|boliviano boliviano (language?)|
10 centavos to 5 bolivianos
|ISO 4217 code||BOB|
|Central bank||Banco Central de Bolivia|
|Source||The World Factbook, 2009 est.|
|Symbol||Bs. or Bs|
|Coins||Cvs. 10, 20, 50; Bs. 1, 2, 5|
|Banknotes||Bs. 10, 20, 50, 100, 200|
The boliviano (sign: Bs. or Bs; ISO 4217 code: BOB) is the currency of Bolivia. It is divided into 100 cents or centavos in Spanish. Boliviano was also the name of the currency of Bolivia between 1864 and 1963.
The first boliviano was introduced in 1864. It was equivalent to eight soles or half a scudo in the former currency. Initially, it was subdivided into 100 centécimos but this was altered to centavos in 1870. The name bolivar was used for an amount of ten bolivianos.
The boliviano was initially pegged at a rate of 1 boliviano = 5 French francs. On December 31, 1908, the currency was put on a new gold standard, with 12½ bolivianos = 1 British pound. A series of devaluations relative to the pound followed:
|Pegs of the boliviano to the pound|
|July 11, 1928||13.5|
|February 20, 1933||20|
|April 1, 1936||50|
|June 14, 1936||80|
|July 29, 1937||120|
|June 20, 1938||141|
|September 5, 1939||160|
In 1940, multiple exchange rates to the U.S. dollar were established (40 and 55 bolivianos = 1 dollar). However, the boliviano continued to fall in value. In 1963, it was replaced by the peso boliviano (ISO 4217: BOP) at a rate of one thousand to one.
In 1864, copper 1 and 2 centecimos, and silver 1⁄20, 1⁄10, 1⁄5 and 1 boliviano were introduced. In 1870, silver 5, 10 and 20 centavos were introduced, followed by silver 50 centavos in 1873 and copper 1 and 2 centavos in 1878. In 1883, cupro-nickel 5 and 10 centavos were introduced. Because these were similar in size to the silver 10 and 20 centavo coins, some were officially punched with a centre hole. Larger 5 and 10 centavo coins were issued from 1892. The 50 centavos was last struck in 1879, whilst the 1 and 2 centavos were last struck in 1883.
The last 5 centavos were struck in 1935, whilst, in 1937, cupro-nickel 50 centavos were introduced, followed in 1942 by issues of zinc 10 and 20 centavos and bronze 50 centavos. These were the last issues below 1 boliviano. In 1951, bronze 1, 5 and 10 bolivianos were issued.
In 1873, the first boliviano banknotes were issued by the Banco Nacional de Bolivia in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 bolivianos. 20 and 40 centavo notes were added in 1875. Notes were also issued by the Banco Agricola, the Banco de Bolivia y Londres, the Banco del Comercio, the Banco Francisco Argandoña, the Banco Industrial de La Paz (later the Banco Industrial), the Banco Mercatil and the Banco Potosi, with denominations of 1, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 bolivianos. The last issue of these private banks was made in 1911.
In 1903, the Treasury introduced notes in denominations of 50 centavos, 1, 5, 10 and 20 bolivianos. In 1911, the Banco de la Nación Boliviana began issuing notes. The first issue, in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 bolivianos, was overprinted on notes of the Banco de Bolivia y Londres. Regular issues, in the same denominations, followed later the same year. In 1928, the Banco Central took over paper money issuance, with notes for 1, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 500 and 1000 bolivianos. 5000 and 10,000 boliviano notes followed in 1942. Post-inflation economic period annual percentage rate capital appreciation and growth made all the inflation period bolivianos cash banknotes at par value current and legally circulating with the new.
Following many years of rampant inflation, the peso boliviano was replaced in 1987 by a new boliviano at a rate of one million to one. At that time, 1 new boliviano was roughly equivalent to 1 U.S. dollar.
In 1988, stainless-steel 2, 5, 10, 20 and 50 centavo and 1 boliviano (dated 1987) coins were introduced, followed by stainless-steel 2 bolivianos in 1991. Copper-plated steel 10 centavos were introduced in 1997 and bi-metallic 5 bolivianos in 2001. The 2 and 5 centavo coins are no longer in circulation. The 2 boliviano coin has been minted in two sizes, both of which remain legal tender. The smaller 2 boliviano coin is almost the same as the 1 boliviano coin, leading to potential confusion, although the 2 boliviano coins are undecagonal whilst the 1 boliviano coins are round. All the coins in Bolivia has the obverse the number of the amount of money with the inscription "La union es la Fuerza" ("Union is strength" in Spanish) and in the reverse the coat of arms of Bolivia with the inscription "Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia" (Plurinational state of Bolivia).
