Open Access Articles- Top Results for Bashkortostan


This article is about a federal subject of Russia. For the newspaper, see Bashkortostan (newspaper).
</tr></tr></tr></tr></tr></tr></tr></tr></tr></tr></tr></tr></tr></tr></tr></tr></tr></tr></tr></tr></tr></tr></tr></tr></tr></tr></tr></table> The Republic of Bashkortostan (Russian: Респу́блика Башкортоста́н, tr.Respublika Bashkortostan; IPA: [rʲɪsˈpublʲɪkə bəʂkərtɐˈstan]; Bashkir: Башҡортостан Республикаһы, Başqortostan Respublikahı), also known as Bashkiria (Russian: Башки́рия, tr.Bashkiriya; IPA: [bɐʂˈkʲirʲɪjə]) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). It is located between the Volga River and the Ural Mountains. Its capital is the city of Ufa. With the population of 4,072,292 as of the 2010 Census, Bashkortostan is the most populous of the republics in Russia.[9]


The name "Bashkortostan" derives from the name of the Bashkir ethnic group, also known as Bashkorts. The root of the name is a Turkic ("baş" in Turkish means "head, chief, principal"), and the Persian suffix -stan is common to many Eurasian country-names. They speak the Bashkir language, which belongs to the Kypchak branch of the Turkic languages.


Republic of Bashkortostan
Республика Башкортостан (Russian)
Башҡортостан Республикаһы (Bashkir)</th></tr>
—  Republic  —</th></tr>
Flag of Republic of Bashkortostan
Coat of arms of Republic of Bashkortostan
Coat of arms
Anthem: State Anthem of the Republic of Bashkortostan[1]
Coordinates: 54°28′N 56°16′E / 54.467°N 56.267°E / 54.467; 56.267Coordinates: 54°28′N 56°16′E / 54.467°N 56.267°E / 54.467; 56.267{{#coordinates:54|28|N|56|16|E|type:adm1st||

|primary |name=

Political status</th></tr>
Country</th> Russia
Federal district</th> Volga[2]
Economic region</th> Urals[3]
Established</th> March 23, 1919[4]
Capital</th> Ufa[5]
Government (as of November 2014)</th></tr>
 - Head[7]</th> Rustem Khamitov[6]
 - Legislature</th> State Assembly[7]
Area (as of the 2002 Census)[8]
 - Total</th> Script error: No such module "convert".
Area rank</th> 27th
Population (2010 Census)[9]
 - Total</th> 4,072,292
 - Rank</th> 7th
 - Density[10]</th> Script error: No such module "convert".
 - Urban</th> 60.4%
 - Rural</th> 39.6%
Population (January 2014 est.)
 - Total</th> 4,069,698[11]
Time zone(s)</th> YEKT (UTC+05:00)[12]
ISO 3166-2</th> RU-BA
License plates</th> 02, 102
Official languages</th> Russian;[13] Bashkir[14]
Official website

The first settlements in the territory of modern Bashkortostan date from the early Paleolithic period, but the Bronze Age spurred an upsurge in the population of this territory. When people of the Abashevo culture started settling here they possessed high skills in manufacturing bronze tools, weapons, and decorations. They were the first to establish permanent settlements in the Southern Urals.

Bashkortostan takes its name from its native people - the Bashkirs. The Russian (Slavonic) name of the country — Bashkiriya — formed at the end of the 16th century. Originally it appeared in the forms Bashkir’, Bashkirda and Bashkir horde. The first written references to Bashkir tribes appear in compositions of Herodotus (fifth century BCE). The ethnonym Bashkirs first became known in the 9th century. In the 10th century, Al-Balkhi wrote about Bashkirs as a people, divided into two groups, one of which inhabited the Southern Urals, while the other lived near the Danube river, close to the boundaries of Byzantium. His contemporary Ibn-Ruste described the Bashkirs as "an independent people, occupying territories on both sides of the Ural mountain ridge between Volga, Kama, Tobol and upstream of Yaik river".

