|Template:Region history sidebar title|
The Buyid dynasty was founded by 'Ali ibn Buya, who in 934 conquered Fars and made Shiraz his capital, while his younger brother Hasan ibn Buya conquered parts of Jibal in the late 930s, and by 943 managed to capture Ray, which he made his capital. In 945, the youngest brother, Ahmad ibn Buya, conquered Iraq and made Baghdad his capital, receiving the honorific title of "Mu'izz al-Dawla", while 'Ali was given the title of "'Imad al-Dawla" ("Support of the State"), and Hasan was given the title of "Rukn al-Dawla" ("Pillar of the State").
At its greatest extent, the Buyid dynasty encompassed most of today's Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, and Syria, along with parts of Oman, the UAE, Turkey, Afghanistan and Pakistan. During the 10th and 11th centuries, just prior to the invasion of the Seljuq Turks, the Buyids were the most influential dynasty in the Middle East, and under king 'Adud al-Dawla, became one of the most powerful Muslim dynasties.
The approximate century of Buyid rule, coupled with the rise of other Iranian dynasties in the region, represents a period in Iranian history sometimes called the 'Iranian Intermezzo' since it was an interlude between the rule of the 'Abbāsid Arabs and the Seljuq Turks. Indeed, as Dailamite Iranians the Buyids consciously revived symbols and practices of Persia's Sassānid dynasty. In fact, beginning with 'Adud al-Dawla they used the ancient Sassānid title Shāhanshāh (Persian: شاهنشاه), literally "king of kings".
The Buyids were descendants of Panah-Khusrau, a Zoroastrian from Dailam. He had a son named Buya, who was a fisherman from Lahijan, and later left his Zoroastrian faith and converted to Islam. Buya later had three sons named Ahmad, 'Ali, and Hasan, who would later carve the Buyid kingdom together. According to Lokman I. Meho and Kelly L. Maglaughli, the Buyids were of Kurdish origin, however, most historians agree that the Buyids were of Dailamite origin.
The founder of the dynasty, 'Ali ibn Buya, was originally a soldier in the service of the Dailamite warlord Makan ibn Kaki, but later changed his adherence to the Iranian ruler Mardavij, who had established the Ziyarid dynasty, and was himself related to the ruling dynasty of Gilan, a region bordering Dailam. 'Ali was later joined by his two younger brothers, Hasan ibn Buya and Ahmad ibn Buya. In 932, 'Ali was given Karaj as his fief, and thus was able to enlist other Dailamites into his own army. However, 'Ali's independent actions made Mardavij plan to have him killed, but fortunately for 'Ali, he was informed of Mardavij's plan by the latter's own vizier. The Buyids brother, with 400 of their Dailamite supporters, then fled to Fars, where they managed to take control of Arrajan. However, the Buyids and the Abbasid general Yaqut shortly came into a struggle for the control of Fars, which the Buyids eventually emerged victorious in. This victory opened the way for the conquest of the capital of Fars, Shiraz.
'Ali also made an alliance with the landowners of Fars, which included the Fasanjas family, which would later produce many prominent statesmen for the Buyids. Furthermore, 'Ali also to enlist more soldiers, which included the Turks, who were made part of cavalry. 'Ali then sent his brother Ahmad on an expedition to Kirman, but was forced to withdraw from them after opposition from the Baluchis and the Qafs. However, Mardavij, who sought to depose the Abbasid Caliph of Baghdad and recreate a Zoroastrian Iranian Empire, shortly wrested Khuzistan from the Abbasids and forced 'Ali to recognize him as his suzerain.
Luckily for the Buyids, Mardavij was shortly assassinated in 935, which caused chaos in the Ziyarid territories, a perfect situation for the Buyid brothers; Ali and Ahmad conquered Khuzistan, while Hasan captured the Ziyarid capital of Isfahan, and in 943 captured Ray, which became his capital, thus conquering all of Jibal. In 945, Ahmad entered Iraq and made the Abbasid Caliph his vassal, and at the same receiving the honorific title of "Mu'izz al-Dawla", while 'Ali was given the title of "'Imad al-Dawla" ("Support of the State"), and Hasan was given the title of "Rukn al-Dawla" ("Pillar of the State").
