The Boeing P-12/F4B was an American pursuit aircraft that was operated by the United States Army Air Corps and United States Navy.
Design and development
Boeing developed the aircraft as a private venture to replace the Boeing F3B and Boeing F2B with the United States Navy, the first flight of the P-12 took place on 25 June 1928. The new aircraft was smaller, lighter and more agile than the ones it replaced but still used the Wasp engine of the F3B. This resulted in a higher top speed and overall better performance. As result of Navy evaluation 27 were ordered as the F4B-1, later evaluation by the United States Army Air Corps resulted in orders with the designation P-12. Boeing supplied the USAAC with 366 P-12s between 1929 and 1932. Production of all variants totalled 586.
P-12s were flown by the 17th Pursuit Group (34th, 73rd, and 95th Pursuit Squadrons) at March Field, California, and the 20th Pursuit Group (55th, 77th and 79th Pursuit Squadrons) at Barksdale Field, Louisiana. Older P-12s were used by groups overseas: the 4th Composite Group (3rd Pursuit Squadron) in the Philippines, the 16th Pursuit Group (24th, 29th, 74th, and 79th Pursuit Squadrons) in the Canal Zone, and the 18th Pursuit Group (6th and 19th Pursuit Squadrons) in Hawaii.
The P-12 remained in service with first-line pursuit groups until replaced by Boeing P-26s in 1934–1935. Survivors were relegated to training duties until 1941, when most were grounded and assigned to mechanic's schools.
- Model 83
- One prototype with spreader bar landing gear and 425 hp Pratt & Whitney R-1340-8 engine, later designated XF4B-1 for Navy evaluation.
- Model 89
- One prototype with split-axle undercarriage and provision for a 500 lb bomb on ventral rack, later designated XF4B-1 for Navy evaluation.
- Model 102, U.S. Army Air Corps version of the F4B-1 with a 450 hp R-1340-7 engine, nine built.
- 10th built P-12 with NACA cowl a 525 hp R-1340-9 engine and shorter undercarriage, one built.
- Model 102B, as P-12 with larger mainwheels and improvements tested on XP-12A, 90 built.
- Model 222, as P-12B with ring cowl and spread-bar undercarriage, 96 built.
- Model 234, as P-12C with a 525 hp R-1340-17 engine, 35 built.
- Model 234, as P-12D with semi-monocoque metal fuselage, redesigned vertical tail surfaces, some were later fitted with tailwheels instead of skids, 110 built.
- Model 251, as P-12E with a 600 hp R-1340-19 engine, 25 built.
- P-12B modified with a R-1340-15 engine with side-type supercharger, one converted.
- P-12D modified with a GISR-1340E experimental engine, one converted.
- P-12E modified with a 575 hp R-1340-23 engine, and special bomb sight, one conversion.
- P-12E and P-12J re-engined with a fuel injected SR-1340E engine, seven temporary conversions.
- YP-12K temporary fitted with a F-2 supercharger, one converted.
- designation for proposed use of P-12 as a radio-controlled target drone (cancelled)
- Designation given to two prototypes for Navy evaluation, the former Model 83 and the former Model 89.
- Boeing Model 99 for the United States Navy, split axle landing gear and ventral bomb rack, 27 built.
- One F4B-1 converted to unarmed executive transport for the Assistant Secretary of the Navy, fuel tank moved to upper wing centre section.
- Boeing Model 223, spreader bar landing gear, frise ailerons, tailwheel replacing skid, 46 built.
- Boeing Model 235, as F4B-2 but with semi-monocoque metal fuselage and equipment changes, 21 built.
- Boeing Model 235, as F4B-3 but with redesigned vertical tail surfaces, 550 hp R-1340-16 engine, underwing racks for two 116 lb bombs, last 45 built had an enlarged headrest housing a life raft, 92 built and one built from spares.
- 23 assorted P-12 aircraft transferred from USAAC for use as a radio-controlled target aircraft.
