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Cabinet of Finland

File:Valtioneuvoston linna Helsingissä Senaatintorin laidalla.jpg
The headquarters of the Cabinet on Senate Square, Helsinki, seen flying the State flag.
<tr><td>110px</td></tr><tr><td style="border-bottom: #aaa 1px solid">This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
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</td></tr><tr><td style="text-align:right;font-size:115%;padding-top: 0.6em;"></td></tr></table>The Cabinet of Finland (also called the Council of State, Finnish: valtioneuvosto,Swedish: statsrådet; officially rendered Finnish Government) is the body that directs the Government of Finland. However, in governmental translations to English, the distinction is often blurred between cabinet and government in the wider sense. This wider sense includes the Parliament of Finland (on which the cabinet is dependent), the governmental agencies that are directed by the Cabinet, and the independent judicial branch of government. Despite of the occasional blurring by translators, the difference is significant. The Cabinet is directly responsible to the parliament and may be dismissed by a motion of no confidence. The President, according the 2000 constitution, formally appoints the cabinet, but the daily working is the responsibility of the Prime Minister.

In 1918, after Finland's independence, the Cabinet, that in the Grand Duchy of Finland had been called the Senate of Finland, was reorganized and renamed to the Council of State. One of the main objectives of that reform was to separate the judiciary from the executive branch.

According to the recent revision of the Constitution of Finland (as of 2000), the power over foreign affairs is retained by the president, as it also is in France, although with a narrow definition of foreign affairs that excludes influence over preparations of decisions within the European Union. International treaties and declaration of war are within the authority of the parliament.

Matters within the authority of the Cabinet are decided at plenary meetings, with a quorum of five ministers present, in the case of matters of wide importance and matters that are significant for reasons of principle. Less important matters are decided within the respective ministries.

Matters within the authority of the President are decided at plenary meetings of the Cabinet, with the exception of appointments, pardon, and calling of extraordinary elections.

Formation

After election, the party in plurality has the privilege to appoint a negotiator to form the government. In practice, this person is the leader of the party and becomes the Prime Minister. Since 1972, all cabinets have been formed as coalitions of multiple parties that together constitute a parliamentary majority. In an intense period after elections, the negotiator will attempt to forge a consensus between the participating parties on the issues to be prosecuted during the tenure of the government. This will then be written down in a government platform.

Following from President Urho Kekkonen's excessive direction over the government formation process, the 2000 constitution limited the President's power in government formation. Today, the President only formally appoints the government, but cannot select or remove individual members.

Current Council of State

Main article: Sipilä cabinet

The current Council of State, the 72nd since Finland's independence, was inaugurated by President Sauli Niinistö on 29 May 2015.[1]

The current Council of State is a Center-right, 14-minister coalition consisting of the Centre Party (Suomen Keskusta), the Finns Party (Perussuomalaiset), and the National Coalition Party (Kansallinen Kokoomus).[1]

The Chancellor of Justice is not a member of the Council of State but must by law attend its every meeting.

Previous Senates

</td>
Number Senate Term of office Type of government Parties in government Number of MP's
1.
<center>Svinhufvud's first senate <center> 27 November 1917 – 27 May 1918 <center>Majority <center>Young Finnish Party, Swedish People's Party, Finnish Party, Agrarian League <center>103/200
<center>2. <center>Paasikivi's first senate <center>27 May 1918 – 27 November 1918 <center>Majority <center>Young Finnish Party, Swedish People's Party, Finnish Party, Agrarian League <center>103/200