Height of power and Golden age (945-983)
In addition to the other territories the Buyids had conquered, Kirman was conquered in 967, Oman (967), the Jazira (979), Tabaristan (980), and Gorgan (981). After this, however, the Buyids went into a slow decline, with pieces of the confederation gradually breaking off and local dynasties under their rule becoming de facto independent.
Decline and fall (983–1048)
The death of Adud al-Dawla is considered the starting point of the decline of the Buyid dynasty; his son Abu Kalijar Marzuban, who was in Baghdad at the time of his death, first kept his death secret in order to ensure his succession and avoid civil war. When he made the death of his father public, he was given the title of "Samsam al-Dawla". However, Adud's other son, Shirdil Abu'l-Fawaris, challenged the authority of Samsam al-Dawla, resulting in a civil war. Meanwhile, a Marwanid chieftain named Badh, seized Diyabakr and forced Samsam al-Dawla to recognize him as the vassal ruler of the region. Furthermore, Mu'ayyad al-Dawla also died during this period, and he was succeeded by Fakhr al-Dawla, who with the aid of Mu'ayyad al-Dawla's vizier Sahib ibn 'Abbad became the ruler of Mu'ayyad al-Dawla's possessions. Another son of Adud al-Dawla, Abu Tahir Firuzshah, established himself as the ruler of Basra and took the title of "Diya' al-Dawla", while another son, Abu'l-Husain Ahmad, established himself as the ruler of Khuzistan, taking the title of "Taj al-Dawla".
Shirdil Abu'l-Fawaris (known by his title of "Sharaf al-Dawla") quickly seized Oman from Samsam al-Dawla, and in 983, the Turkic troops of Samsam al-Dawla mutinied against him, and left Iraq for Fars, but most of them were persuaded by his relative Ziyar ibn Shahrakawayh to stay in Iraq. However, unfortunately for Samsam al-Dawla, Iraq was in grim affairs, and several rebellions occurred, which he however, managed to suppress, the most dangerous rebellion being under Asfar ibn Kurdawayh, who tried to make Abu Nasr Firuz Kharshadh (known by his title of "Baha' al-Dawla") the ruler of Iraq. During the same period, Samsam al-Dawla also managed to seize Basra and Khuzistan, forcing his two brothers to flee to Fakhr al-Dawla's territory.
During the mid-11th century, the Buyid amirates gradually fell to the Ghaznavid and Seljuq Turks. In 1029, Majd al-Dawla, who was facing an uprising by his Dailami troops in Ray, requested assistance from Mahmud of Ghazna. When Sultan Mahmud arrived, he deposed Majd al-Dawla, replaced him with a Ghaznavid governor and ended the Buyid dynasty in Ray.
The Buyids established a confederation in Iraq and western Iran. This confederation formed three principalities - one in Fars, with Shiraz as its capital - the second one in Jibal, with Ray as its capital - and the last one in Iraq, with Baghdad as its capital. However, during their late period, more principalities formed in the Buyid confederation. Succession of power was hereditary, with fathers dividing their land among their sons.
The title used by the Buyid rulers was amir, meaning "governor" or "prince". Generally one of the amirs would be recognized as having seniority over the others; this individual would use the title of amir al-umara, or senior amir. Although the senior amīr was the formal head of the Būyids, he did not usually have any significant control outside of his own personal amirate; each amir enjoyed a high degree of autonomy within his own territories. As mentioned above, some of the stronger amirs used the Sassanid title of Shahanshah. Furthermore, several other titles such as malik ("king"), and malik al-muluk ("king of kings"), were also used by the Buyids. On a smaller scale, the Buyid territory was also be ruled by princes from other families, such as the Hasanwayhids.
