5 April 1425|
Gagron, Jhalawar, Rajasthan, India
|Occupation||Ruler of Gagron|
1 verse in Guru Granth Sahib. |
Accepted Gurmat thought from Sakta thought
Bhagat Pipa, also known as Raja Pipaji or Rao Pipa or Sardar Pipa or Sant Pipaji or Pipa Bairagi or Pipanand Acharya, was a mystic poet, Rajput ruler turned saint and one of devotees whose hymns is incorporated in Guru Granth Sahib. Venerated in region of Punjab, among Sikhs his devotional hymn is widely quoted by most of preachers. Since childhood, He was a Sakta follower, thereafter adopted Vaishnavism in company of Ramananda and then adopted Gurmat way of life. His hymn is considered among one of influences of Bhakti movement in India.
Pipa was born, as Pratap Rao, at Gagaron, in present-day Jhalawar district of Rajasthan in a Khichi Chauhan Rajput family. His great grandfather Jaitpal obtained possession of Gagron by killing Kamal-Ud-Din, Governor. Raja Pipaji was successor of Rao Khandwa and ruled Gagron possibly between 1360 to 1385. He had 12 wives including Sita, who was his favorite. Sita born as Padmavati was daughter of Haja Solanki of Toda Rai Singh in district Tonk.
Shakta king to ascetic
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Pipa worshipped Hindu goddess Bhavani in early life but accepted Bairagi faith later on, under the influence of Ramananda. Ramananda was following tyaga section of Ramanuja's Bairagi tradition, when this historical encounter occurred in Kashi and was ascetic rely upon meditation and strict ascetic practices and also believe that the grace of god is required for them to achieve liberation.
Bairagi to Strict Monotheism
Though, the prevalent belief is that Ramananda and some of his disciples got converted by Kabir from Bairagi denomination to strict monotheism. Kabir was disciple of Ramananda and when he was not getting any spiritual benefit, Seeking the same he shifted to Maghar and studied Vedas. After attaining spiritual wisdom and essence of vedas, he returned Kashi and discussed his essence with Ramananda and other disciples including Pipaji. They started understang his wisdom and thoughts were accepted by all and everyone left Idolatry and Karmic philosophy thereafter. 
From an Idol worshiper, Pipaji turned worshiper of the Formless One. As he says in his hymn in the Guru Granth Sahib, the subtle body itself is the Supreme Being’s temple (kaiau deval) and one need not make stone images of him and burn incense or light candles in front of them.
The traditional genealogy of Gagron suggests his death as early as 1400. His son, Maharaja Dwarka Nath, was successor of Gagron. His grandson Maharaja Achal Das ruled Gagron from 1410 AD and was killed by hereditary Muslim enemies in 1448 and captured Gagron.
Two collections of Pipa’s sayings are known to exist, namely Shñ Pipa ji Bani and Sarab Gutaka, both in manuscript form. Pipa Math, a monastery in Dwãrkã, honours his memory.
Hymn in Adi Granth
Pipa's hymn has been included in Adi Granth.
- Page 949, History of Sikh Gurus Retold: 1606-1708 C.E, Surjit Singh Gandhi, Atlantic Publishers & Dist, 2007
- Mahankosh, Bhai Kahn Singh Nabha, ਇੱਕ ਮਹਾਪੁਰਖ, ਜੋ ਗਗਰੌਨ ਦਾ ਸਰਦਾਰ ਸੀ.¹ ਇਸ ਦਾ ਜਨਮ ਸੰਮਤ ੧੪੮੩ ਵਿੱਚ ਹੋਇਆ. ਪੀਪਾ ਪਹਿਲਾਂ ਦੁਰਗਾ ਦਾ ਭਗਤ ਸੀ ਫੇਰ ਰਾਮਾਨੰਦ ਜੀ ਦਾ ਚੇਲਾ ਹੋ ਕੇ ਵੈਰਾਗਦਸ਼ਾ ਵਿੱਚ ਆਪਣੀ ਇਸਤ੍ਰੀ ਸੀਤਾ ਸਮੇਤ ਘਰ ਤਿਆਗਕੇ ਦੇਸ਼ਾਟਨ ਕਰਕੇ ਅਵਸਥਾ ਵਿਤਾਈ। ਇਸ ਦੀ ਬਾਣੀ ਗੁਰੂ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਸਾਹਿਬ ਵਿੱਚ ਦੇਖੀ ਜਾਂਦੀ ਹੈ. "ਪੀਪਾ ਪ੍ਰਣਵੈ ਪਰਮ ਤਤੁ ਹੈ." (ਧਨਾ ਪੀਪਾ)
- Page 295, Four Reports Made During the Years 1862-63-64-65, Alexander Cunningham, At the Government Central Press
- Michaels 2004, p. 254.
- Page 42, A History of Indian Literature, Ronald Stuart McGregor, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag
- Michaels, Alex (2004), Hinduism: Past and Present (English translation of the book first published in Germany under the title Der Hinduismus: Geschichte und Gegenwart (Verlag, 1998) ed.), Princeton: Princeton University Press
- Based on Excerpts from Encyclopedia of Sikhism by Harbans Singh. Published by Punjabi University, Patiala