Open Access Articles- Top Results for Battery recycling

Battery recycling

Battery recycling is a recycling activity that aims to reduce the number of batteries being disposed as municipal solid waste. Batteries contain a number of heavy metals and toxic chemicals and their dumping has raised concerns over soil contamination and water pollution.[1]

Battery recycling by type

Most types of batteries can be recycled. However, some batteries are recycled more readily than others, such as lead-acid automotive batteries (nearly 90% are recycled) and button cells (because of the value and toxicity of their chemicals).[2] Other types, such as alkaline and rechargeable, e.g., nickel–cadmium (Ni-Cd), nickel metal hydride (Ni-MH), lithium-ion (Li-ion) and nickel–zinc (Ni-Zn), can also be recycled.

Lead-acid batteries

These batteries include but are not limited to: car batteries, golf cart batteries, UPS batteries, industrial fork-lift batteries, motorcycle batteries, and commercial batteries. These can be regular lead acid, sealed lead acid, gel type, or absorbent glass mat batteries. These are recycled by grinding them, neutralizing the acid, and separating the polymers from the lead. The recovered materials are used in a variety of applications, including new batteries.

The lead in a lead-acid battery can be recycled. Elemental lead is toxic and should therefore be kept out of the waste stream.

File:Pallet of scrap lead-acid automotive batteries (wide view).jpg
Lead-acid batteries collected by an auto parts retailer for recycling.

Many cities offer battery recycling services for lead-acid batteries. In some jurisdictions, including U.S. states and Canadian provinces, a refundable deposit is paid on batteries. This encourages recycling of old batteries instead of abandonment or disposal with household waste. In the United States, about 99% of lead from used batteries is reclaimed.[3]

Businesses that sell new car batteries may also collect used batteries (or be required to do so by law) for recycling. Some businesses accept old batteries on a "walk-in" basis, as opposed to in exchange for a new battery. Most battery shops and recycling centres pay for scrap batteries. This can be a lucrative business, enticing especially to risk-takers because of the wild fluctuations in the value of scrap lead that can occur overnight. When lead prices go up, scrap batteries become targets for thieves.

Silver oxide batteries

Used most frequently in watches, toys, and some medical devices, silver oxide batteries contain a small amount of mercury. Most jurisdictions regulate their handling and disposal to reduce the discharge of mercury into the environment.[citation needed] Silver oxide batteries can be recycled to recover the mercury.

Lithium ion batteries

Li-Ion and also Li-Phosphate batteries often contain among other useful metals high-grade copper and aluminium in addition to rare earths. A complicating factor is the water sensitivity: Lithium Hexafluorophosphate, a possible electrolyte material will react with water to form hydrofluoric acid; cells are often immersed in a solvent to prevent this. Once removed the jelly rolls are separated and the materials removed by ultrasonic agitation leaving the electrodes ready for melting down and recycling.

Pouch cells are particularly easy to recycle in this way and some people already do this to salvage the copper despite the safety issues.

Battery composition by type

Italics designates button cell types.
Bold designates secondary types.
All figures are percentages; due to rounding they may not add up to exactly 100.

Type[4] Fe Mn Ni Zn Hg Li Ag Cd Co Al Pb Other KOH Paper Plastic Alkali C Acids Water Other
Alkaline 24.8 22.3 0.5 14.9 1.3 1 2.2 5.4 3.7 10.1 14
Zinc-carbon 16.8 15 19.4 0.1 0.8 0.7 4 6 9.2 12.3 15.2
Lithium 50 19 1 2 7 2 19
Mercury-oxide 37 1 1 14 31 2 3 1 3 7
Zinc-air 42 35 1 4 4 1 10 3
Lithium 60 18 1 3 3 2 13
Alkaline 37 23 1 11 0.6 6 2 2 6 14
Silver oxide 42 2 2 9 0.4 31 4 2 1 0.5 2 4
Nickel-cadmium 35 22 15 10 2 5 11
NiMH 20 1 35 1 4 10 9 4 8 8
Li-ion 22 3 18 5 11 13 28
Lead-acid 65 4 10 16 5

