Open Access Articles- Top Results for CX3CR1


SymbolsCX3CR1 ; CCRL1; CMKBRL1; CMKDR1; GPR13; GPRV28; V28
External IDsOMIM601470 MGI1333815 HomoloGene20350 IUPHAR: 74 ChEMBL: 4843 GeneCards: CX3CR1 Gene
RNA expression pattern
File:PBB GE CX3CR1 205898 at tn.png
More reference expression data
RefSeq (mRNA)NM_001171171NM_009987
RefSeq (protein)NP_001164642NP_034117
Location (UCSC)Chr 3:
39.3 – 39.32 Mb
Chr 9:
119.9 – 120.07 Mb
PubMed search[1][2]

CX3C chemokine receptor 1 (CX3CR1) also known as the fractalkine receptor or G-protein coupled receptor 13 (GPR13) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CX3CR1 gene.[1][2] As the name suggests, this receptor binds the chemokine CX3CL1 (also called neurotactin or fractalkine).


Fractalkine is a transmembrane protein and chemokine involved in the adhesion and migration of leukocytes. The protein encoded by this gene is a receptor for fractalkine.[3]

Expression of this receptor appears to be associated with lymphocytes.[4] CX3CR1 is also expressed by monocytes and plays a major role in the survival of monocytes.[citation needed]

Fractalkine has also recently been discovered to play a developmental role in the migration of microglia in the central nervous system to their synaptic targets, where phagocytosis and synaptic refinement occur. CX3CR1 knockout mice had more synapses on cortical neurons than wild-type mice.

Clinical significance

CX3CR1 also is a coreceptor for HIV-1, and some variations in this gene lead to increased susceptibility to HIV-1 infection and rapid progression to AIDS.[3]

CX3CR1 variants have been described to modify the survival time and the progression rate of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.[5]

Mutations in CX3CR1 are associated to dysplasia of the hip .[6]


  1. ^ Combadiere C, Ahuja SK, Murphy PM (August 1995). "Cloning, chromosomal localization, and RNA expression of a human beta chemokine receptor-like gene". DNA Cell Biol. 14 (8): 673–80. PMID 7646814. doi:10.1089/dna.1995.14.673. 
  2. ^ Combadiere C, Salzwedel K, Smith ED, Tiffany HL, Berger EA, Murphy PM (September 1998). "Identification of CX3CR1. A chemotactic receptor for the human CX3C chemokine fractalkine and a fusion coreceptor for HIV-1". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (37): 23799–804. PMID 9726990. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.37.23799. 
  3. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: chemokine (C-X3-C motif) receptor 1". 
  4. ^ Imai T, Hieshima K, Haskell C, Baba M, Nagira M, Nishimura M, Kakizaki M, Takagi S, Nomiyama H, Schall TJ, Yoshie O (November 1997). "Identification and molecular characterization of fractalkine receptor CX3CR1, which mediates both leukocyte migration and adhesion". Cell 91 (4): 521–30. PMID 9390561. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80438-9. 
  5. ^ Lopez-Lopez, Alan; Gamez, Josep; Syriani, Emilio; Morales, Miguel; Salvado, Maria; Rodríguez, Manuel J.; Mahy, Nicole; Vidal-Taboada, Jose M.; (7 May 2014). "CX3CR1 Is a Modifying Gene of Survival and Progression in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis". PLOS ONE. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.009652. 
  6. ^ Feldman, G. J.; Parvizi, J; Sawan, H; Erickson, J. A.; Peters, C. L. (2014). "Linkage Mapping and Whole Exome Sequencing Identify a Shared Variant in CX3CR1 in a Large Multi-Generation Family". The Journal of arthroplasty 29: 238–41. PMID 24998320. doi:10.1016/j.arth.2014.05.014.  edit

