Open Access Articles- Top Results for Blueberry


This article is about the "American" blueberry. For the "European" blueberry, see Bilberry.
For other uses, see Blueberry (disambiguation).
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Blueberries are perennial flowering plants with indigo-colored berries from the section Cyanococcus within the genus Vaccinium (a genus that also includes cranberries and bilberries). Species in the section Cyanococcus are the most common[1] fruits sold as "blueberries" and are native to North America (commercially cultivated highbush blueberries were not introduced into Europe until the 1930s).[2]

Blueberries are usually erect, prostrate shrubs that can vary in size from Script error: No such module "convert". to Script error: No such module "convert". in height. In the commercial production of blueberries, the smaller species are known as "low-bush blueberries" (synonymous with "wild"), while the larger species are known as "high-bush blueberries".

The leaves can be either deciduous or evergreen, ovate to lanceolate, and Script error: No such module "convert". long and Script error: No such module "convert". broad. The flowers are bell-shaped, white, pale pink or red, sometimes tinged greenish. The fruit is a berry Script error: No such module "convert". in diameter with a flared crown at the end; they are pale greenish at first, then reddish-purple, and finally dark purple when ripe. They are covered in a protective coating of powdery epicuticular wax, colloquially known as the "bloom".[3] They have a sweet taste when mature, with variable acidity. Blueberry bushes typically bear fruit in the middle of the growing season: fruiting times are affected by local conditions such as altitude and latitude, so the peak of the crop can vary from May to August (in the northern hemisphere) depending upon these conditions.


File:Vaccinium corymbosum0.jpg
Flowers on a cultivated blueberry bush

The genus Vaccinium has a mostly circumpolar distribution with species in North America, Europe, Asia, and Africa.

Many commercially sold species with English common names including "blueberry" are currently classified in section Cyanococcus of the genus Vaccinium and come predominantly from North America. Many North American native species of blueberries are grown commercially in the Southern Hemisphere in Australia, New Zealand and South American nations.

Several other wild shrubs of the genus Vaccinium also produce commonly eaten blue berries, such as the predominantly European Vaccinium myrtillus and other bilberries, which in many languages have a name that translates to "blueberry" in English. See the Identification section for more information.


Blueberries, raw
A punnet of blueberries
Nutritional value per Script error: No such module "convert".
Energy Script error: No such module "convert".
14.49 g
Sugars 9.96 g
Dietary fiber 2.4 g
0.33 g
0.74 g
Vitamin A equiv.
32 μg
80 μg
Vitamin A 54 IU
Thiamine (B1)
0.037 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
0.041 mg
Niacin (B3)
0.418 mg
0.124 mg
Vitamin B6
0.052 mg
Folate (B9)
6 μg
Vitamin C
9.7 mg
Vitamin E
0.57 mg
Vitamin K
19.3 μg
Trace metals
6 mg
0.28 mg
6 mg
0.336 mg
12 mg
77 mg
1 mg
0.16 mg

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Note: habitat and range summaries are from the Flora of New Brunswick, published in 1986 by Harold R. Hinds and Plants of the Pacific Northwest coast, published in 1994 by Pojar and MacKinnon

Some other blue-fruited species of Vaccinium:


File:Wild Blueberry in autumn foliage.JPG
Wild blueberry in autumn foliage, Pilot Mountain, North Carolina, October 30, 2008

Commercially offered blueberries are usually from species that naturally occur only in eastern and north-central North America. Other sections in the genus, native to other parts of the world, including the Pacific Northwest and southern United States,[4] South America, Europe, and Asia, include other wild shrubs producing similar-looking edible berries, such as huckleberries and whortleberries (North America) and bilberries (Europe). These species are sometimes called "blueberries" and sold as blueberry jam or other products.

The names of blueberries in languages other than English often translate as "blueberry", e.g., Scots blaeberry and Norwegian blåbær. Blaeberry, blåbær and French myrtilles usually refer to the European native bilberry (V. myrtillus), while bleuets refers to the North American blueberry. Russian голубика ("blue berry") does not refer to blueberries, which are non-native and nearly unknown in Russia, but rather to their close relatives, bog bilberries (V. uliginosum).

Cyanococcus blueberries can be distinguished from the nearly identical-looking bilberries by their flesh color when cut in half. Ripe blueberries have light green flesh, while bilberries, whortleberries and huckleberries are red or purple throughout.


