Benzenediols or dihydroxybenzenes are organic chemical compounds in which two hydroxyl groups are substituted onto a benzene ring. These aromatic compounds are classed as phenols, and more specifically as polyphenols. There are three isomers of benzenediol: 1,2-benzenediol (the ortho isomer) is commonly known as catechol, 1,3-benzenediol (the meta isomer) is commonly known as resorcinol, and 1,4-benzenediol (the para isomer) is commonly known as hydroquinone.
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Similar to other phenols, the hydroxyl groups on the aromatic ring of a benzenediol are weakly acidic. Each benzenediol can lose an H+ from one of the hydroxyls to form a type of phenolate ion.
The Dakin oxidation is an organic redox reaction in which an ortho- or para-hydroxylated phenyl aldehyde or ketone reacts with hydrogen peroxide in base to form a benzenediol and a carboxylate. Overall, the carbonyl group is oxidized, and the hydrogen peroxide is reduced.
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