After the early-feudal Mongolian state had broken down in the 14th century, the territory of modern Bashkortostan became divided between the Kazan and Siberia Khanates and the Nogai Horde. The tribes that lived there were headed by bi (tribal heads). After Kazan fell to Ivan the Terrible in 1554–1555, representatives of western and northwestern Bashkir tribes approached the Tsar with a request to voluntarily join Muscovy.[citation needed]

Starting from the second half of the 16th century, Bashkiria's territory began taking shape as a part of the Russian state. In 1798 the Spiritual Assembly of Russian Muslims was established[by whom?]— an indication that the tsarist Government recognized the rights of Bashkirs, Tatars, and other Muslim nations to profess Islam and perform religious rituals. Ufa Governorate (guberniya), with a center in Ufa, was formed in 1865— another step towards territorial identification.

After the Russian Revolution of 1917, the Bashkir Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (ASSR) was established on March 23, 1919;[4] first as Little Bashkortostan; eventually all of Ufa Governorate became incorporated into the newly established republic. During the Soviet period, Bashkiria was granted broad autonomous rights— the first among other Russian regions. The administrative structure of the Bashkir ASSR was based on principles similar to those of other autonomous republics of Russia.

File:Командиры БОКБ.jpg
The Red Army cavalry unit, made up of Bashkirs, Russian Civil War, 1919

The extraction of crude oil in Bashkiria began in 1932. At the end of 1943 large crude oil deposits were discovered.[by whom?] During the Great Patriotic War of 1941 to 1945, Bashkiria became one of the major regions of the Soviet Union to accommodate plants and factories evacuated from Western Russia, as well as great masses of people, while also providing the country with weaponry, fuel, and foodstuffs. After the war, a number of industries developed further in Bashkiria, such as mining, machine-building and (especially) oil-refining. Bashkiria's industry became a solid base for the further economic growth of all European outlying territories of Russia.

On October 11, 1990 the Supreme Soviet of the Republic adopted the Declaration on state sovereignty of the Bashkir ASSR. On February 25, 1992, the Bashkir ASSR was renamed[by whom?] the Republic of Bashkortostan.

On March 31, 1992, a Federative Compact "On separation of authorities and powers among federal organs of power of the Russian Federation and the organs of power of the Republic of Bashkortostan" was signed. On August 3, 1994, a Compact "On separation of authorities and mutual delegating of powers among the organs of power of the Russian Federation and the organs of power of the Republic of Bashkortostan" was signed.


Bashkortostan contains part of the southern Urals and the adjacent plains.

  • Area: Script error: No such module "convert". (according to the 2002 Census) or Script error: No such module "convert". (according to Bashkortostanstat[15])


The Ufa River

There are over 13,000 rivers in the republic. Many rivers are part of the deepwater transportation system of European Russia; they provide access to ports of the Baltic and Black seas.

Major rivers include:


File:Lake Aslykul.jpg
Lake Asylykül

There are 2,700 lakes and reservoirs in the republic. Major lakes and reservoirs include:


Mount Yamantau

The republic contains part of the southern Urals, which stretch from the northern to the southern border. The highest mountains include:

Natural resources

The Republic of Bashkortostan is one of the richest territories of Russia in mineral resources with deposits of some 3,000 mineral resources. Bashkortostan is rich in crude oil reserves, and was one of the principal centers of oil extraction in the Russian federation. Other major resources are natural gas, coal, ferrous metal ores, manganese, chromite, iron ores, non-ferrous metals ores (lead, tungsten), non-metallic ores (rock crystal, fluorite, iceland spar, sulfide pyrites, barite, silicates, silica, asbestos, talcum), deposits of precious and semi-precious stones and natural stones (malachite, jade, granite).

The republic has enough mineral resources to provide its power and fuel complex as well as petro-chemical, chemical, agro-industrial complex, ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy, glass-making and ceramic branches with raw materials.

