Book of Nahum
|Joshua 1:1 as recorded in the Aleppo Codex|
|Old Testament (Christianity)|
According to some, Nahum prophesied in the beginning of the reign of Ahaz (740s BC). Others, however, think that his prophecies are to be referred to the latter half of the reign of Hezekiah (8th century BC). The book would then have been written in Jerusalem, where he witnessed the invasion of Sennacherib and the destruction of his host (2 Kings 19:35).
The scholarly consensus is that the "book of vision" was written at the time of the fall of Nineveh at the hands of the Medes and Babylonians(612 BC). This theory is demonstrated by the fact that the oracles must be dated after the Assyrian destruction of Thebes, Egypt in 663 BC as this event is mentioned in Nahum 3:8.
Little is known about Nahum’s personal history. His name means "comforter," and he was from the town of Alqosh, (Nahum 1:1) which scholars have attempted to identify with several cities, including the modern `Alqush of Assyria and Capharnaum of northern Galilee. He was a very nationalistic Hebrew, and lived amongst the Elkoshites in peace. One account suggests that his writings are a prophecy written in about 615 BC, just before the downfall of Assyria, while another account suggests that he wrote this passage as liturgy just after its downfall in 612 BC.
The subject of Nahum's prophecy is the approaching complete and final destruction of Nineveh, the capital of the great and at that time flourishing Assyrian empire. Assur-bani-pal was at the height of his glory. Nineveh was a city of vast extent, and was then the center of the civilization and commerce of the world, a "bloody city all full of lies and robbery" (Nahum 3:1), for it had robbed and plundered all the neighboring nations. It was strongly fortified on every side, bidding defiance to every enemy. One popular verse is 3:5, "Behold, I am against thee, saith YHWH of hosts, and I will uncover thy skirts upon thy face; and I will show the nations thy nakedness, and the kingdoms thy shame." This is very symbolic showing that Nineveh was known for being a city full of prostitutes.
Nineveh was destroyed apparently by fire around 625 BC, and the Assyrian empire came to an end, an event which changed the face of Asia. Archaeological digs have uncovered the splendor of Nineveh in its zenith under Sennacherib (705–681 BC), Esarhaddon (681–669 BC), and Ashurbanipal (669–633 BC). Massive walls were eight miles in circumference. It had a water aqueduct, palaces and a library with 20,000 clay tablets, including accounts of a creation in Enuma Elish and a flood in the Epic of Gilgamesh. The Babylonian chronicle of the fall of Nineveh tells the story of the end of Nineveh. Naboplassar of Babylon joined forces with Cyaxares, king of the Medes, and laid siege for three months. Assyria lasted a few more years after the loss of its fortress, but attempts by Egyptian Pharaoh Neco II to rally the Assyrians failed due to opposition from king Josiah of Judah, and it seemed to be all over by 609 BC.
The book of Nahum consists of two parts:
Chapter one shows the majesty and might of God the LORD in goodness and severity.
Chapters two and three describe the fall of Nineveh in 612 BCE. Nineveh is compared to Thebes, the Egyptian city that Assyria itself had destroyed in 663 BCE. Nahum describes the siege and frenzied activity of Nineveh’s troops as they try in vain to halt the invaders. Poetically, he becomes a participant in the battle, and with subtle irony, barks battle commands to the defenders. Nahum uses numerous similes and metaphors. Nineveh is ironically compared with a lion, in reference to the lion as an Assyrian symbol of power; Nineveh is the lion of strength that has a den full of dead prey but will become weak like the lion hiding in its den. It comes to conclusion with a taunt song and funeral dirge of the impending destruction of Nineveh and the "sleep" or death of the Assyrian people and demise of the once great Assyrian conqueror-rulers.
