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Battle of Gondar

Battle of Gondar
Part of the East African Campaign of World War II
300px
Ethiopian painting of the battle
Date13–27 November 1941
LocationGondar, Ethiopia
Result

Decisive Allied victory

Belligerents
23x15px Italy

23x15px United Kingdom

23x15px Ethiopian irregulars
Commanders and leaders
23x15px Guglielmo Nasi 23x15px William Platt
23x15px Charles Fowkes
Strength
40,000 Unknown
Casualties and losses
Total casualties from June to November:
4,000 killed
(300 Italian & 3,700 Ascari)
8,400 wounded or sick[1]
22,000 prisoners
23x15px 32 killed
182 wounded
6 missing (final assault only)
23x15px Unknown

The Battle of Gondar was the last stand of the Italian forces in Italian East Africa during the Second World War. The battle took place in November 1941, during the East African Campaign. Gondar was the main town of Amhara in the mountains north of Lake Tana, at an elevation of Script error: No such module "convert". and had an Italian garrison of 40,000, commanded by Generale Guglielmo Nasi.

Background

After the defeat of the Italian forces at Keren on 1 April 1941, many of the remaining Italians withdrew to three strongholds: Amba Alagi, Jimma, and Gondar. Amba Alagi fell in May and Jimma fell in July.[2]

Prelude

Kulkaber

On 13 November, a mixed force from the British 12th (African) Division under Major-General Charles Fowkes—supported by Ethiopian irregular troops—attacked the key defensive position of Kulkaber and were repelled.[3] A second attack on 21 November from several directions was resisted until the afternoon, when Italian posts began to surrender.[4] In the final attack there were 206 British and Ethiopian casualties and 2,423 Italian and Ethiopian prisoners taken.[5]

By this point the Allies had total control of the skies: the Italians possessed only a single Fiat CR.42, piloted by Sergente Giuseppe Mottet. On 22 November, in the Regia Aeronautica's final sortie in East Africa, he made a strafing run on British artillery at Kulkaber that killed the artilley's commmander, Lieutenant Colonel John Yeadon Ormsby. Afterwards, he landed at Gondar and destroyed the plane.[6]

Battle

Mountain passes

There were two mountain passes that overlooked the town which were controlled by the Italian troops. They were invested by the two brigades of the 12th (African) Division. The two Italian groups in the passes were cut off and were forced to surrender when their supplies ran out.[7]

Gondar town

Once the Allied troops had taken the passes, they gained control of the heights overlooking the town, and the Italian garrison under Generale Nasi in the town itself was attacked on 27 November and surrendered after the Kenya Armoured Car Regiment had penetrated the outskirts of the town.[4][8]

See also

References

  1. Maravigna 1949, p. 191.
  2. Playfair et al. 1956, pp. 200, 310–311, 313.
  3. Playfair et al. 1956, p. 319.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Mead 2007, p. 142.
  5. Playfair et al. 1956, p. 320.
  6. Gustavsson, Håkan. "Maresciallo Giuseppe Mottet". Biplane Fighter Aces from the Second World War. Retrieved 20 January 2015. 
  7. Playfair et al. 1956, pp. 320–321.
  8. Playfair et al. 1956, p. 321.

Sources

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External links