Bashkortostan is one of the major raw materials bases for Russia non-ferrous metallurgy. The republic has good deposits of lignite with a high degree of bitumenosity. This lignite can be used for obtaining a variety of different chemical products like resins, surface-active substances, gummy fertilizers, and other stimulants for plants growth. Mining-chemical raw materials (rock salt, lime, phosphorites, barytes, etc.) are quite substantial, and are utilized in the republic economy.

Bashkortostan is also rich in woods. The total territory covered with forests is about Script error: No such module "convert".. More than one third of the republic territory is covered with woods. The following types of trees dominate: birch tree, conifers, lime, oak, and maple. The general stock of timber according to some evaluation is 717.9 million m³. Bashkortostan forests have special sanctuaries and national parks. They cover more than Script error: No such module "convert"..

Bashkortostan is also rich in springs and sources of mineral, medicinal, and drinking water.


  • Average annual temperature: Script error: No such module "convert". (mountains) to Script error: No such module "convert". (plains)
  • Average January temperature: Script error: No such module "convert".
  • Average July temperature: Script error: No such module "convert".

Administrative divisions

Map of the Republic of Bashkortostan


The head of the government of the Republic of Bashkortostan is the Head, who is appointed by the President of Russia for a four-year term. According to the Constitution, the Head of the Republic of Bashkortostan guarantees rights and liberties of the country's people and citizens, protects economic and political interests of the Republic of Bashkortostan, and secures legitimacy, law and order within its territory.

Rustem Khamitov assumed office on July 19, 2010. His predecessor was Murtaza Rakhimov, elected on December 17, 1993. Before the elections, Rakhimov was the Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the Republic— the highest post at that time. Rakhimov was re-elected in December 2003 in a poll condemned by the OSCE for exhibiting "elements of basic fraud."

The Republic's parliament is the State Assembly—Kurultai, popularly elected every five years. The one-chamber State Assembly has 120 deputies.

The Republic's Constitution was adopted on December 24, 1993. Article 1 of the Constitution stipulates that Bashkortostan is a sovereign state within Russia, it has state power beyond the limits of authority of the Russian Federation and the powers of the Russian Federation concerning the aspect of joint authority of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Bashkortostan. The Republic of Bashkortostan is a full-fledged subject of the Russian Federation on equal and agreed bases.

The relations of the Republic of Bashkortostan and the Russian Federation are at present based on the articles of the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the Constitution of the Republic of Bashkortostan, the Federative Treaty (with amendments), and the Agreement on Separation of authorities and powers and mutual delegating of powers among the organs of state power of the Republic of Bashkortostan.

The judicial power of the republic is in the hands of the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court, the Court of Appeals, district Courts, and justices of the peace.

In full accord with universally recognized principles of international law, articles of the European Charter of Local Self-Government and the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the Republic of Bashkortostan ensures in its Constitution that local self-government is recognized and guaranteed within the republic's territory.

The Republic of Bashkortostan resolves all issues of administrative-territorial structure on its own. The list of districts and towns, municipalities, as well as the order of establishing, amending and changing borders of municipalities and their names are stipulated by the Republic of Bashkortostan law "On administrative-territorial structure of the Republic of Bashkortostan and territory of municipalities".

The state has strong ties with its neighbor Tatarstan.[16][17]


Assy resort

Bashkortostan is one of the most developed regions of the Russian Federation in terms of its gross regional output, volume of industrial production, agricultural production, and investment in fixed assets.

The economy of Bashkortostan, being one of the largest industrial centers of Russia, is very diverse. Bashkortostan has a large agricultural sector. But the republic's most important industry is chemical processing; Bashkortostan produces more oil than any other region of Russia, about 26 million tons annually, and provides 17% of the country's gasoline and 15% of its diesel fuel. Other important products manufactured in Bashkortostan include alcohols, pesticides and plastics. The republic's gross regional product in 2007 was 645 billion rubles (over €18 billion).[18] More than half of Bashkortostan's industry is based in Ufa, the republic's capital.