File:Vaccinium fruechte reifestadien.jpg
Blueberries showing various stages of maturation. IG = Immature Green, GP = Green Pink, BP = Blue Pink, and R = Ripe.

Blueberries may be cultivated, or they may be picked from semiwild or wild bushes. In North America, the most common cultivated species is V. corymbosum, the northern highbush blueberry. Hybrids of this with other Vaccinium species adapted to southern U.S. climates are known collectively as southern highbush blueberries.[5]

So-called "wild" (lowbush) blueberries, smaller than cultivated highbush ones, are prized for their intense color. The lowbush blueberry, V. angustifolium, is found from the Atlantic provinces westward to Quebec and southward to Michigan and West Virginia. In some areas, it produces natural "blueberry barrens", where it is the dominant species covering large areas. Several First Nations communities in Ontario are involved in harvesting wild blueberries.

"Wild" has been adopted as a marketing term for harvests of managed native stands of lowbush blueberries. The bushes are not planted or genetically manipulated, but they are pruned or burned over every two years, and pests are "managed".[6]

Numerous highbush cultivars of blueberries are available, with diversity among them, each having a unique flavor. The most important blueberry breeding program has been the USDA-ARS breeding program based at Beltsville, Maryland, and Chatsworth, New Jersey. This program began when Frederick Coville of the USDA-ARS collaborated with Elizabeth Coleman White of New Jersey.[7] In the early part of the 20th century, White offered pineland residents cash for wild blueberry plants with unusually large fruit.[8]

The rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium virgatum syn. V. ashei) is a southern type of blueberry produced from the Carolinas to the Gulf Coast states. Other important species in North America include V. pallidum, the hillside or dryland blueberry. It is native to the eastern U.S., and common in the Appalachians and the Piedmont of the Southeast. Sparkleberry, V. arboreum, is a common wild species on sandy soils in the Southeast.

Growing areas

Worldwide highbush blueberry yield

Significant production of highbush blueberries occurs in British Columbia, Maryland, Western Oregon, Michigan, New Jersey, North Carolina, and Washington. The production of southern highbush varieties in California is rapidly increasing, as varieties originating from University of Florida, Connecticut, New Hampshire, North Carolina State University and Maine have been introduced. Southern highbush berries are now also cultivated in the Mediterranean regions of Europe, Southern Hemisphere countries and China.

United States

File:Vaccinium fruits.JPG
A selection of blueberries, showing the typical sizes of the berries. The scale is marked in centimeters.

Georgia has a long harvest season, lasting from late April through the end of July.[9] In a little more than 10 years, Georgia has become a major player in the global blueberry market. Georgia is the fourth- or fifth-highest producer of cultivated blueberries in the U.S., with almost 10 percent of production.[10] In 2012, Georgia produced 77 million pounds of blueberries from nearly 15,000 acres of orchards.[11]

Maine produces 25% of all blueberries in North America with Script error: No such module "convert". under cultivation.[12] Wild blueberry is the official fruit of Maine.

Hammonton, New Jersey claims to be the "Blueberry Capital of the World,[13] with over 80% of New Jersey's blueberries coming from this town.[14] Every year the town hosts a large festival that draws thousands of people to celebrate the fruit.[15]

Michigan is the leader in highbush production.[16] In 1998, Michigan farms produced Script error: No such module "convert". of blueberries, accounting for 32% of those eaten in the United States.[17]

Commercial acreages of highbush blueberries are cultivated in the states of California, New Jersey, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, Oregon and Washington.[18][19]


File:Maturing blueberry.jpg
A maturing 'Polaris' blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum)

Canadian exports of blueberries in 2007 were C$756 million, the largest fruit crop produced nationally, occupying more than half of all Canadian fruit acreage.[20]

British Columbia is the largest Canadian producer of highbush blueberries, yielding 40 million kilograms in 2009, the world's largest production by region.[21][22]

Atlantic Canada contributes approximately half of the total North American wild/lowbush annual production of Script error: No such module "convert"..[23]

Nova Scotia, the biggest producer of wild blueberries in Canada, recognizes the blueberry as its official provincial berry.[24] The town of Oxford, Nova Scotia is known as the Wild Blueberry Capital of Canada. New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island are other Atlantic provinces with major wild blueberry farming.[25]

