncogenicity of the BCR-ABL fusion protein. The Bcr-Abl oncoprotein oligomerisation domain consists of a short N-terminal helix (alpha-1), a flexible loop and a long C-terminal helix (alpha-2). Together these form an N-shaped structure, with the loop allowing the two helices to assume a parallel orientation. The monomeric domains associate into a dimer through the formation of an antiparallel coiled coil between the alpha-2 helices and domain swapping of two alpha-1 helices, where one alpha-1 helix swings back and packs against the alpha-2 helix from the second monomer. Two dimers then associate into a tetramer.
BCR gene has been shown to interact with:
- "Entrez Gene: Breakpoint cluster region".
- "Entrez Gene: BCR breakpoint cluster region".
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- Maru Y, Peters KL, Afar DE, Shibuya M, Witte ON, Smithgall TE (February 1995). "Tyrosine phosphorylation of BCR by FPS/FES protein-tyrosine kinases induces association of BCR with GRB-2/SOS". Mol. Cell. Biol. 15 (2): 835–42. PMC 231961. PMID 7529874.
- Million RP, Van Etten RA (July 2000). "The Grb2 binding site is required for the induction of chronic myeloid leukemia-like disease in mice by the Bcr/Abl tyrosine kinase". Blood 96 (2): 664–70. PMID 10887132.
- Ma G, Lu D, Wu Y, Liu J, Arlinghaus RB (May 1997). "Bcr phosphorylated on tyrosine 177 binds Grb2". Oncogene 14 (19): 2367–72. PMID 9178913. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1201053.
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- Liedtke M, Pandey P, Kumar S, Kharbanda S, Kufe D (October 1998). "Regulation of Bcr-Abl-induced SAP kinase activity and transformation by the SHPTP1 protein tyrosine phosphatase". Oncogene 17 (15): 1889–92. PMID 9788431. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1202117.
- Park AR, Oh D, Lim SH, Choi J, Moon J, Yu DY et al. (2012). "Regulation of dendritic arborization by BCR Rac1 GTPase-activating protein, a substrate of PTPRT". J. Cell. Sci. 125 (Pt 19): 4518–31. PMID 22767509. doi:10.1242/jcs.105502.
- Takeda N, Shibuya M, Maru Y (January 1999). "The BCR-ABL oncoprotein potentially interacts with the xeroderma pigmentosum group B protein". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96 (1): 203–7. PMC 15117. PMID 9874796. doi:10.1073/pnas.96.1.203.