Major economic indices
2002 2003 2004
Gross regional product 214.8 279.7 n/a billion roubles
Industrial production volume 161.7 192.1 354 billion roubles
Construction 1,408 1,471.5 1508.4 th.m.²
Agricultural produce 50.1 52.1 57.2 billion roubles
Investments into fixed capital 52.1 53.7 62.4 billion roubles
Accumulated foreign investments 71.7 97.6 157.1 million US$
Foreign trade turnover 2646 3045.3 3840.6 million US$
Export 2303.4 2724.4 3525.9 million US$
Import 342.3 320.9 314.7 million US$
Wholesale trade turnover 117.7 118.1 151.2 billion roubles


File:Bashkir village Inzer river.jpg
Village on the Inzer river

Population development

Year Population
1897 1,991,000
1913 2,811,000
1926 2,547,000
1939 3,158,000
1959 3,340,000
1970 3,818,000
1979 3,849,000
1989 3,950,482[19]
2002 4,104,336[20]
2010 4,072,292[9]

Vital statistics

Source: Russian Federal State Statistics Service
Average population (x 1000) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Total fertility rate
1970 3,817 63,498 28,004 35,494 16.6 7.3 9.3
1975 3,825 63,096 31,802 31,294 16.5 8.3 8.2
1980 3,850 67,743 36,067 31,676 17.6 9.4 8.2
1985 3,868 76,839 39,101 37,738 19.9 10.1 9.8
1990 3,952 63,899 38,157 25,742 16.2 9.7 6.5
1991 3,975 58,240 39,638 18,602 14.7 10.0 4.7
1992 4,005 53,271 43,539 9,732 13.3 10.9 2.4
1993 4,030 46,772 50,738 -3,966 11.6 12.6 -1.0
1994 4,050 47,296 54,267 -6,971 11.7 13.4 -1.7
1995 4,074 45,622 51,734 -6,112 11.2 12.7 -1.5
1996 4,091 45,228 49,600 -4,372 11.1 12.1 -1.1
1997 4,103 43,776 49,354 -5,578 10.7 12.0 -1.4
1998 4,113 44,465 48,470 -4,005 10.8 11.8 -1.0
1999 4,119 41,368 52,608 -11,240 10.0 12.8 -2.7
2000 4,117 41,642 53,550 -11,908 10.1 13.0 -2.9
2001 4,112 42,793 55,001 -12,208 10.4 13.4 -3.0
2002 4,104 45,481 57,836 -12,355 11.1 14.1 -3.0
2003 4,095 45,583 58,237 -12,654 11.1 14.2 -3.1
2004 4,084 45,733 57,726 -11,993 11.2 14.1 -2.9
2005 4,074 44,094 57,787 -13,693 10.8 14.2 -3.4
2006 4,064 45,055 55,319 -10,264 11.1 13.6 -2.5
2007 4,060 51,453 55,144 -3,691 12.7 13.6 -0.9
2008 4,059 54,493 55,568 -1,075 13.4 13.7 -0.3
2009 4,062 55,587 53,227 2,360 13.7 13.1 0.6 1,74
2010 4,067 57,093 54,457 2,636 14.0 13.4 0.6 1,77
2011 4,072 55,806 54,432 1,374 13.7 13.4 0.3 1,74
2012 4,064 59,180 53,624 5,556 14.6 13.2 1.4 1.86
2013 4,065 59,260 53,346 5,914 14.6 13.1 1.5 1.89
2013 4,071 60,517 53,568 6,949 14.9 13.2 1.7 1.95(e)

Note: Total fertility rate 200-12 source.[21]

Ethnic groups

The Bashkirs, photo by Mikhail Bukar, 1872

According to the 2010 Census, the ethnic composition was:[9]

