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Baroque music

Periods and eras of
Western classical music
Early period
Medieval era c. 500–1400
Renaissance era c. 1400–1600
Common practice period
Baroque era c. 1600–1760
Classical era or period c. 1730–1820
Romantic era c. 1780–1910
Impressionist era c. 1875-1925
Modern and contemporary period
Modern and high modern (style era) c. 1890–1975
20th century (calendar era) 1900–2000
Contemporary or postmodern (style era) c. 1975–present
21st century (calendar era) 2000–present

Baroque music is a style of Western art music composed from approximately 1600 to 1750.[1] This era followed the Renaissance, and was followed in turn by the Classical era. The word "baroque" comes from the Portuguese word barroco, meaning misshapen pearl,[2] a negative description of the ornate and heavily ornamented music of this period. Later, the name came to apply also to the architecture of the same period.

Baroque music forms a major portion of the "classical music" canon, being widely studied, performed, and listened to. Composers of the Baroque era include Johann Sebastian Bach, George Frideric Handel, Alessandro Scarlatti, Domenico Scarlatti, Antonio Vivaldi, Henry Purcell, Georg Philipp Telemann, Jean-Baptiste Lully, Arcangelo Corelli, Tomaso Albinoni, François Couperin, Denis Gaultier, Claudio Monteverdi, Heinrich Schütz, Jean-Philippe Rameau, Jan Dismas Zelenka, and Johann Pachelbel.

The Baroque period saw the creation of tonality. During the period, composers and performers used more elaborate musical ornamentation, made changes in musical notation, and developed new instrumental playing techniques. Baroque music expanded the size, range, and complexity of instrumental performance, and also established opera, cantata, oratorio, concerto, and sonata as musical genres. Many musical terms and concepts from this era are still in use today.


History of European art music

The term "Baroque" is generally used by music historians to describe a broad range of styles from a wide geographic region, mostly in Europe, composed over a period of approximately 150 years.[1]

Although it was long thought that the word as a critical term was first applied to architecture, in fact it appears earlier in reference to music, in an anonymous, satirical review of the première in October 1733 of Rameau's Hippolyte et Aricie, printed in the Mercure de France in May 1734. The critic implied that the novelty in this opera was "du barocque," complaining that the music lacked coherent melody, was filled with unremitting dissonances, constantly changed key and meter, and speedily ran through every compositional device.[1]

The systematic application by historians of the term "baroque" to music of this period is a relatively recent development. In 1919, Curt Sachs became the first to apply the five characteristics of Heinrich Wölfflin's theory of the Baroque systematically to music.[3] Critics were quick to question the attempt to transpose Wölfflin's categories to music, however, and in the second quarter of the 20th century independent attempts were made by Manfred Bukofzer (in Germany and, after his immigration, in America) and by Suzanne Clercx-Lejeune (in Belgium) to use autonomous, technical analysis rather than comparative abstractions, in order to avoid the adaptation of theories based on the plastic arts and literature to music. All of these efforts resulted in appreciable disagreement about time boundaries of the period, especially concerning when it began. In English the term acquired currency only in the 1940s, in the writings of Bukofzer and Paul Henry Lang.[1]

As late as 1960 there was still considerable dispute in academic circles, particularly in France and Britain, whether it was meaningful to lump together music as diverse as that of Jacopo Peri, Domenico Scarlatti, and J.S. Bach under a single rubric. Nevertheless, the term has become widely used and accepted for this broad range of music.[1] It may be helpful to distinguish the Baroque from both the preceding (Renaissance) and following (Classical) periods of musical history.


The Baroque period is divided into three major phases: early, middle, and late. Although they overlap in time, they are conventionally dated from 1580 to 1630, from 1630 to 1680, and from 1680 to 1730.[4]

Early baroque music (1580–1630)

File:Claudio Monteverdi.jpg
Claudio Monteverdi in 1640

The Florentine Camerata was a group of humanists, musicians, poets and intellectuals in late Renaissance Florence who gathered under the patronage of Count Giovanni de' Bardi to discuss and guide trends in the arts, especially music and drama. In reference to music, they based their ideals on a perception of Classical (especially ancient Greek) musical drama that valued discourse and oration.[5] As such, they rejected their contemporaries' use of polyphony and instrumental music, and discussed such ancient Greek music devices as monody, which consisted of a solo singing accompanied by a kithara.[6] The early realizations of these ideas, including Jacopo Peri's Dafne and L'Euridice, marked the beginning of opera,[7] which in turn was somewhat of a catalyst for Baroque music.[8]