- Model 100
- Civil version of the F4B-1, four built.
- Model 100A
- Two-seat civil version for Howard Hughes, later converted to a single-seater, one built.
- Model 100D
- One Model 100 temporary used as a P-12 demonstrator.
- Model 100E
- Export version of the P-12E for the Siamese Air Force, two built, one later transferred to the Japanese Navy under the designation AXB.
- Model 100F
- One civil variant of the P-12F sold to Pratt & Whitney as an engine test bed.
- Model 218
- Prototype of the P-12E/F4B-3 variant, after evaluation sold to the Chinese Air Force.
- Model 256
- Export version of the F4B-4 for Brazilian Navy, 14 built.
- Model 267
- Export version for Brazil with an F4B-3 fuselage and P-12E wings, nine built.
- 23x15px Brazil
- 23x15px China
- 23x15px Philippines
- 23x15px Spain
- 23x15px Thailand
- 23x15px United States
Aircraft on display
- A surviving P-12E is on display at the National Museum of the United States Air Force at Wright-Patterson AFB near Dayton, Ohio.
- A P-12E, marked as an F4B-1, is on display at the Planes of Fame Air Museum in Chino, California. The aircraft is in flyable condition, although it hasn't been flown for a number of years.
- An F4B-4 is on display in the "Sea-Air Operations" Gallery at the National Air and Space Museum in Washington, D.C.
- One of the four Model 100s is displayed at Museum of Flight, Seattle, Washington, United States
- A replica P-12B is on display at the Tennessee Museum of Aviation in Sevierville, Tennessee
- An F4B-4 "Felix the cat" is displayed in the entrance hall of the Honolulu International Airport
- A P-12F restored to look like an F4B-4 and painted with the markings of Fighting Squadron 6B "Felix the Cat" is on display at the National Naval Aviation Museum in Pensacola, Florida.
- A Model 100E on display at Royal Thai Air Force Museum, Don Muang Royal Thai Air Force Base.
Data from Bowers 1989General characteristics
- Guns: 2 x .30 inch (7.62 mm) Browning machine guns with 600 rounds per gun or 1 x .30 inch (7.62 mm) machine gun with 600 rounds and 1 x .50 inch (12.7 mm) machine gun with 200 rounds 
- Bombs: 244 lb (111 kg) of bombs carried externally.
- Related lists
- ^ "Historical Listings: Brazil, (BRZ)."] World Air Forces. Retrieved: 19 May 2011.
- ^ "F4B." VF31.com. Retrieved: 10 June 2011.
- ^ Bowers 1989, p. 166.
- ^ Bowers 1989, p. 168.
- ^ Bowers 1989, p. 170.
- ^ Bowers 1989, p. 181.
- ^ Bowers 1989, pp. 187–188.
- ^ Bowers 1989, pp. 188–189.
- ^ Bowers 1989, pp. 189–190.
- ^ Bowers 1989, pp. 171–172.
- ^ Bowers 1989, pp. 173–174.
- ^ Bowers 1989, p. 175.
- ^ Bowers 1989, pp. 175–176.
- ^ Bowers 1989, p. 176.
- ^ Bowers, 1989. pp. 179–180.
- ^ Bowers 1989, pp. 192–193.
- ^ Bowers 1989, p. 193.
- ^ Angelucci 1983, p. 120.
- ^ Bowers, Peter M. The Boeing P-12E. London and Watford: Profile Publications. p. 4.
- Angelucci, Enzo. The Rand McNally Encyclopedia of Military Aircraft, 1914–1980. San Diego, California: The Military Press, 1983. ISBN 0-517-41021-4.
- Baugher, Joe. "Boeing P-12". American Military Aircraft, 6 June 1998. Retrieved: 10 June 2011.
- Bowers, Peter M. Boeing Aircraft since 1916. London: Putnam Aeronautical Books, 1989. ISBN 0-85177-804-6.
- Bowers, Peter M. The Boeing P-12E. Number 2, Profile Publications