Battery recycling by location

File:Batteries comparison 4,5 D C AA AAA AAAA A23 9V CR2032 LR44 matchstick-1.jpeg
4.5-Volt, D, C, AA, AAA, AAAA, A23, 9-Volt, CR2032 and LR44 cells are all recyclable in most countries
File:Button cells and 9v cells (3).png
Several sizes of button and coin cell. They are all recyclable in both the UK and Ireland.
Country Return percentage
2002[5] 2012
23x16px  Switzerland 61 % 73 %
23x15px Belgium 59 % -
23x15px Sweden 55 % -
23x15px Germany 39 % 44 %
23x15px Austria 44 % -
23x15px Netherlands 32 % -
23x15px United Kingdom - 32 %
23x15px France 16 % -
23x15px Canada 3 % 5.6 %

* Figures for Q1 and Q2 2012.[6]

European Union

In 2006 the EU passed the Battery Directive of which one of the aims is a higher rate of battery recycling. The EU directive states that at least 25% of all the EU’s used batteries must be collected by 2012, and rising to no less than 45% by 2016, of which, that at least 50% of them must be recycled.[5]

Channel Islands

In early 2009 Guernsey took the initiative by setting up the Longue Hougue recycling facility, which, among other functions, offers a drop-off point for used batteries so they can be recycled off island. The resulting publicity meant that a lot of people complied with the request to dispose of batteries responsibly.

United Kingdom

From April 2005 to March 2008, the UK non-governmental body WRAP conducted trials of battery recycling methods around the UK.[7] The methods tested were: Kerbside, retail drop-off, community drop-off, postal, and hospital and fire station trials. The kerbside trials collected the most battery mass and were the most well received and understood by the public. The community drop-off containers which were spread around local community areas were also relatively successful in terms of mass of batteries collected. The lowest performing were the hospital and fire service trials (Although these served their purpose very well for specialist battery types like hearing aid and smoke alarm batteries). Retail drop off trials were the second most effective (by volume) method but one of the least well received and used by the public. Both the kerbside and postal trials received the highest awareness and community support.[8]

Household batteries can be recycled in United Kingdom at council recycling sites as well as at some shops and shopping centres—e.g., Dixons, Currys, The Link and PC World.[9]

A scheme started in 2008 by a large retail company allowed household batteries to be posted free of charge in envelopes available at their shops. This scheme was cancelled at the request of the Royal Mail because of hazardous industrial battery waste being sent as well as household batteries.[10]

An EU directive on batteries that came into force in 2009 means producers must pay for the collection, treatment and recycling of batteries. This has yet to be ratified into UK law however, so there is currently no real incentive for producers to provide the necessary services.[11][12]

From 1 February 2010 batteries can be recycled anywhere the Be Positive sign appears. Shops and online retailers that sell more than 32 kilograms of batteries a year must offer facilities to recycle batteries. This is equivalent to one pack of four AA batteries a day. Shops which sell this amount must by law provide recycling facilities as of 1 February 2010.[13]

In Great Britain an increasing number of shops (Argos, Homebase, B&Q, Tesco and Sainsbury's) are providing battery return boxes and cylinders for their customers.[14][15]

North America

The rechargeable battery industry has formed the Rechargeable Battery Recycling Corporation (RBRC), which operates a free battery recycling program called Call2Recycle throughout the United States and Canada.[16][17] RBRC provides businesses with prepaid shipping containers for rechargeable batteries of all types while consumers can drop off batteries at numerous participating collection centers. It claims that no component of any recycled battery eventually reaches a landfill.

A study estimated battery recycling rates in Canada based on RBRC data.[18] In 2002, it wrote, the collection rate was 3.2%. This implies that 3.2% of rechargeable batteries were recycled, and the rest were thrown in the trash. By 2005, it concluded, the collection rate had risen to 5.6%.