The fall of Nineveh
Nahum’s prophecy carries a particular warning to the Ninevites of coming events, although he is partly in favor of the destruction. One might even say that the book of Nahum is "a celebration of the fall of Assyria." And this is not just a warning or speaking positively of the destruction of Ninevah, it is also a positive encouragement and "message of comfort for Israel, Judah, and others who had experienced the "endless cruelty" (3:19) of the Assyrians." The prophet Jonah shows us where God shows concern for the people of Nineveh, while Nahum’s writing testifies to his belief in the righteousness/justice of God and how God dealt with those Assyrians in punishment according to "their cruelty" (Nahum 3:19). The Assyrians had been used as God's "rod of [...] anger, and the staff in their hand [as] indignation." (Isaiah 10:5)
The nature of God
From its opening, Nahum shows God to be slow to anger but that He will by no means clear the guilty, but will bring his vengeance and wrath to pass. God is presented as a God who will punish evil but will protect those who trust in Him. The opening passage (Nahum 1:2–3) states: "God is jealous, and the LORD revengeth; the LORD revengeth, and is furious; the LORD will take vengeance on his adversaries, and he reserveth wrath for his enemies. The LORD is slow to anger, and great in power, and will not at all acquit the wicked". God is strong and will use means, but a mighty God doesn't need anyone else to carry out vengeance and wrath for him.
Nahum 1:3 (NIV) The LORD is slow to anger and Quick to love; the LORD will not leave the guilty unpunished.
Nahum 1:7 (NIV) The LORD is good, a refuge in times of trouble. He cares for those who trust in him
God's judgement on Ninevah is "all because of the wanton lust of a harlot, alluring, the mistress of sorceries, who enslaved nations by her prostitution and peoples by her witchcraft." (Nahum 3:4 NIV). Sexual infidelity, according to the prophets, related to spiritual unfaithfulness. For example: the land is guilty of the vilest adultery in departing from the LORD.(Hosea 1:2 NIV) The apostle John used a similar analogy in Revelation chapter 17.
The book was introduced in Calvin's Commentary as a complete and finished poem:
No one of the minor Prophets seems to equal the sublimity, the vehemence and the boldness of Nahum: besides, his Prophecy is a complete and finished poem; his exordium is magnificent, and indeed majestic; the preparation for the destruction of Nineveh, and the description of its ruin, and its greatness, are expressed in most vivid colors, and possess admirable perspicuity and fulness.—Rev. John Owen, translator, Calvin's Commentary on Jonah, Micah, Nahum
Nahum, taking words from Moses himself, have shown in a general way what sort of "Being God is". The Reformation theologian Calvin argued, Nahum painted God by which his nature must be seen, and "it is from that most memorable vision, when God appeared to Moses after the breaking of the tables."
Nahum's writings could be taken as prophecy or as history. One account suggests that his writings are a prophecy written in about 615 BC, just before the downfall of Assyria, while another account suggests that he wrote this passage as liturgy just after its downfall in 612 BC.
The book could be seen as an allusion to the history as described by Moses; for the minor Prophets, in promising God’s assistance to his people, must often remind how God in a miraculous manner brought up the Jews from Egypt.
- Kent H. Richards, Nahum Introduction: The Harper Collins Study Bible, (New York: Harper Collins, 2006) 1250
- Michael D. Coogan, A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009) 297–298
- "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Nahum". newadvent.org.
- Heaton, E. W., A Short Introduction To The Old Testament Prophets, p. 35, Oneworld Publications, P.O. Box 830, 21 Broadway, Rockport, NA 01966, ISBN 1-85168-114-0
- "Nahum". aboutbibleprophecy.com.
- "Saudi Aramco World : Nineveh". saudiaramcoworld.com.
- "CREATION MYTHS IN THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST". uoregon.edu.
- "The fall of Nineveh Chronicle (ABC 3)". livius.org.
- "ANE History: The End of Judah". theology.edu.
- "Assyria, 1365609 B.C.". metmuseum.org.
- Clark, David J.; Hatton, Howard A. (1994). The Books of Nahum, Habakkuk, and Zephaniah. New York: United Bible Societies. p. 1. ISBN 0-8267-0130-2.
- See also Romans 11:22
- "Nahum". earlyjewishwritings.com.
- Centre Column Reference Bible, (Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1994) 1262
- "Commentaries on Twelve Minor Prophets".
- Calvin's Commentary on Jonah, Micah, Nahum; Rev. John Owen, translator
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- Unique Pictures Of Nahum Tomb By Kobi Arami
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- 12px Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Nahum". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. This article also contains a section on the Book of Nahum.
12px This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Easton, Matthew George (1897). "article name needed". Easton's Bible Dictionary (New and revised ed.). T. Nelson and Sons.
Book of Nahum
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