Québec is a major producer of wild blueberries, especially in the regions of Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean (where a popular name for inhabitants of the regions is bleuets, or "blueberries") and Côte-Nord, which together provide 40% of Québec's total provincial production. This wild blueberry commerce benefits from vertical integration of growing, processing, frozen storage, marketing and transportation within relatively small regions of the province.[26] On average, 80% of Québec wild blueberries are harvested on farms (21 million kg), the remaining 20% being harvested from public forests (5 million kg).[26] Some 95% of the wild blueberry crop in Québec is frozen for export out of the province.[26]


When cut and observed under a microscope, compounds in blueberries may fluoresce.[citation needed] With blue excitation light, green emission results (Script error: No such module "Gaps". magnification of a blueberry seed).[citation needed]

Highbush blueberries were first introduced to Germany, Sweden and the Netherlands in the 1930s, and have since been spread to Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Romania, Poland, Italy, Hungary and other countries of Europe.[2]


The northeastern part of Turkey is one of the main sources of Caucasian whortleberry (V. arctostaphylos), bilberry (V. myrtillus) and bog blueberry, bog whortleberry or bog bilberry (V. uliginosum). This region from Artvin to Kırklareli, as well as parts of Bursa (including Rize, Trabzon, Ordu, Giresun, Samsun, Sinop, Kastamonu, Zonguldak, İstanbul, İzmit and Adapazari) have rainy, humid growing periods and naturally acidic soils suitable for blueberries (Çelik, 2005, 2006 and 2007).[full citation needed]

Native Vaccinium species and open-pollinated types have been grown for over a hundred years around the Black Sea region of Turkey. These native blueberries are eaten locally as jelly or dried or fresh fruit (Çelik, 2005).[full citation needed] Highbush blueberry cultivation started around the year 2000. The first commercial blueberry orchard was established by Osman Nuri Yildiz and supervised by Dr. Huseyin Celik, the founder of Turkish blueberry cultivation.[citation needed]

Southern Hemisphere

File:Vaccinium fruit.JPG
A cut blueberry showing how, having been frozen and then thawed, the anthocyanins in the pericarp are able to run into the damaged cells, staining the flesh.

In the Southern Hemisphere, Chile, Argentina, Uruguay, South Africa, New Zealand, and Australia now export blueberries.

Blueberries were first introduced to Australia in the 1950s, but the effort was unsuccessful. In the early 1970s, David Jones from the Victorian Department of Agriculture imported seed from the U.S. and a selection trial was started. This work was continued by Ridley Bell, who imported more American varieties. In the mid-1970s, the Australian Blueberry Growers' Association was formed.[27][28]

By the early 1980s, the blueberry industry was started in New Zealand and is still growing.

The industry is new to Argentina: "Argentine blueberry production has increased over the last three years with planted area up to 400 percent", according to a 2005 report by the U.S. Department of Agriculture.[29] "Argentine blueberry production has thrived in four different regions: the province of Entre Rios in northeastern Argentina, the province of Tucuman, the province of Buenos Aires and the southern Patagonian valleys", according to the report.[30] In the Bureau of International Labor Affairs report of 2014 on child labor and forced labor, blueberries were listed among the goods produced in such working conditions in Argentina.[31]

Chile is the biggest producer in South America and the largest exporter to the Northern Hemisphere, with an estimated area of Script error: No such module "convert". in 2014.[citation needed] Chile exported about 104,505 tons of blueberry in the 2014/2015 season.[citation needed]

Introduction of the first plants into Chile started in the early 1980s, brought from USA and New Zealand, and commercial production started in the 1990s in the southern part of the country.[citation needed] Today, production ranges from Copiapó in the north to Puerto Montt in the south, allowing the country to offer blueberries from October through late March. Production has evolved rapidly in the last decade, becoming the fourth most important fruit exported in value terms. Blueberries are exported mainly to North America (79%), followed by Europe (17%), and Asia (South Korea, China and Japan).

In Peru, there are several private initiatives for the development of the crop. Also, the government through its agency Sierra Exportadora, has launched the program "Peru Berries" to take advantage of the existence of the ideal soil and climate required by the blueberry.[citation needed]


Harvest seasons

The blueberry harvest in North America varies. It can start as early as May and usually ends in late summer. The principal areas of production in the Southern Hemisphere (Australia, Chile, New Zealand and Argentina) have long periods of harvest. In Australia, for example, due to the geographic spread of blueberry farms and the development of new cultivation techniques, the industry is able to provide fresh blueberries for 10 months of the year – from July through to April.[27] Similar to other fruits and vegetables, climate-controlled storage allows growers to preserve picked blueberries. Harvest in the UK is from June to August. Mexico also can harvest from October to February.

