Open Access Articles- Top Results for CD133


SymbolsPROM1 ; AC133; CD133; CORD12; MCDR2; PROML1; RP41; STGD4
External IDsOMIM604365 MGI1100886 HomoloGene4390 GeneCards: PROM1 Gene
RefSeq (mRNA)NM_001145847NM_001163577
RefSeq (protein)NP_001139319NP_001157049
Location (UCSC)Chr 4:
15.96 – 16.09 Mb
Chr 5:
43.99 – 44.1 Mb
PubMed search[1][2]

CD133 antigen also known as prominin-1 is a glycoprotein that in humans is encoded by the PROM1 gene.[1][2] It is a member of pentaspan transmembrane glycoproteins (5-transmembrane, 5-TM), which specifically localize to cellular protrusions. While the precise function of CD133 remains unknown, it has been proposed to act as an organizer of cell membrane topology.[3]

Tissue distribution

CD133 is expressed in hematopoietic stem cells,[4] endothelial progenitor cells,[5] glioblastoma, neuronal and glial stem cells,[6] various pediatric brain tumors,[7] as well as adult kidney, mammary glands, trachea, salivary glands, placenta, digestive tract, testes, and some other cell types.[8][9]

Clinical significance

A CD133+ cell population in brain tumors is thought to be a cancer stem cell (CSC) population, which is rare, undergoes self-renewal and differentiation, and can propagate tumors when injected into immune-compromised mice.[7][10][11] However, subsequent studies have indicated the difficulty in isolating pure CSC populations.[12] CD133+ melanoma cells are considered a subpopulation of CSC a critical role in recurrence. Moreover, CD133+ melanoma cells are immunogenic and can be used as an antimelanoma vaccination. In mice the vaccination with CD133+ melanoma cells mediated strong anti-tumor activity that resulted in the eradication of parental melanoma cells.[13] In addition, it has also been shown that CD133+ melanoma cells preferentially express the RNA helicase DDX3X . As DDX3X also is an immunogenic protein, the same anti-melanoma vaccination strategy can be employed to give therapeutic antitumor immunity in mice.[14]

See also


  1. ^ Yin AH, Miraglia S, Zanjani ED, Almeida-Porada G, Ogawa M, Leary AG, Olweus J, Kearney J, Buck DW (1997). "AC133, is a novel marker for human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells". Blood 90 (12): 5002–5012. PMID 9389720. 
  2. ^ Corbeil D, Fargeas CA, Huttner WB (2001). "Rat prominin, like its mouse and human orthologues, is a pentaspan membrane glycoprotein". Biochem Biophys Res Commun 285 (4): 939–44. PMID 11467842. doi:10.1006/bbrc.2001.5271. 
  3. ^ Irollo E, Pirozzi G (2013). "CD133: to be or not to be, is this the real question?". Am J Transl Res 5 (6): 563–81. PMC 3786264. PMID 24093054. 
  4. ^ Horn PA, Tesch H, Staib P, Kube D, Diehl V, Voliotis D (1999). "Expression of AC133, a novel hematopoietic precursor antigen, on acute myeloid leukemia cells". Blood 93 (4): 1435–37. PMID 10075457. 
  5. ^ Corbeil D, Röper K, Hellwig A, Tavian M, Miraglia S, Watt SM, Simmons PJ, Peault B, Buck DW, Huttner WB (2000). "The human AC133 hematopoietic stem cell antigen is also expressed in epithelial cells and targeted to plasma membrane protrusions". J Biol Chem 275 (8): 5512–20. PMID 10681530. doi:10.1074/jbc.275.8.5512. 
  6. ^ Sanai N, Alvarez-Buylla A, Berger MS (2005). "Neural stem cells and the origin of gliomas". N Engl J Med 353 (8): 811–822. PMID 16120861. doi:10.1056/NEJMra043666. 
  7. ^ a b Singh SK, Clarke ID, Terasaki M, Bonn VE, Hawkins C, Squire J, Dirks PB (2003). "Identification of a cancer stem cell in human brain tumors". Cancer Res 63 (1): 5821–5828. PMID 14522905. 
  8. ^ Mizrak D, Brittan M, Alison M (2008). "CD133: Molecule of the moment". J Pathol 214 (1): 3–9. PMID 18067118. doi:10.1002/path.2283. 
  9. ^ Shmelkov SV, St Clair R, Lyden D, Rafii S (2005). "AC133/CD133/Prominin-1". Int J Biochem Cell Biol 37 (4): 715–9. PMID 15694831. doi:10.1016/j.biocel.2004.08.010. 
  10. ^ Hemmati HD, Nakano I, Lazareff JA, Masterman-Smith M, Geschwind DH, Bronner-Fraser M, Kornblum HI (2003). "Cancerous stem cells can arise from pediatric brain tumors". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100 (25): 15178–15183. PMC 299944. PMID 14645703. doi:10.1073/pnas.2036535100. 
  11. ^ Galli R, Binda E, Orfanelli U, Cipelletti B, Gritti A, De Vitis S, Fiocco R, Foroni C, Dimeco F, Vescovi A (2004). "Isolation and characterization of tumorigenic, stem-like neural precursors from human glioblastoma". Cancer Res 64 (19): 7011–7021. PMID 15466194. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-04-1364. 
  12. ^ Wang J, Sakariassen PØ, Tsinkalovsky O, Immervoll H, Bøe SO, Svendsen A, Prestegarden L, Røsland G, Thorsen F, Stuhr L, Molven A, Bjerkvig R, Enger PØ (2008). "CD133+ negative glioma cells form tumors in nude rats and give rise to CD133+ positive cells". Int J Cancer 122 (4): 761–768. PMID 17955491. doi:10.1002/ijc.23130. 
  13. ^ Miyabayashi T, Kagamu H, Koshio J, Ichikawa K, Baba J, Watanabe S, Tanaka H, Tanaka J, Yoshizawa H, Nakata K, Narita I (2011). "Vaccination with CD133+(+) melanoma induces specific Th17 and Th1 cell-mediated antitumor reactivity against parental tumor". Cancer Immunol. Immunother. 60 (11): 1597–608. PMID 21691723. doi:10.1007/s00262-011-1063-x. 
  14. ^ Koshio J, Kagamu H, Nozaki K, Saida Y, Tanaka T, Shoji S, Igarashi N, Miura S, Okajima M, Watanabe S, Yoshizawa H, Narita I (2013). "DEAD/H (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp/His) box polypeptide 3, X-linked is an immunogenic target of cancer stem cells". Cancer Immunol. Immunother. 62 (10): 1619–28. PMID 23974721. doi:10.1007/s00262-013-1467-x. 

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