In 2009, Kelleher Environmental updated the study. The update estimates the following. "Collection rate values for the 5 [and] 15 year hoarding assumptions respectively are: 8% to 9% for NiCd batteries; 7% to 8% for NiMH batteries; and 45% to 72% for lithium ion and lithium polymer batteries combined. Collection rates through the [RBRC] program for all end of life small sealed lead acid (SLA) consumer batteries were estimated at 10% for 5 year and 15 year hoarding assumptions. [...] It should also be stressed that these figures do not take collection of secondary consumer batteries through other sources into account, and actual collection rates are likely higher than these values."[19]

A November 2011 New York Times article reported that batteries collected in the United States are increasingly being transported to Mexico for recycling as a result of a widening gap between the strictness of environmental and labor regulations between the two countries.[20]

In 2015, Energizer announced availability of disposable AA and AAA batteries made from recycled materials, branded as EcoAdvanced.[21]


Japan does not have a single national battery recycling law, so the advice given is to follow local and regional statutes and codes in disposing batteries. The Battery Association of Japan (BAJ) recommends that alkaline, zinc-carbon and lithium primary batteries can be disposed of as normal household waste.[22] The BAJ's stance on button cell and secondary batteries is toward recycling and of increasing national standardisation of procedures for dealing with these types of batteries.[23]

In April 2004 the Japan Portable Rechargeable Battery Recycling Center (JBRC) was created to handle and promote battery recycling throughout Japan. They provide battery recycling containers to shops and other collection points.[24]

See also


  1. ^ Bernardes, A. M.; Espinosa, D. C. R.; Tenorio, J. A. S. (3 May 2004). "Recycling of batteries: a review of current processes and technologies". Journal of Power Sources 130 (1–2): 291–298. ISSN 0378-7753. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2003.12.026. 
  2. ^ Battery recycling in USA, United States Environmental Protection Agency, retrieved 9 September 2008 [dead link]
  3. ^ "Battery Council" (PDF). Battery Council. 
  4. ^ Fisher, Karen; Wallén, Erika; Laenen, Pieter Paul; Collins, Michael (18 Oct 2006), Battery Waste Management: Life Cycle Assessment (PDF), Environmental Resources Management 
  5. ^ a b "EU agrees battery recycling law". BBC Online. 2006-05-03. Retrieved 2010-10-22. 
  6. ^ Date, Will (19 September 2012). "UK 'on course' to meet first battery collection target". 
  7. ^ [1] Waste & Resources Action Programme
  8. ^ [2] Household Battery Collection Trials April 2005 – March 2008 Final report
  9. ^ Guardian Newspaper Online, Leo Hickman 13-12-2007. Battery Recycling and Ethical Living. Retrieved 9 September 2008.
  10. ^ Sainsbury's help centre.
  11. ^ Department for Environment, Food and Rural affairs, 18 December 2009. Defra, UK - Environmental Protection - Recycling and waste.
  12. ^ [3] Q&A Batteries programme
  13. ^ Directgov, 22 January 2010. Recycling batteries: Directgov - Environment and greener living.
  14. ^ Info on store takeback. Press article from 'Register Hardware 27-10-2006. Retrieved 9 September 2008.
  15. ^ Info on recycling. WRAP - UK based Waste and Resources Action Programme. Retrieved 15th June 2011.
  16. ^ Call 2 Recycle Website
  17. ^ US Environmental Protection Agency
  18. ^ RIS International Ltd. (February 2007). Canadian Consumer Battery Baseline Study: Final Report (PDF) (Report). Environment Canada. "Table 4.11: Recycling Rate Estimates for Secondary Batteries", on page 27 (PDF page 40). Retrieved 15 March 2012. 
  19. ^ "Battery Recycling in Canada 2009 Update: Executive Summary: 4. Battery Recycling". Environment Canada. 2009. Retrieved 15 March 2012. 
  20. ^ Rosenthal, Elisabeth; Lehren, Andrew W.; Zabludovsky, Karla; Agren, David (8 Dec 2011), "Lead From Old U.S. Batteries Sent to Mexico Raises Risks", The New York Times,, retrieved 10 Dec 2011 
  21. ^
  22. ^ [4] Dry batteries and lithium primary batteries-BAJ
  23. ^ [5] Recycling portable rechargeable batteries-BAJ
  24. ^ [6] JBRC Homepage - Google webcache

Further reading

  • G. Pistoia, J.-P. Wiaux and S.P. Wolsky, ed. (2001). Used battery collection and recycling. Industrial Chemistry Library, Volume 10. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science. ISBN 0-444-50562-8. 

External links