Concerning music theory, the more widespread use of figured bass (also known as thorough bass) represents the developing importance of harmony as the linear underpinnings of polyphony.[9] Harmony is the end result of counterpoint, and figured bass is a visual representation of those harmonies commonly employed in musical performance.[10] Composers began concerning themselves with harmonic progressions,[11] and also employed the tritone, perceived as an unstable interval,[12] to create dissonance. Investment in harmony had also existed among certain composers in the Renaissance, notably Carlo Gesualdo;[13] However, the use of harmony directed towards tonality, rather than modality, marks the shift from the Renaissance into the Baroque period.[14] This led to the idea that chords, rather than notes, could provide a sense of closure—one of the fundamental ideas that became known as tonality.

By incorporating these new aspects of composition, Claudio Monteverdi furthered the transition from the Renaissance style of music to that of the Baroque period. He developed two individual styles of composition – the heritage of Renaissance polyphony (prima pratica) and the new basso continuo technique of the Baroque (seconda pratica). With the writing of the operas L'Orfeo and L'incoronazione di Poppea among others, Monteverdi brought considerable attention to the new genre of opera.[15]

Middle baroque music (1630–1680)

The rise of the centralized court is one of the economic and political features of what is often labelled the Age of Absolutism, personified by Louis XIV of France. The style of palace, and the court system of manners and arts he fostered became the model for the rest of Europe. The realities of rising church and state patronage created the demand for organized public music, as the increasing availability of instruments created the demand for chamber music.[16]

The middle Baroque period in Italy is defined by the emergence of the cantata, oratorio, and opera during the 1630s, and a new concept of melody and harmony that elevated the status of the music to one of equality with the words, which formerly had been regarded as pre-eminent. The florid, coloratura monody of the early Baroque gave way to a simpler, more polished melodic style. These melodies were built from short, cadentially delimited ideas often based on stylized dance patterns drawn from the sarabande or the courante. The harmonies, too, might be simpler[clarification needed] than in the early Baroque monody, and the accompanying bass lines were more integrated with the melody, producing a contrapuntal equivalence of the parts that later led to the device of an initial bass anticipation of the aria melody. This harmonic simplification also led to a new formal device of the differentiation of recitative and aria. The most important innovators of this style were the Romans Luigi Rossi and Giacomo Carissimi, who were primarily composers of cantatas and oratorios, respectively, and the Venetian Francesco Cavalli, who was principally an opera composer. Later important practitioners of this style include Antonio Cesti, Giovanni Legrenzi, and Alessandro Stradella.[17]

The middle Baroque had absolutely no bearing at all on the theoretical work of Johann Fux, who systematized the strict counterpoint characteristic of earlier ages in his Gradus ad Paranassum (1725).[18]

One pre-eminent example of a court style composer is Jean-Baptiste Lully. He purchased patents from the monarchy to be the sole composer of operas for the king and to prevent others from having operas staged. He completed 15 lyric tragedies and left unfinished Achille et Polyxène.[19]

Musically, he did not establish the string-dominated norm for orchestras, which was inherited from the Italian opera, and the characteristically French five-part disposition (violins, violas—in hautes-contre, tailles and quintes sizes—and bass violins) had been used in the ballet from the time of Louis XIII. He did, however, introduce this ensemble to the lyric theatre, with the upper parts often doubled by recorders, flutes, and oboes, and the bass by bassoons. Trumpets and kettledrums were frequently added for heroic scenes.[19]

Arcangelo Corelli is remembered as influential for his achievements on the other side of musical technique—as a violinist who organized violin technique and pedagogy—and in purely instrumental music, particularly his advocacy and development of the concerto grosso.[20] Whereas Lully was ensconced at court, Corelli was one of the first composers to publish widely and have his music performed all over Europe. As with Lully's stylization and organization of the opera, the concerto grosso is built on strong contrasts—sections alternate between those played by the full orchestra, and those played by a smaller group. Dynamics were "terraced", that is with a sharp transition from loud to soft and back again. Fast sections and slow sections were juxtaposed against each other. Numbered among his students is Antonio Vivaldi, who later composed hundreds of works based on the principles in Corelli's trio sonatas and concerti.[20]

In contrast to these composers, Dieterich Buxtehude was not a creature of court but instead was church musician, holding the posts of organist and Werkmeister at the Marienkirche at Lübeck. His duties as Werkmeister involved acting as the secretary, treasurer, and business manager of the church, while his position as organist included playing for all the main services, sometimes in collaboration with other instrumentalists or vocalists, who were also paid by the church. Entirely outside of his official church duties, he organised and directed a concert series known as the Abendmusiken, which included performances of sacred dramatic works regarded by his contemporaries as the equivalent of operas.[21]

