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Benzothiazole

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Benzothiazole
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IUPAC name
1,3-Benzothiazole
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Thermodynamic
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Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Benzothiazole is an aromatic heterocyclic compound with the chemical formula Template:Chem/atomTemplate:Chem/atomTemplate:Chem/atomTemplate:Chem/atomTemplate:Chem/atomTemplate:Chem/atomTemplate:Chem/atom. It is colorless, slightly viscous liquid. Although the parent compound, benzothiazole is not widely used, many of its derivatives are found in commercial products or in nature. A derivative of benzothiazole is the light-emitting component of luciferin, found in fireflies.

Structure and preparation

Benzothiazoles consist of a 5-membered 1,3-thiazole ring fused to a benzene ring. The nine atoms of the bicycle and the attached substituents are coplanar.

Benzothiazole are prepared by treatment of 2-aminobenzenethiol with acid chlorides:[1]

C6H4(NH2)SH + RC(O)Cl → C6H4(NH)SCR + HCl + H2O

Uses

This heterocyclic scaffold is readily substituted at the unique methyne centre in the thiazole ring. It is a thermally stable electron-withdrawing moiety with numerous applications in dyes such as thioflavin. Some drugs contain this group, examples being riluzole and pramipexole. The heterocycle is found in nature.[2] Accelerators for the vulcanization of rubber are based on 2-mercaptobenzothiazole.[3] This ring is a potential component in nonlinear optics (NLO).[4]

See also

  • Benzothiazoles are related to thiazoles, which lack the fused benzene ring.
  • Benzoxazoles, which substitute an oxygen for the sulfur atom.

References

  1. ^ T. E. Gilchrist "Heterocyclic Chemistry" 3rd Edition, Longman, 1992.
  2. ^ Lucille Le Bozec, Christopher J. Moody "Naturally Occurring Nitrogen–Sulfur Compounds. The Benzothiazole Alkaloids" Australian Journal of Chemistry 62(7) 639–647.doi:10.1071/CH09126
  3. ^ Hans-Wilhelm Engels, Herrmann-Josef Weidenhaupt, Manfred Pieroth, Werner Hofmann, Karl-Hans Menting, Thomas Mergenhagen, Ralf Schmoll, Stefan Uhrlandt "Rubber, 4. Chemicals and Additives" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2004, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi:10.1002/14356007.a23_365.pub2
  4. ^ Hrobarik, P.; Sigmundova, I.; Zahradnik, P.; Kasak, P.; Arion, V.; Franz, E.; Clays, K. (2010). "Molecular Engineering of Benzothiazolium Salts with Large Quadratic Hyperpolarizabilities: Can Auxiliary Electron-Withdrawing Groups Enhance Nonlinear Optical Responses?". Journal of Physical Chemistry C 114 (50): 22289–22302. doi:10.1021/jp108623d. 

External links