Open Access Articles- Top Results for Belsnickel


Picture of the Pennsylvania Dutch version of the Belsnickel, taken in the 1950s at an event near Philadelphia.

Belsnickel (also Belschnickel, Belznickle, Belznickel, Pelznikel, Pelznickel, from pelzen (or belzen, German for to wallop or to drub[1]) and Nickel being a hypocorism of the given name Nikolaus) is a crotchety, fur-clad Christmas gift-bringer figure in the folklore of the Palatinate region of southwestern Germany along the Rhine, the Saarland, and the Odenwald area of Baden-Württemberg. The figure is also preserved in Pennsylvania Dutch communities.[2]

Cultural perspective

File:Belsnickel in Modern Day Travel Attire.JPG
Modern day Belsnickel in his travel attire on his way to scare children in the schools in Norwich, New York. December 2012.

Belsnickle is related to other companions of Saint Nicholas in the folklore of German-speaking Europe. He may have been based on another, older, German myth, Knecht Ruprecht, a servant of Saint Nicholas, and a character from northern Germany.[3] Unlike those figures, Belsnickel does not accompany Saint Nicholas but instead visits alone[3] and combines both the threatening and the benign aspects which in other traditions are divided between the Saint Nicholas and the companion figure.

Belsnickel is a man wearing furs and sometimes a mask with a long tongue. He is typically very ragged and disheveled. He wears torn, tattered, and dirty clothes, and he carries a switch in his hand with which to beat naughty children, but also pocketsful of cakes, candies, and nuts for good children.

In Lower Austria he is sometimes followed by a creature, called Krampus, covered with bells and dragging chains.[4] Krampus is a wild, horned figure akin to the devil. His name translates to "claw".


The Belsnickel character originated in the Rhineland. When people immigrated to Pennsylvania, they brought their German traditions with them.[5] Belsnickel was known in Pennsylvania in the early 1800s.[3] Amongst the Pennsylvania Germans, Belsnickel is the character who visits homes prior to Christmas to check up on the behavior of the children. The traditional Belsnickel showed up at houses 1–2 weeks before Christmas and often created fright because he always knew exactly which of the children misbehaved.[6] He would rap on the door or window with his stick and often the children would have to answer a question for him or sing some type of song. In exchange he would toss candies onto the floor. If the children jumped too quick for the treats, they may end up getting struck with Belsnickel's switch. Although he may seem like a harsh character, the tradition of Belsnickel is an amusing one and rather benign.

There are two versions of Belsnickel, the rural and the urban characters. Both are described in the book, Christmas in Pennsylvania: a folk cultural study, by Alfred L. Shoemaker and Don Yoder. The tradition fell into decline toward the end of the nineteenth century, but has seen a revival in recent years.[3]


The tradition of Belsnickle was brought to Indiana by immigrants from the Palatinate. His garb could vary from one locality to another. He might wear a long, black or brown coat or robe, held together at the waist with a rope, and a fur cap or bear skin hat, decorated with bells. In this branch of the tradition, the father or other older male relative was often "busy working outside" or had to see to some matter elsewhere in the house when Pelznickel (or Belsnickel) arrived. "Belsnickling" or "Klausentreiben," was the "running" of groups of young men or youth dressed in false faces and fantastic costumes on "Belsnickle Night", the eve of the Feast of St. Nicholas" (St. Nikolaustag), and was the occasion of good-natured boisterousness. Young men, dressed in skins and furs, would move through the streets of town or village, rattling chains and bells.[4]

The tradition also exists in parts of Newfoundland, the prairie provinces of Canada and some communities in the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina.[7]

Popular culture

A writer to the letters column of The Times refers to an illustration of "Pelz-Nickel" in a book by English author Harriet Myrtle, The Little Sister (1851). German illustrator H.J. Schneider depicted him as a Santa-like figure "in a long cloak, pointed hood, a fur round his neck, with a long white beard, and a big bag."[8]

Dwight K. Schrute portrayed Belsnickel in The Office episode "Dwight Christmas".

Stoudt's Brewing Company of Adamstown, Pennsylvania brews a seasonal dark lager called "Belsnickle".[9] Otto’s Pub and Brewery of State College, Pennsylvania brews a "Belsnickle" ale.[10]

See also


External links