Late baroque music (1680–1730)

Through the work of Johann Fux, the Renaissance style of polyphony was made the basis for the study of composition.[18]

A continuous worker, Handel borrowed from others and often recycled his own material. He was also known for reworking pieces such as the famous Messiah, which premiered in 1742, for available singers and musicians.[22]

Timeline of Baroque composers

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 from:1600 till:1633 text:"Jacopo Peri"                                   #from 1561
 from:1600 till:1621 text:"JP Sweelinck" $bold  #from 1562
 from:1600 till:1643 text:"Claudio Monteverdi" $bold                      #from 1567
 from:1600 till:1652 text:"Gregorio Allegri"                              #from 1582
 from:1600 till:1643 text:"Girolamo Frescobaldi" $bold                    #from 1583
 from:1600 till:1672 text:"Heinrich Schütz" $bold                         #from 1585
 from:1600 till:1654 text:"Samuel Scheidt"                                #from 1587
 from:1602 till:1676 text:"Francesco Cavalli" $bold
 from:1602 till:1645 text:"William Lawes"
 from:1605 till:1669 text:"Antonio Bertali"
 from:1605 till:1674 text:"Giacomo Carissimi"
 from:1616 till:1667 text:"Johann Jakob Froberger"
 from:1619 till:1677 text:"Barbara Strozzi"
 # from:1626 till:1661 text:"Louis Couperin"
 from:1629 till:1691 text:"Jean-Henri d'Anglebert"
 from:1632 till:1687 text:"Jean-Baptiste Lully"  $bold
 from:1634 till:1704 text:"Marc Antoine Charpentier"
 from:1637 till:1707 text:"Dieterich Buxtehude" $bold
 # from:1638 till:1700 text:"Diogo Dias Melgás" # Renaissance style?
 from:1644 till:1704 text:"Heinrich Ignaz Franz von Biber"
 # from:1653 till:1704 text:"Georg Muffat"
 from:1653 till:1706 text:"Johann Pachelbel" $bold
 from:1653 till:1713 text:"Arcangelo Corelli" $bold
 from:1656 till:1728 text:"Marin Marais"
 from:1659 till:1695 text:"Henry Purcell" $bold
 from:1660 till:1725 text:"Alessandro Scarlatti" $bold
 from:1668 till:1733 text:"François Couperin" $bold
 from:1670 till:1736 text:"Antonio Caldara" $bold
 from:1670 till:1746 text:"Johann Caspar Ferdinand Fischer"
 from:1674 till:1754 text:"Tomaso Albinoni"
 from:1678 till:1741 text:"Antonio Vivaldi" $bold
 from:1679 till:1745 text:"Jan Dismas Zelenka
 from:1681 till:1760 text:"Georg Philipp Telemann" $bold                   #till 1767
 from:1683 till:1760 text:"Jean-Philippe Rameau" $bold                     #till 1764
 from:1685 till:1750 text:"Johann Sebastian Bach" $bold
 from:1685 till:1757 text:"Domenico Scarlatti" $bold
 from:1685 till:1759 text:"George Frideric Handel" $bold
 from:1686 till:1750 text:"Silvius Leopold Weiss"
 from:1686 till:1760 text:"Nicola Porpora"                                 #till 1768
 from:1687 till:1760 text:"Francesco Geminiani"                            #till 1762
 from:1688 till:1758 text:"Johann Friedrich Fasch"
 from:1692 till:1730 text:"Leonardo Vinci"
 # from:1692 till:1760 text:"Unico Wilhelm van Wassenaer"                  #till 1766
 from:1692 till:1760 text:"Giuseppe Tartini"                               #till 1770
 from:1695 till:1760 text:"Pietro Locatelli"                               #till 1764
 from:1697 till:1760 text:"Johann Joachim Quantz"                          #till 1773
 from:1698 till:1756 text:"Riccardo Broschi"                              
 from:1699 till:1760 text:"Johann Adolf Hasse"                             #till 1783
 # from:1702 till:1755 text:"Francisco António de Almeida"
 from:1704 till:1742 text:"Carlos Seixas"
 from:1706 till:1760 text:"Baldassare Galuppi"                             #till 1785
 # from:1707 till:1760 text:"António Teixeira"                             #till 1774
 from:1710 till:1736 text:"GB Pergolesi" $bold