1926 Census 1939 Census 1959 Census 1970 Census 1979 Census 1989 Census 2002 Census 2010 Census1
Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  %
Bashkirs 625,845 23.5% 671,188 21.2% 737,744 22.1% 892,248 23.4% 935,880 24.3% 863,808 21.9% 1,221,302 29.8% 1,172,287 29.5%
Russians 1,064,707 39.9% 1,281,347 40.6% 1,418,147 42.4% 1,546,304 40.5% 1,547,893 40.3% 1,548,291 39.3% 1,490,715 36.3% 1,432,906 36.1%
Tatars 621,158 23.3% 777,230 24.6% 768,566 23.0% 944,505 24.7% 940,436 24.5% 1,120,702 28.4% 990,702 24.1% 1,009,295 25.4%
Chuvash 84,886 3.2% 106,892 3.4% 109,970 3.3% 126,638 3.3% 122,344 3.2% 118,509 3.0% 117,317 2.9% 107,450 2.7%
Mari 79,298 3.0% 90,163 2.9% 93,902 2.8% 109,638 2.9% 106,793 2.8% 105,768 2.7% 105,829 2.6% 103,658 2.6%
Ukrainians 76,710 2.9% 99,289 3.1% 83,594 2.5% 76,005 2.0% 75,571 2.0% 74,990 1.9% 55,249 1.3% 39,875 1.0%
Others 113,232 4.2% 132,860 4.2% 129,686 3.9% 122,737 3.2% 115,363 3.0% 111,045 2.8% 118,856 2.9% 109,249 2.7%
1 97,572 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.[22]


Religion in Bashkortostan (2012)[23][24]

  Muslim (38%)
  Russian Orthodox (25.2%)
  Unaffiliated Christian (3%)
  Other Orthodox (1%)
  Spiritual but not religious (15%)
  Atheist (8%)
  Other or undeclared (7.8%)

Islam is adhered to by a plurality of the nation's population[25] of Bashkir and Tatar descent. The Muslims of Bashkortostan follow Sunni Hanafi school of Islamic law.

Most ethnic Russians, Chuvash and Ukrainians are Orthodox Christians. Most Mari are Pagan. Non-religious people form a substantial part of any ethnic group in Bashkortostan. There are 13,000 Jews in the republic, with a historic synagogue in Ufa, and a new Jewish Community Center built in 2008.[26]

According to a 2012 official survey[23] 38% of the population of Bashkortostan is Muslim, 25.2% adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 3% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 1% adheres to other Orthodox Churches, and 2% adheres to Slavic Rodnovery (Slavic Neopaganism), the Mari Traditional Religion, or Tengrism. In addition, 15% of the population deems itself to be "spiritual but not religious", 8% is atheist, and 7.8% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question.[23]


Spoken languages: Russian (50%), Tatar (30%), Bashkir (20%).[27]


KHL team Salavat Yulaev Ufa plays in the city, as does Russian Major League team Toros Neftekamsk, and Minor Hockey League team Tolpar Ufa.


About sixty scientific organizations are active in the republic. Fundamental and applied scientific research is under way at twelve institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences, twenty-nine institutes of different branches of industry, as well as numerous design bureaus and organizations, universities, and colleges.

The country's system of popular education took shape over many centuries and reflects the Bashkir people's folklore, national customs, and traditions. When Islam spread in Bashkiria in the 10th century, an educational system began to emerge gradually— primarily religious schools operated under the supervision of mosques (maktabeh and madrasah).

In addition, many institutions of higher education operate in the republic, including branches of 16 leading Russian universities and colleges. Specialists graduate with degrees in about 200 trades and professions.

Education is primarily in Russian and Bashkir.


File:Bashkir State Academic Theatre of Drama.jpg
Bashkir State Academic Theater of Drama in Ufa

Bashkortostan is one of the largest cultural centers of Russia[citation needed].

In addition, Bashkortostan is home to song and dance companies, a network of national theaters, museums, and libraries, and a number of annual folk festivals. The republic has seven Bashkir, four Russian, and two Tatar State Drama Theaters, a State Opera and Ballet Theater, a National Symphony Orchestra, "Bashkortostan" film studio, thirty philharmonic collectives, and the Bashkir State Folk Dance Ensemble.