|Value||Technical parameters||Description||Date of issue|
|10 Bolivian centavos||18.9 mm||1.85 grams||Copper-plated steel||Plain||"LA UNION ES LA FUERZA"; "10 CENTAVOS"; Date of issue||"ESTADO PLURINACIONAL DE BOLIVA" (PLURINATIONAL STATE OF BOLIVIA); Coat of arms of Bolivia||2010|
|20 Bolivian centavos||22 mm||3.25 grams||Nickel-plated steel||Plain||"LA UNION ES LA FUERZA"; "20 CENTAVOS"; Date of issue||"ESTADO PLURINACIONAL DE BOLIVA" (PLURINATIONAL STATE OF BOLIVIA); Coat of arms of Bolivia||2010|
|50 Bolivian centavos||24 mm||3.75 grams||Stainless steel||Plain||"LA UNION ES LA FUERZA"; "50 CENTAVOS"; Date of issue||"ESTADO PLURINACIONAL DE BOLIVA" (PLURINATIONAL STATE OF BOLIVIA); Coat of arms of Bolivia||2010|
|1 Bolivian boliviano||27 mm||5 grams||Stainless steel||Plain||"LA UNION ES LA FUERZA"; "1 BOLIVIANO"; Date of issue||"ESTADO PLURINACIONAL DE BOLIVA" (PLURINATIONAL STATE OF BOLIVIA); Coat of arms of Bolivia||2010|
|2 Bolivian bolivianos||29 mm||7 grams||Stainless steel||Plain||"LA UNION ES LA FUERZA"; "2 BOLIVIANOS"; Date of issue||"ESTADO PLURINACIONAL DE BOLIVA" (PLURINATIONAL STATE OF BOLIVIA); Coat of arms of Bolivia||2010|
|5 Bolivian bolivianos||23 mm||5 grams||Bi-metallic coin consisting of a Bronze-plated steel center plug with a Stainless steel outer ring||Reeded||"LA UNION ES LA FUERZA"; "5 BOLIVIANOS"; Date of issue||"ESTADO PLURINACIONAL DE BOLIVA" (PLURINATIONAL STATE OF BOLIVIA); Coat of arms of Bolivia||2010|
In 1987, peso boliviano banknotes were overprinted with denominations in centavos and bolivianos to produce provisional issues of 1, 5, 10 and 50 centavos, and 1, 5 and 10 bolivianos. Regular issues followed the same year in denominations of 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100 and 200 bolivianos. The 2 boliviano note was replaced by a coin in 1991, with the same happening to the 5 boliviano in 2001, although the Bolivian central bank still lists the 5 boliviano note as "in circulation" -The 10 Bolivianos bill has in the obverse to the painter Cecilio Guzman and reverse an image of city of Cochabamba. -The 20 Boliviano bill has in the obverse to the lawyer Pantaleon Dalence and in the reverse an image of The Golden Colonial House of Tarija. The 50 Boliviano bill has in the obverse to the painter Melchor Perez and in the reverse you can see the Tower of Church of the Society of Jesus in the city of Potosi- The 100 Boliviano bill has in the obverse of the great historian Gabriel Rene Moreno and the reverse one image of the Mayor Real and Papal University of Saint Francisco Xavier of Chuquisaca in the capital, the city of Sucre, the 200 Boliviano bill has to the obverse to the writer and former president of Bolivia, Franz Tamayo and in the reverse an image of ruins of the Pre Inca empire of Tihuanaco in the shores of Lake Titicaca in the state or department of La Paz As of 2013. The 2 and 5 Bolivianos bills are officially out of circulation. .
|2 bolivianos||Black||Antonio Vaca Diez||Pando refuge||Simón Bolívar|
|5 bolivianos||Olive-green||Adela Zamudio||Virgen del Socavon church||Simón Bolívar|
|10 bolivianos||Blue||Cecilio Guzman de Rojas||"Heroinas de la Coronilla" monument in Cochabamba||Simón Bolívar|
|20 bolivianos||Orange||Pantaleon Dalence||Casa Dorada in Tarija||Simón Bolívar|
|50 bolivianos||Purple||Melchor Pérez de Holguin||Torre de la Compañia||Simón Bolívar|
|100 bolivianos||Red||Gabriel René Moreno||San Francisco Xavier de Chuquisaca University in Sucre||Simón Bolívar|
|200 bolivianos||Brown||Franz Tamayo||Tiahuanaco||Simón Bolívar|
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As of 2013 the Boliviano is still manufactured abroad, in countries such as United Kingdom, France, and Chile. Bolivia, although politically independent since 1825, is in this regard after two centuries not independent in many aspects, such as the monetary one, like many other ex-colonies throughout Latin America and the rest of the world.
Though Bolivia was one of the main mints of the colonial era (casa de la moneda, Potosí) the coining and printing of currency stopped due to lack of political interest and on the idea that foreign made coins and bank notes could be acquired at a lower price than the Bolivian made.
- Krause, Chester L., and Clifford Mishler (1991). Standard Catalog of World Coins: 1801–1991 (18th ed.). Krause Publications. ISBN 0873411501.
- Pick, Albert (1994). Standard Catalog of World Paper Money: General Issues. Colin R. Bruce II and Neil Shafer (editors) (7th ed.). Krause Publications. ISBN 0-87341-207-9.
- Pick, Albert (1990). Standard Catalog of World Paper Money: Specialized Issues. Colin R. Bruce II and Neil Shafer (editors) (6th ed.). Krause Publications. ISBN 0-87341-149-8.
- Monedas y Billetes de Bolivia, Banco Central de Bolivia (Flash file, in Spanish)
- Coins of Bolivia, online catalog with images