Open Access Articles- Top Results for CXCR4
Journal of AIDS & Clinical ResearchIn vitro and In vivo Resistance to Human Immuno Deficiency Virus Type 1 Entry Inhibitors
Journal of Antivirals & AntiretroviralsPrevention of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Transmission by Pharmaceuticals Targeted to Host Proteins Required for Virus Infection? Consideratio
|Symbols||; CD184; D2S201E; FB22; HM89; HSY3RR; LAP-3; LAP3; LCR1; LESTR; NPY3R; NPYR; NPYRL; NPYY3R; WHIM|
|External IDs||IUPHAR: ChEMBL: GeneCards:|
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CXCR-4 is an alpha-chemokine receptor specific for stromal-derived-factor-1 (SDF-1 also called CXCL12), a molecule endowed with potent chemotactic activity for lymphocytes. The structure of CXCR4 in complex with CXCL12 was elucidated in; the computationally derived CXCL12 : CXCR4 complex structure is in remarkable agreement with experimental findings and sheds light into the functional role of CXCL12 and CXCR4 residues which are associated with binding and signaling. CXCR4 is one of several chemokine receptors that HIV can use to infect CD4+ T cells. The molecular recognition of CXCR4 is predominantly mediated through the V3 loop fragment of HIV protein gp120. A computationally derived structure of CXCR4 in complex with a dual HIV-1 gp120 V3 loop was reported in. The structure is in remarkable agreement with previous experimental findings and sheds light into the role of HIV-1 and CXCR4 residues which are associated with HIV-1 coreceptor activity. HIV isolates that use CXCR4 are traditionally known as T-cell tropic isolates. Typically, these viruses are found late in infection. It is unclear as to whether the emergence of CXCR4-using HIV is a consequence or a cause of immunodeficiency.
CXCR4 is upregulated during the implantation window in natural and hormone replacement therapy cycles in the endometrium, producing, in presence of a human blastocyst, a surface polarization of the CXCR4 receptors suggesting that this receptor is implicated in the adhesion phase of human implantation.
CXCR4's ligand SDF-1 is known to be important in hematopoietic stem cell homing to the bone marrow and in hematopoietic stem cell quiescence. Until recently, SDF-1 and CXCR4 were believed to be a relatively monogamous ligand-receptor pair (other chemokines are promiscuous, tending to use several different chemokine receptors). Recent evidence demonstrates ubiquitin is also a natural ligand of CXCR4. Ubiquitin is a small (76-amino acid) protein highly conserved among eukaryotic cells. It is best known for its intracellular role in targeting ubiquitylated proteins for degradation via the ubiquitin proteasome system. Evidence in numerous animal models suggests ubiquitin is anti-inflammatory immune modulator and endogenous opponent of proinflammatory damage associated molecular pattern molecules. It is speculated this interaction may be through CXCR4 mediated signalling pathways. MIF is an additional ligand of CXCR4
CXCR4 is present in newly generated neurons during embryogenesis and adult life where it plays a role in neuronal guidance. The levels of the receptor decrease as neurons mature. CXCR4 mutant mice have aberrant neuronal distribution. This has been implicated in disorders such as epilepsy.
Drugs that block the CXCR4 receptor appear to be capable of "mobilizing" hematopoietic stem cells into the bloodstream as peripheral blood stem cells. Peripheral blood stem cell mobilization is very important in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (as a recent alternative to transplantation of surgically harvested bone marrow) and is currently performed using drugs such as G-CSF. G-CSF is a growth factor for neutrophils (a common type of white blood cells), and may act by increasing the activity of neutrophil-derived proteases such as neutrophil elastase in the bone marrow leading to proteolytic degradation of SDF-1. Plerixafor (AMD3100) is a drug, recently approved for routine clinical use, which directly blocks the CXCR4 receptor. It is a very efficient inducer of hematopoietic stem cell mobilization in animal and human studies.
While CXCR4’s expression is low or absent in many healthy tissues, it was demonstrated to be expressed in over 23 types of cancer, including breast cancer, ovarian cancer, melanoma, and prostate cancer. Expression of this receptor in cancer cells has been linked to metastasis to tissues containing a high concentration of CXCL12, such as lungs, liver and bone marrow. However, in breast cancer where SDF1/CXCL12 is also expressed by the cancer cells themselves along with CXCR4, CXCL12 expression is positively correlated with disease free (metastasis free) survival. CXCL12 (over-)expressing cancers might not sense the CXCL12 gradient released from the metastasis target tissues since the receptor, CXCR4, is saturated with the ligand produced in an autocrine manner. Another explanation of this observation is provided by a study that shows the ability of CXCL12 (and CCL2) producing tumors to entrain neutrophils that inhibit seeding of tumor cells in the lung.
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