During the beginning of the Buyid dynasty, their army consisted mainly of their fellow Dailamites, a warlike and brave people of mostly peasant origin, who served as foot soldiers. The Dailamites had a long history of military activity dating back to the Sasanian period, and had been mercenaries in various places in Iran and Iraq, and even as far as Egypt. The Dailamites, during a battle, normally bore a sword, a shield, and three spears. Furthermore, they were also known for their formidable shield formation, which was hard to break through.
But when the Buyid territories increased, they began recruiting Turks into their cavalry, who had played a prominent role in the Abbasid military. The Buyid army also consisted of Kurds, who along with the Turks were Sunni Muslim, while the Dailamites were Shia Muslims. However, the army of the Buyids of Jibal mainly composed of Dailamites.
The Dailamites and Turks often quarreled with each other in an attempt to be the dominant force within the army. To compensate their soldiers the Buyid amīrs often distributed iqtā's, or the rights to a percentage of tax revenues from a province, although the practice of payment in kind was also frequently used. While the Turks were favored in Buyid Iraq, the Dailamites were favored in Buyid Iran.
Like most Daylamites at the time, the Buyids were Shia and have been called Twelver Shia. However, it is more likely that they began as Zaidi Shia. As the reason of this turning from Zaidi to Twelver, Moojen Momen suggests that since the Buyids were not descendants of Ali, the first Shia Imam, Zaidis Shiism doctrine would have urged them to install an Imam from Ali's family. For that reason Buyids tended toward Twelver Shia' with its occulted Imam was more politically attractive to them.
The Buyids rarely attempted to enforce a particular religious view upon their subjects except when in matters where it would be politically expedient. The Sunnī 'Abbāsids retained the caliphate, although they were deprived of all secular power. In addition, in order to prevent tensions between the Shī'a and Sunni from spreading to government agencies, the Buyid amirs occasionally appointed Christians to high offices instead of Muslims from either sect.
Generally, the three most powerful Buyid amirs at any given time were those in control of Fars, Jibal and Iraq. Sometimes a ruler would come to rule more than one region, but no Buyid rulers ever exercised direct control of all three regions.
Buyids of Fars
- Imad al-Dawla 934–949
- 'Adud al-Dawla 949–983
- Sharaf al-Dawla 983–989
- Samsam al-Dawla 989–998
- Baha' al-Dawla 998–1012
- Sultan al-Dawla 1012–1024
- Abu Kalijar 1024–1048
- Abu Mansur Fulad Sutun 1048–1051
- Abu Sa'd Khusrau Shah briefly in 1049 and from to 1051–1054
- Abu Mansur Fulad Sutun 1051–1062
Buyids of Rey
- Rukn al-Dawla 935–976
- Fakhr al-Dawla 976–980
- Mu'ayyad al-Dawla 980–983
- Fakhr al-Dawla (restored) 984–997
- Majd al-Dawla 997–1029
To the Ghaznavids.
Buyids of Iraq
- Mu'izz al-Dawla 945–967
- 'Izz al-Dawla 966–978
- 'Adud al-Dawla 978–983
- Samsam al-Dawla 983–987
- Sharaf al-Dawla 987–989
- Baha' al-Dawla 989–1012
- Sultan al-Dawla 1012–1021
- Musharrif al-Dawla 1021–1025
- Jalal al-Dawla 1025–1044
- Abu Kalijar 1044–1048
- Al-Malik al-Rahim 1048–1055
To the Seljuqs.
It was not uncommon for younger sons to found collateral lines, or for individual Buyid members to take control of a province and begin ruling there. The following list is incomplete.
Buyids of Basra
- Diya' al-Dawla 980s
To the Buyids of Fars.
Buyids of Hamadan
To the Kakuyids.
Buyids of Kerman
- Qawam al-Dawla 1012–1028
To the Buyids of Fars.