The Bashkir School of Dance is well respected[citation needed], with many students receiving international awards at competitions in Russia and other countries. World-renowned ballet dancer Rudolf Nureyev, as a child, was encouraged to dance in Bashkir folk performances, and began his dancing career in Ufa.

See also



  1. ^ Law #10-z
  2. ^ Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
  3. ^ Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
  4. ^ a b Administrative-Territorial Structure of the Union Republics. 1987., p. 25
  5. ^ Constitution of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Article 65
  6. ^ Official website of the Head of the Republic of Bashkortostan. Biography Invalid language code.
  7. ^ a b Constitution of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Article 6
  8. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2011-11-01. 
  9. ^ a b c d Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  10. ^ The density value was calculated by dividing the population reported by the 2010 Census by the area shown in the "Area" field. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox is not necessarily reported for the same year as the population.
  11. ^ Republic of Bashkortostan Territorial Branch of the Federal State Statistics Service. Оценка численности постоянного населения Республики Башкортостан на 1 января 2014 г. по муниципальным образованиям Invalid language code.
  12. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №248-ФЗ от 21 июля 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #248-FZ of July 21, 2014 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
  13. ^ Official on the whole territory of Russia according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
  14. ^ Constitution of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Article 1
  15. ^ Bashkortostanstat. "Basic parameters of Bashkortostan Republic". Retrieved May 17, 2008. [dead link]
  16. ^
  17. ^
  18. ^ "The Republic of Baskhorostan". Russia Profile. 
  19. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  20. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  21. ^
  22. ^
  23. ^ a b c Arena - Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia.
  24. ^ 2012 Survey Maps. "Ogonek", № 34 (5243), 27/08/2012. Retrieved 24-09-2012.
  25. ^
  26. ^ "Bashkortostan Jews Centered", Dateline World Jewry, World Jewish Congress, July/August 2008
  27. ^ Russian Census 2002. 6. Владение языками (кроме русского) населением отдельных национальностей по республикам, автономной области и автономным округам Российской Федерации(Knowledge of languages other than Russian by the population of republics, autonomous oblast and autonomous districts)Invalid language code.


  • №ВС-22/15 24 декабря 1993 г. «Конституция Республики Башкортостан», в ред. Закона №57-з от 4 марта 2014 г. «О внесении изменений и дополнений в Конституцию Республики Башкортостан». Опубликован: "Ведомости Верховного Совета и Правительства Республики Башкортостан", №4-22, ст.146, 1994. (#VS-22/15 December 24, 1993 Constitution of the Republic of Bashkortostan, as amended by the Law #57-z of March 4, 2014 On Amending and Supplementing the Constitution of the Republic of Bashkortostan. ).
  • Государственное Собрание Республики Башкортостан. Закон №10-з от 6 июля 1999 г. «О государственной символике Республики Башкортостан», в ред. Закона №98-з от 29 мая 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Республики Башкортостан "О государственной символике Республики Башкортостан"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования (14 июля 1999 г.). Опубликован: Газета "Советская Башкирия - Известия Башкортостана", №136 (24364), 14 июля 1999 г. (State Assembly of the Republic of Bashkortostan. Law #10-z of July 6, 1999 On the State Symbols of the Republic of Bashkortostan, as amended by the Law #98-z of May 29, 2014 On Amending the Law of the Republic of Bashkortostan "On the State Symbols of the Republic of Bashkortostan". Effective as of the day of the official publication (July 14, 1999).).
  • "СССР. Административно-территориальное деление союзных республик. 1987." (USSR. Administrative-Territorial Structure of the Union Republics. 1987) / Составители В. А. Дударев, Н. А. Евсеева. — М.: Изд-во «Известия Советов народных депутатов СССР», 1987. — 673 с.

Further reading

External links