Harvest methods

Although blueberries were traditionally hand-picked, modern farmers use machine harvesters that shake the fruit off the bush of cultivated highbush blueberries, while new machines are being developed for wild, lowbush blueberries.[32] The fruit is then brought to a cleaning/packaging facility where it is cleaned, packaged, then sold. In Mexico, each farmer packs on site and sells directly, or may transport to a warehouse for storage until the berries are sold.[citation needed]


File:Making Blueberry Jam 2.jpg
Making blueberry jam at home

Blueberries are sold fresh or processed as individually quick frozen (IQF) fruit, purée, juice, or dried or infused berries, which in turn may be used in a variety of consumer goods, such as jellies, jams, blueberry pies, muffins, snack foods and cereals.

Blueberry jam is made from blueberries, sugar, water, and fruit pectin.

Blueberry wine is made from the flesh and skin of the berry, which is fermented and then matured; usually the lowbush variety is used.


Blueberries contain micronutrients mostly in negligible amounts, with moderate levels (relative to respective Daily Values) (DV) of the essential dietary mineral manganese, vitamin C, vitamin K and dietary fiber (table).[33] Generally, nutrient contents of blueberries are a low percentage of the DV (table). One serving provides a relatively low caloric value of 57 kcal per 100 g serving and glycemic load score of 6 out of 100 per day.[33]

Phytochemicals and research

Blueberries contain anthocyanins, other polyphenols and various phytochemicals under preliminary research for their potential role in the human body. Most polyphenol studies have been conducted using the highbush cultivar of blueberries (V. corymbosum), while content of polyphenols and anthocyanins in lowbush (wild) blueberries (V. angustifolium) exceeds values found in highbush cultivars.[34]

Blueberries also contain methylparaben,[35][36] where it acts in the plant as an antimicrobial agent which may have pesticide effects against fruit flies.[37]


The application of pesticides is common in large-scale blueberry monoculture in Maine.[38] Because "wild" is a marketing term generally used for all low-bush blueberries, it is not an indication that such blueberries are free from pesticides.

The Environmental Working Group, referencing the USDA,[39] rates blueberries as a "significant concern".[40][41]