Buyids of Khuzistan
- Taj al-Dawla 980s
To the Buyids of Fars.
|Abu Ishaq Ibrahim||Izz al-Dawla|
|Sanad al-Dawla||Marzuban||Zubayda||Abu Tahir||Ali ibn Kama|
|Marzuban ibn Bakhtiyar||Salar||Unnamed princess|
|Al-Malik al-Aziz||Abu Mansur Ali|
|Abu Ali Fana-Khusrau||Abu Mansur Fulad Sutun|
|Kamrava||Abu'l-Muzaffar Bahram||Abu Sa'd Khusrau Shah|
- C.E. Bosworth, The New Islamic Dynasties, (Columbia University Press, 1996), 154.
- "Persian Prose Literature." World Eras. 2002. HighBeam Research. (September 3, 2012);"Princes, although they were often tutored in Arabic and religious subjects, frequently did not feel as comfortable with the Arabic language and preferred literature in Persian, which was either their mother tongue—as in the case of dynasties such as the Saffarids (861–1003), Samanids (873–1005), and Buyids (945–1055)...". 
- Abbasids, B.Lewis, The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol. I, Ed. H.A.R.Gibb, J.H.Kramers, E. Levi-Provencal and J. Schacht, (Brill, 1986), 19.
- Rene Grousset, The Empire of the Steppes:A History of Central Asia, transl.Naomi Walford, (Rutgers University Press, 2002), 143.
- Iranica,Iranica: DEYLAMITES:The most successful actors in the Deylamite expansion were the Buyids. The ancestor of the house, Abū Šojāʿ Būya, was a fisherman from Līāhej, the later region of Lāhījān.
- Andre Wink, Al-Hind: The Making of the Indo-Islamic World, Vol. 2, (Brill, 2002), 8. – via Questia (subscription required)
- Ch. Bürgel & R. Mottahedeh 1988, pp. 265-269.
- Blair, Sheila (1992), The Monumental Inscriptions From Early Islamic Iran and Transoxiana, Leiden: E.J. Brill, ISBN 90-04-09367-2
- Arthur Goldschmidt, "A Concise History of the Middle East: Seventh Edition ", Westview Press, 2001. pg 87.
- Clawson, Patrick; Rubin, Michael (2005), Eternal Iran: continuity and chaos, Middle East in Focus (1st ed.), New York: Palgrave Macmillan, p. 19, ISBN 1-4039-6276-6
- Mafizullah, Kabir (1964), The Buwayhid dynasty of Baghdad, 334/946-447/1055, Calcutta: Iran Society
- Wolfgang Felix & Wilferd Madelung, pp. 342–347
- Iran Under The Buyids, Heribert Busse, The Cambridge History of Iran, 274.
- Lokman I. Meho,Kelly L. Maglaughli (1968), Kurdish culture and society: an annotated bibliography, p. 11, ISBN 9780313315435
- Clifford Edmund Bosworth, The New Islamic Dynasties, 154-155.
- JAN RYPKA. History of Iranian Literature. Dordrecht: D. REIDEL PUBLISHING COMPANY, 1968. pg 146
- Kennedy Hugh, THE prophet and the age of the Caliphates, 211.
- Iran Under The Buyids, Heribert Busse, The Cambridge History of Iran, 251-252.
- Nagel 1990, p. 578–586.
- Kennedy 2004, p. 211.
- Kennedy 2004, p. 212.
- Bosworth 1975, p. 255.
- Kennedy 2004, p. 213.
- Bosworth 1975, p. 257.
- Bosworth 1975, p. 256.
- Kennedy 2004, p. 234.
- Bosworth 1975, p. 289.
- Bosworth 1975, p. 290.
- C.E. Bosworth, The Ghaznavids 994-1040, (Edinburgh University Press, 1963), 53,59,234.
- C.E. Bosworth, The Ghaznavids 994-1040, 53,59,234.
- The Political and Dynastic History of the Iranian World (A.D. 1000-1217), C.E. Bosworth, Cambridge History of Iran, Vol. V, ed. J. A. Boyle, (Cambridge University Press, 1968), 37.
- André Wink, Al-Hind: The Making of the Indo-Islamic World, Vol. 2, (Brill, 2002), 9. – via Questia (subscription required)
- Bernard Lewis, The Middle East: A Brief History of the Last 2,000 Years, (New York: Scribner, 1995) p. 89.