Further reading

  • Robertson MJ (2002). "Role of chemokines in the biology of natural killer cells.". J. Leukoc. Biol. 71 (2): 173–83. PMID 11818437. 
  • Raport CJ, Schweickart VL, Eddy RL et al. (1995). "The orphan G-protein-coupled receptor-encoding gene V28 is closely related to genes for chemokine receptors and is expressed in lymphoid and neural tissues.". Gene 163 (2): 295–9. PMID 7590284. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(95)00336-5. 
  • Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides.". Gene 138 (1-2): 171–4. PMID 8125298. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(94)90802-8. 
  • Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K et al. (1997). "Construction and characterization of a full length-enriched and a 5'-end-enriched cDNA library.". Gene 200 (1-2): 149–56. PMID 9373149. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(97)00411-3. 
  • Mizoue LS, Bazan JF, Johnson EC, Handel TM (1999). "Solution structure and dynamics of the CX3C chemokine domain of fractalkine and its interaction with an N-terminal fragment of CX3CR1.". Biochemistry 38 (5): 1402–14. PMID 9931005. doi:10.1021/bi9820614. 
  • Maho A, Bensimon A, Vassart G, Parmentier M (2000). "Mapping of the CCXCR1, CX3CR1, CCBP2 and CCR9 genes to the CCR cluster within the 3p21.3 region of the human genome.". Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 87 (3-4): 265–8. PMID 10702689. doi:10.1159/000015443. 
  • Faure S, Meyer L, Costagliola D et al. (2000). "Rapid progression to AIDS in HIV+ individuals with a structural variant of the chemokine receptor CX3CR1.". Science 287 (5461): 2274–7. PMID 10731151. doi:10.1126/science.287.5461.2274. 
  • Yoneda O, Imai T, Goda S et al. (2000). "Fractalkine-mediated endothelial cell injury by NK cells.". J. Immunol. 164 (8): 4055–62. PMID 10754298. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.164.8.4055. 
  • Meucci O, Fatatis A, Simen AA, Miller RJ (2000). "Expression of CX3CR1 chemokine receptors on neurons and their role in neuronal survival.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97 (14): 8075–80. PMC 16672. PMID 10869418. doi:10.1073/pnas.090017497. 
  • Papadopoulos EJ, Fitzhugh DJ, Tkaczyk C et al. (2000). "Mast cells migrate, but do not degranulate, in response to fractalkine, a membrane-bound chemokine expressed constitutively in diverse cells of the skin.". Eur. J. Immunol. 30 (8): 2355–61. PMID 10940926. doi:10.1002/1521-4141(2000)30:8<2355::AID-IMMU2355>3.0.CO;2-#. 
  • Moatti D, Faure S, Fumeron F et al. (2001). "Polymorphism in the fractalkine receptor CX3CR1 as a genetic risk factor for coronary artery disease.". Blood 97 (7): 1925–8. PMID 11264153. doi:10.1182/blood.V97.7.1925. 
  • Foussat A, Bouchet-Delbos L, Berrebi D et al. (2001). "Deregulation of the expression of the fractalkine/fractalkine receptor complex in HIV-1-infected patients.". Blood 98 (6): 1678–86. PMID 11535497. doi:10.1182/blood.V98.6.1678. 
  • Dichmann S, Herouy Y, Purlis D et al. (2002). "Fractalkine induces chemotaxis and actin polymerization in human dendritic cells.". Inflamm. Res. 50 (11): 529–33. PMID 11766992. doi:10.1007/PL00000230. 
  • Brand S, Sakaguchi T, Gu X et al. (2002). "Fractalkine-mediated signals regulate cell-survival and immune-modulatory responses in intestinal epithelial cells.". Gastroenterology 122 (1): 166–77. PMID 11781291. doi:10.1053/gast.2002.30329. 
  • Utaipat U, Duerr A, Rudolph DL et al. (2002). "Coreceptor utilization of HIV type 1 subtype E viral isolates from Thai men with HIV type 1-infected and uninfected wives.". AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 18 (1): 1–11. PMID 11804551. doi:10.1089/088922202753394664. 
  • Fong AM, Alam SM, Imai T et al. (2002). "CX3CR1 tyrosine sulfation enhances fractalkine-induced cell adhesion.". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (22): 19418–23. PMID 11909868. doi:10.1074/jbc.M201396200. 

External links

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.