See also


  1. ^ Litz, Richard E (2005). Google Books -- Biotechnology of fruit and nut crops By Richard E. Litz. ISBN 9780851996622. 
  2. ^ a b Naumann, W. D. (1993). "Overview of the Vaccinium Industry in Western Europe". In K. A. Clayton-Greene. Fifth International Symposium on Vaccinium Culture. Wageningen, the Netherlands: International Society for Horticultural Science. pp. 53–58. ISBN 978-90-6605-475-2. OCLC 29663461. 
  3. ^ "Blueberry Information". Retrieved 2013-11-06. 
  4. ^ "Plants Profile: Vaccinium corymbosum L., Highbush blueberry". US Department of Agriculture, National Resources Conservation Service. 2013. Retrieved 30 April 2013. 
  5. ^ "Growing Highbush Blueberries" (PDF). University of New Hampshire-Extension. Retrieved September 22, 2013. 
  6. ^ "Wild Blueberry Network Information Centre". Retrieved 2011-10-11. 
  7. ^ "Blueberry Growing Comes to the National Agricultural Library". US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Magazine, Vol. 59, No. 5. June 2011. Retrieved 17 June 2011. 
  8. ^ "The History of ''Whitesbog Village''". 2014. Retrieved 2011-10-11. 
  9. ^ Krewer G, NeSmith DS (October 2006). "Blueberry Cultivars for Georgia" (PDF). University of Georgia. Retrieved 29 November 2014. 
  10. ^ "Southern Highbush Blueberry Marketing and Economics | CAES Publications | UGA". University of Georgia. 2013-01-03. Retrieved 2013-11-06. 
  11. ^ "Blueberries". GeorgiaInfo, Online Georgia Almanac. 2014. Retrieved 29 November 2014. 
  12. ^ Nelson JS (4 July 2010). "Blueberries". University of Illinois Extension. Retrieved 29 November 2014. 
  13. ^ "Home: Welcome to the Town of Hammonton". Town of Hammonton. 2013-09-11. Retrieved 2013-11-06. 
  14. ^ "Jersey Blueberries grown in the NJ Pine Barrens are the BEST!". Retrieved 2013-11-06. 
  15. ^ "Hammonton Chamber of Commerce". Retrieved 2013-11-06. 
  16. ^ "Agricultural Marketing Resource Center". Retrieved 2011-10-11. 
  17. ^ Michigan Department of Agriculture[dead link]
  18. ^ "US Highbush Blueberry Council". Retrieved 2011-10-11. 
  19. ^ "State of New Jersey Blueberry Production, 2010". State of New Jersey, Department of Agriculture. 2010-06-17. Retrieved 2011-10-11. 
  20. ^ Scrivener L. Economy singing the blues, but berries are booming: Health-conscious consumers can't get enough of Canada's most valuable fruit crop, Toronto Star, Jul 28, 2008
  21. ^ "British Columbia Blueberry Council". Retrieved 2013-11-06. 
  22. ^ "United States Highbush Blueberry Council". Retrieved 2011-10-11. 
  23. ^ Yarborough DE. Factors contributing to the increase in productivity in the wild blueberry industry, Small Fruits Review, 3(1-2), July 2004, 33-43, Abstract
  24. ^ Nova Scotia: Official emblems and symbols
  25. ^ "Wild Blueberries, Carrots, Cranberries, Battered Vegetables". Retrieved 2009-12-06. 
  26. ^ a b c Gagnon A (2006). "Wild Blueberry Production Guide in a Context of Sustainable Development: Survey of the Wild Blueberry Industry in Québec" (PDF). Ministère de l’Agriculture, des Pêcheries et de l’Alimentation du Québec. Retrieved 4 February 2015. 
  27. ^ a b "Australian Blueberry Growers' Association". Retrieved 2013-11-06. 
  28. ^ Clayton-Greene
  29. ^ U.S. Department of Agriculture GAIN Report, Retrieved June 30, 2011
  30. ^ Pirovano, Francisco (12 January 2005). "Argentina Blueberries Voluntary 2005". GAIN Report. Foreign Agricultural Service. Retrieved 22 June 2009. 
  31. ^ "List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor". 
  32. ^ "Progress Towards the Development of a Mechanical Harvester for Wild Blueberries". University of Maine, Cooperative Extension. 2001. Retrieved 28 November 2014. 
  33. ^ a b "In-depth nutrition information on raw blueberries, per 100 g, USDA Nutrient Database, Standard Reference version SR-21". Conde Nast. 2014. Retrieved 28 November 2014. 
  34. ^ Kalt W, Ryan DA, Duy JC, Prior RL, Ehlenfeldt MK, Vander Kloet SP (October 2001). "Interspecific variation in anthocyanins, phenolics, and antioxidant capacity among genotypes of highbush and lowbush blueberries (Vaccinium section cyanococcus spp.)". J Agric Food Chem. 49 (10): 4761–7. ISSN 0021-8561. PMID 11600018. doi:10.1021/jf010653e. 
  35. ^ Al-Shamma A, Drake S, Flynn DL, Mitscher LA, Park YH, Rao GSR, Simpson A, Swayze JK, Veysoglu T, Wu STS (1981). "Antimicrobial Agents From Higher Plants. Antimicrobial Agents From Peganum harmala Seeds". J Nat Prod 44 (6): 745–747. PMID 7334386. doi:10.1021/np50018a025. 
  36. ^ Bais HP, Vepachedu R, Vivanco JM, (1 April 2003). "Root specific elicitation and exudation of fluorescent beta-carbolines in transformed root cultures of Oxalis tuberosa". Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 41 (4): 345–353. doi:10.1016/S0981-9428(03)00029-9. 
  37. ^ Gu Wei (2009). "Toxicity and Estrogen Effects of Methyl Paraben on Drosophila melanogaster". Food Science 30 (1): 252–254. 
  38. ^ "Catching the Toxic Drift: How Pesticides Used in the Blueberry Industry Threaten Our Communities, Our Water and the Environment". Environment Maine. 2005-08-16. Retrieved 2011-10-11. 
  39. ^ "Measure E8: Pesticide Residues on Foods Frequently Consumed by Children". EPA. November 2010. Retrieved 9 September 2012. 
  40. ^ "EWG'S 2011 Shopper's Guide Helps Cut Consumer Pesticide Exposure | Environmental Working Group". Retrieved 2011-10-11. 
  41. ^ "Executive Summary | EWG's Shopper's Guide to Pesticides | Environmental Working Group". Retrieved 2011-10-11. 

Further reading

External links

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