|King of Dacia|
File:Burebista statue in Calarasi.jpg|
Burebista statue in the Municipal Park of Călăraşi
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Burebista (Ancient Greek: Βυρεβίστας, Βοιρεβίστας) was a king of the Getae and Dacians, who unified their tribes for the first time and ruled them between 82 BC and 44 BC. He led plunder and conquest raids across Central and Southeastern Europe, subjugating most of the neighbouring tribes. After his assassination in a palace coup, the empire was divided into smaller states.
Only three ancient sources on Burebista survive: Strabo: Geographica 7.3.5, 7.3.11 and 16.2.39 (who spells his name Byrebistas and Boirebistas); Jordanes: Getica 67 (spells his name Buruista); and a marble inscription found in Balchik, Bulgaria (now found at the National Museum in Sofia) which represents a decree by the citizens of Dionysopolis about Akornion.
Development of Burebista's polity
The development of a La Tène-based economy in 3rd-2nd century BC allowed the consolidation of political power through tribal unions. Such regional unions were found both among the Transylvanian Dacians (under the rule of Rubobostes) and the Moldavian and Wallachian Getae (with a center of power in Argedava). Burebista was the first to create a union of tribes of both Dacians and the Getae.
This alliance was probably a weakly centralized state, with a military organization similar to the one of the Hellenistic Kingdoms. The exact degree of centralization is under debate, with archaeologists, such as K. Lockyear, denying the existence of a state, because the archaeological evidence shows much regional diversity, with only a few region-wide trends. Others, such as A. Diaconescu, dispute this and conclude that there was a centralized political structure.
During Burebista's rule, nearly all production was by free people.
Strabo wrote that Burebista was able to obtain the complete obedience of his tribe with the help of Decaeneus, a wizard and a diviner who learned his craft in Egypt. The people's obedience to Burebista was so complete that they were even persuaded to cut their vines and give up drinking wine. Jordanes further claims that the high priest held "almost royal powers" and taught the "Goths" a code of laws called the "belagines laws", but also ethics, philosophy and sciences, including physics and astronomy.
In the heart of Burebista's empire, in the Orăştie Mountains, he built a system of stone fortifications on higher ground; the most important of such hill forts are located today in the villages of Costeşti, Blidaru, Piatra Roşie and Băniţa.
Conquests and external policy
Burebista led a policy of conquest of new territories: in 60/59 BC, he attacked and vanquished the Celtic tribes of Boii and Taurisci, who dwelt along the Middle Danube and in what is now Slovakia. After 55 BC and probably before 48 BC, Burebista conquered the Black Sea shore, subjugating the Greek fortresses from Olbia to Apollonia, as well as the Danubian Plain all the way to the Balkans. Strabo also mentions the expeditions against a group of Celts who lived among the Thracians and Illyrians (probably the Scordisci).
The only Greek polis with which Burebista had good relations was Dionysopolis. According to an inscription found in this city, Akornion, a citizen of the city was a chief adviser (πρῶτοσφίλος, literally "first friend") of Burebista.
At its peak of power, Burebista's empire stretched from modern Slovakian Carpathians to the Balkans and from the Middle Danube to the Black Sea. Strabo claims that the Getae could raise up to 200,000 soldiers in wartime, a rather improbable number, but which could represent the total number of able males, not the number of any army. Burebista was a worthy adversary for the Romans, as his army would cross the Danube and plunder the Roman towns as far as in Thrace, Macedonia and Illyria.
In 48 BC, Burebista sided with Pompey during his struggle against Julius Caesar in the Roman civil war, sending Akornion as an ambassador and a military adviser. After Caesar emerged as victor, he planned on sending legions to punish Burebista, but he was assassinated in the Senate before he could do so, on March 15, 44 BC.
Burebista only outlived Caesar for a short time. In the same year he was assassinated in a plot by the tribal aristocracy, who felt that a centralized state would reduce their power. After his death, the empire dissolved, with the exception of the nucleus around the Orăştie Mountains, while the rest divided into various kingdoms. When Augustus Caesar sent an army against the Getae, the former state of Burebista was divided into four states.
In Romania, starting in the 1970s, the Nicolae Ceauşescu regime used a nationalistic and questionable interpretation of ancient history (Protochronism) as a way to legitimize its own rule. For instance, Burebista, a great conqueror, was seen as merely a "unifier" of the Dacian tribes.
As part of this tendency, in 1980 the Romanian government declared the celebration of the 2050th anniversary of the founding of the "unified and centralized" Dacian state of Burebista, drawing comparisons with Ceauşescu's Romania and claiming an uninterrupted existence of the state from Burebista to Ceauşescu. The epic movie Burebista (1980) based on the king's life was released in that year, celebrating him as the Romanian pater patriae.
This commemoration led the press to note "similarities" between Burebista and Ceauşescu, and even professional historians such as Ion Horaţiu Crişan spoke about Burebista in ways similar to the ways party activists spoke about Ceauşescu.
- W. S. Hanson, Ian Haynes, Roman Dacia: the making of a provincial society, 2004, Journal of Roman Archaeology, ISBN 1-887829-56-3, p. 34
- Pippidi 1976, p. 116-117.
- Jinyu Liu, "Review of Roman Dacia. The Making of a Provincial Society", Bryn Mawr Classical Review, March 12, 2005
- Strabo, Geography, VII:3.11
- Jordanes, XI
- John T. Koch, Celtic culture: a historical encyclopedia, p.550, ABC-CLIO, 2006 ISBN 1-85109-440-7
- H. Daicoviciu, p. 127
- Boia, p.184
- Strabo, Geography, VII:3.5
- Boia, p. 221
- Boia, 177
- Boia, p. 78; 125
- Strabo; H.L. Jones (Editor) (1924). "The Geography of Strabo". The Perseus Digital Library. Tufts University. pp. Books 6‑14. Retrieved 2007-11-03. English text.
- Jordanes, Getica: The origin and deeds of the Goths, translated by Charles C. Mierow. (Chapter XI)
- Lucian Boia, History and Myth in Romanian Consciousness, Budapest: Central European University Press, 2001;
- Hadrian Daicoviciu, Dacii, Editura Enciclopedică Română, Bucharest, 1972.
- Pippidi, Dionisie M., ed. (1976). Dicţionar de istorie veche a României: (paleolitic - sec. X) (Dictionary of Romanian old history). Bucharest: Editura ştiinţifică şi enciclopedică.
- Kai Brodersen: Könige im Karpatenbogen. In: Zeitschrift für Siebenbürgische Landeskunde 36 (2013) pp. 129–146 (ISSN 0344-3418)
|40x40px||Wikimedia Commons has media related to Burebista.|
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- Searchable Greek Inscriptions at The Packard Humanities Institute (PHI) - Burebista and Argedava segment from Decree of Dionysopolis reviewed in Inscriptiones graecae in Bulgaria repertae by Georgi Mihailov
- A fost Argedava (Popesti) resedinta statului geto-dac condus de Burebista? - Article in Informatia de Giurgiu (Romanian)