Baroque instruments

File:Baschenis - Musical Instruments.jpg
Baroque instruments including hurdy gurdy, harpsichord, bass viol, lute, violin, and guitar
File:Harpsichord VitalJulianFrey.jpg
A double-manual harpsichord after Jean-Claude Goujon (1749)






Styles and forms

Dance suite

A characteristic Baroque form was the dance suite. Some Dance suites by Bach are called partitas, although this term is also used for other collections of pieces. The dance suite often consists of the following movements:

  • Overture – The Baroque suite often began with a French overture ("Ouverture" in French), which was followed by a succession of dances of different types, principally the following four:
  • Allemande – Often the first dance of an instrumental suite, the allemande was a very popular dance that had its origins in the German Renaissance era. The allemande was played at a moderate tempo and could start on any beat of the bar.[23][24]
  • Courante – The second dance is the courante, a lively, French dance in triple meter. The Italian version is called the corrente.[23][24]
  • Sarabande – The sarabande, a Spanish dance, is the third of the four basic dances, and is one of the slowest of the baroque dances. It is also in triple meter and can start on any beat of the bar, although there is an emphasis on the second beat, creating the characteristic 'halting', or iambic rhythm of the sarabande.[23][24]
  • Gigue – The gigue is an upbeat and lively baroque dance in compound meter, typically the concluding movement of an instrumental suite, and the fourth of its basic dance types. The gigue can start on any beat of the bar and is easily recognized by its rhythmic feel. The gigue originated in the British Isles. Its counterpart in folk music is the jig.[23][24]

These four dance types (allemande, courante, sarabande, and gigue) make up the majority of 17th-century suites; later suites interpolate one or more additional dances between the sarabande and gigue:

  • Gavotte – The gavotte can be identified by a variety of features; it is in 4/4 time and always starts on the third beat of the bar, although this may sound like the first beat in some cases, as the first and third beats are the strong beats in quadruple time. The gavotte is played at a moderate tempo, although in some cases it may be played faster.[23]
  • Bourrée – The bourrée is similar to the gavotte as it is in 2/2 time although it starts on the second half of the last beat of the bar, creating a different feel to the dance. The bourrée is commonly played at a moderate tempo, although for some composers, such as Handel, it can be taken at a much faster tempo.[23][2]
  • Minuet – The minuet is perhaps the best-known of the baroque dances in triple meter. It can start on any beat of the bar. In some suites there may be a Minuet I and II, played in succession, with the Minuet I repeated.[23]
  • Passepied – The passepied is a fast dance in binary form and triple meter that originated as a court dance in Brittany.[25] Examples can be found in later suites such as those of Bach and Handel.[23]
  • Rigaudon – The rigaudon is a lively French dance in duple meter, similar to the bourrée, but rhythmically simpler. It originated as a family of closely related southern-French folk dances, traditionally associated with the provinces of Vavarais, Languedoc, Dauphiné, and Provence.[23][26]

Other features






Further reading

  • Christensen, Thomas Street, and Peter Dejans. Towards Tonality Aspects of Baroque Music Theory. Leuven: Leuven University Press, 2007. ISBN 978-90-5867-587-3
  • Cyr, Mary. Essays on the Performance of Baroque Music Opera and Chamber Music in France and England. Variorum collected studies series, 899. Aldershot, Hants, England: Ashgate, 2008. ISBN 978-0-7546-5926-6
  • Foreman, Edward. A Bel Canto Method, or, How to Sing Italian Baroque Music Correctly Based on the Primary Sources. Twentieth century masterworks on singing, v. 12. Minneapolis, Minn: Pro Musica Press, 2006. ISBN 978-1-887117-18-0
  • Hebson, Audrey (2012). "Dance and Its Importance in Bach's Suites for Solo Cello", Musical Offerings: Vol. 1: No. 2, Article 2. Available at
  • Hoffer, Brandi (2012). "Sacred German Music in the Thirty Years' War", Musical Offerings: Vol. 3: No. 1, Article 1. Available at
  • Schubert, Peter, and Christoph Neidhöfer. Baroque Counterpoint. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2006. ISBN 978-0-13-183442-2
  • Schulenberg, David. Music of the Baroque. New York: Oxford UP, 2001. ISBN 978-0-19-512232-9
  • Stauffer, George B. The World of Baroque Music New Perspectives. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2006. ISBN 978-0-253-34798-5
  • Strunk, Oliver. Source Readings in Music History. From Classical Antiquity to the Romantic Era. London: Faber & Faber, 1952.

External links

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