- Bosworth 1975, p. 251.
- Sohar and the Daylamī interlude (356–443/967–1051), Valeria Fiorani Piacentini, Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies, Vol. 35, Papers from the thirty-eighth meeting of the Seminar for Arabian Studies held in London, 22–24 July 2004 (2005), 196.
- Bosworth 1975, p. 287.
- Kennedy 2004, p. 244.
- Busse, Heribert (1975), "Iran Under the Buyids", in Frye, R. N., The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 4: From the Arab Invasion to the Saljuqs, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, pp. 265, 298, ISBN 0-521-20093-8
- Sourdel-Thomine, J. "Buwayhids." The Encyclopedia of Islam, Volume I. New Ed. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1960. p. 1353.
- Bosworth 1975, p. 252.
- Momen, Moojan (1985), An Introduction to Shi'i Islam, Yale University Press, pp. 75–76, ISBN 978-0-300-03531-5
- Berkey, Jonathan Porter. The Formation of Islam London: Cambridge University Press, 2003. ISBN 0-521-58813-8. p. 135
- Heribert, pp. 287-8
- Madelung, W. (1975). "The Minor Dynasties of Northern Iran". In Frye, R.N. The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 4: From the Arab Invasion to the Saljuqs. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 198–249. ISBN 978-0-521-20093-6.
- Hill, Donald Routledge, Islamic Science And Engineering, Edinburgh University Press (1993), ISBN 0-7486-0455-3
- Edward Granville Browne, Islamic Medicine, 2002, ISBN 81-87570-19-9
- Bosworth, C. E. (1975). "Iran under the Buyids". In Frye, R. N. The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 4: From the Arab Invasion to the Saljuqs. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 250–305. ISBN 0-521-20093-8.
- Nagel, Tilman (1990). "BUYIDS". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. IV, Fasc. 6. London u.a.: Routledge & Kegan Paul. pp. 578–586.
- Taylor &, Francis (2006). Medieval Islamic Civilization: A-K, index. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
- Kennedy, Hugh N. (2004). The Prophet and the Age of the Caliphates: The Islamic Near East from the 6th to the 11th Century (Second ed.). Harlow, UK: Pearson Education Ltd. ISBN 0-582-40525-4.
- Ch. Bürgel; R. Mottahedeh (1988). "ʿAŻOD-AL-DAWLA, ABŪ ŠOJĀʾ FANNĀ ḴOSROW". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. III, Fasc. 3. London u.a.: Routledge & Kegan Paul. pp. 265–269.
- Donohue, John J. (2003). The Buwayhid Dynasty in Iraq 334h., 945 to 403h., 1012: Shaping Institutions for the Future. ISBN 9789004128606. Retrieved 3 February 2014.
- Kabir, Mafizullah (1964). The Buwayhid Dynasty of Baghdad, 334/946-447/1055. Retrieved 3 February 2014.
- Patrick Clawson &, Michael Rubin (2005). Eternal Iran: Continuity and Chaos. ISBN 1-4039-6276-6. Retrieved 3 February 2014.
- Wilferd Madelung, Wolfgang Felix, (1995). "DEYLAMITES". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. BII, Fasc. 4. pp. 342–347.
- Ibn, Isfandiyar (1905). An Abridged Translation of the History of Tabaristan. University of Michigan: BRILL. pp. 1–356. ISBN 9789004093676.
- Kraemer, Joel L. (1992). Humanism in the Renaissance of Islam: The Cultural Revival During the Buyid Age. BRILL. ISBN 9789004097360.
- "Buyids" Tilman Nagel
- Encyclopedia Iranica: DEYLAMITES
-  The Buyid Domination as the Historical Background for the Flourishing of Muslim Scholarship During the 4th/10th Century by Dr. M. Ismail Marcinkowski
- The Buwaihids in Iran and Iraq
Lua error in Module:Authority_control at line 346: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).