Previous Councils of State

Number Government Term of office Type of government Parties in government Number of MP's
<center>1. <center>Ingman's first cabinet <center>27 November 1918 – 17 April 1919 <center>Majority <center>National Coalition Party, Swedish People's Party, National Progressive Party <center>77/200 or 77/108
<center>2. <center>K. Castrén's cabinet <center>17 April 1919 – 15 August 1919 <center>Minority <center>Swedish People's Party, National Progressive Party, Agrarian League <center>90/200
<center>3. <center>Vennola's first cabinet <center>15 August 1919 – 15 March 1920 <center>Minority <center>National Progressive Party, Agrarian League <center>68/200
<center>4. <center>Erich's cabinet <center>15 March 1920 – 9 April 1921 <center>Majority <center>National Progressive Party, Agrarian League, National Coalition Party, Swedish People's Party <center>118/200
<center>5. <center>Vennola's second cabinet <center>9 April 1921 – 6 June 1922 <center>Minority <center>National Progressive Party, Agrarian League <center>68/200
<center>6. <center>Cajander's first cabinet <center>2 June 1922 – 14 November 1922 <center>caretaker government <center>– <center>–
<center>7. <center>Kallio's first cabinet <center>14 November 1922 – 18 January 1924 <center>Minority <center>National Progressive Party, Agrarian League <center>60/200
<center>8. <center>Cajander's second cabinet <center>18 January 1924 – 31 May 1924 <center>caretaker government <center>– <center>–
<center>9. <center>Ingman's second cabinet <center>31 May 1924 – 31 March 1925 <center>Majority <center>National Progressive Party, Agrarian League, National Coalition Party, Swedish People's Party <center>122/200
<center>10. <center>Antti Tulenheimo's cabinet <center>31 March 1925 – 31 December 1925 <center>Minority <center>Agrarian League, National Coalition Party <center>82/200
<center>11. <center>Kallio's second cabinet <center>31 December 1925 – 13 December 1926 <center>Minority <center>Agrarian League, National Coalition Party <center>82/200
<center>12. <center>Tanner's cabinet <center>13 December 1926 – 17 December 1927 <center>Minority <center>Social Democratic Party <center>52/100
<center>13. <center>Sunila's first cabinet <center>17 December 1927 – 22 December 1928 <center>Minority <center>Agrarian League <center>52/100
<center>14. <center>Mantere's cabinet <center>22 December 1928 – 16 August 1929 <center>Minority <center>National Progressive Party <center>10/200
<center>15. <center>Kyösti Kallio's third cabinet <center>16 August 1929 – 4 July 1930 <center>Minority <center>Agrarian League <center>60/200
<center>16. <center>Svinhufvud's second cabinet <center>4 July 1930 – 21 March 1931 <center>Majority <center>National Progressive Party, Agrarian League, National Coalition Party, Swedish People's Party <center>132/200
<center>17. <center>Sunila's second cabinet <center>21 March 1931 – 14 December 1932 <center>Majority <center>National Progressive Party, Agrarian League, National Coalition Party, Swedish People's Party <center>132/200
<center>18. <center>Kivimäki's cabinet <center>14 December 1932 – 10 October 1936 <center>Minority <center>National Progressive Party, Agrarian League, Swedish People's Party <center>85/200
<center>19. <center>Kyösti Kallio's fourth cabinet <center>7 October 1936 – 12 March 1937 <center>Minority <center>National Progressive Party, Agrarian League <center>60/200
<center>20. <center>A.Cajander's third cabinet <center> 3 March 1937 – 1 December 1939 <center>Majority <center>National Progressive Party, Agrarian League, Swedish People's Party, Social Democratic Party <center>164/200
<center>21. <center>Risto Ryti's first cabinet <center>1 December 1939 – 3 March 1940 <center>Majority <center>National Progressive Party, Agrarian League, Swedish People's Party, Social Democratic Party <center>165/200
<center>22. <center>Risto Ryti's second cabinet <center>27 March 1940 – 4 December 1941 <center>Majority <center>National Progressive Party, Agrarian League, Swedish People's Party, Social Democratic Party, National Coalition Party <center>190/200
<center>23. <center>Rangell's cabinet <center>4 January 1941 – 5 March 1943 <center>Majority <center>National Progressive Party, Agrarian League, Swedish People's Party, Social Democratic Party, National Coalition Party Patriotic People's Movement <center>198/200
<center>24. <center>Edwin Linkomies' cabinet <center>5 March 1943 – 8 September 1944 <center>Majority <center>National Progressive Party, Agrarian League, Swedish People's Party, Social Democratic Party, National Coalition Party <center>190/200
<center>25. <center>Hackzell's cabinet <center>8 September 1944 – 21 October 1944 <center>Majority <center>National Progressive Party, Agrarian League, Swedish People's Party, Social Democratic Party, National Coalition Party <center>190/200
<center>26. <center>U. Castrén's cabinet <center>21 October 1944 – 17 November 1944 <center>Majority <center>National Progressive Party, Agrarian League, Swedish People's Party, Social Democratic Party, National Coalition Party <center>190/200
<center>27. <center>Paasikivi's second cabinet <center>17 November 1944 – 17 April 1945 <center>Majority <center>National Progressive Party, Agrarian League, Swedish People's Party, Social Democratic Party, Finnish People's Democratic League <center>165/200
<center>28. <center>Paasikivi's third cabinet <center>17 April 1945 – 26 March 1946 <center>Majority <center>National Progressive Party, Agrarian League, Swedish People's Party, Social Democratic Party, Finnish People's Democratic League <center>171/200
<center>29. <center>Mauno Pekkala's cabinet <center>26 March 1946 – 29 August 1948 <center>Majority <center>Agrarian League, Swedish People's Party, Social Democratic Party, Finnish People's Democratic League <center>162/200
<center>30. <center>Fagerholm's first cabinet <center>29 August 1948 – 17 March 1950 <center>Minority <center>Social Democratic Party <center>54/200
<center>31. <center>Kekkonen's first cabinet <center>17 March 1950 – 17 January 1951 <center>Minority <center>National Progressive Party, Agrarian League, Swedish People's Party <center>75/200
<center>32. <center>Urho Kekkonen's second cabinet <center>17 January 1951 – 20 October 1951 <center>Majority <center>National Progressive Party, Agrarian League, Swedish People's Party, Social Democratic Party <center>129/200
<center>33. <center>Kekkonen's third cabinet <center>20 October 1951 – 9 August 1953 <center>Minority <center> Agrarian League, Social Democratic Party, Swedish People's Party <center>119/200
<center>34. <center>Kekkonen's fourth cabinet <center>9 August 1953 – 17 November 1953 <center>Minority <center>Agrarian League, Swedish People's Party <center>66/200
<center>35. <center>Sakari Tuomioja's cabinet <center>17 November 1953 – 5 May 1954 <center>caretaker government <center>– <center>53/200
<center>36. <center>Törngren's cabinet <center>5 May 1954 – 20 October 1954 <center>Majority <center>Agrarian League, Swedish People's Party, Agrarian League <center>120/200
<center>37. <center>Kekkonen's fifth cabinet <center>20 October 1954 – 3 March 1956 <center>Majority <center>Agrarian League, Social Democratic Party <center>107/200
<center>38. <center>Fagerholm's second cabinet <center>3 March 1956 – 27 May 1957 <center>Majority <center>Agrarian League, Social Democratic Party, Swedish People's Party <center>120/200
<center>39. <center>Sukselainen's first cabinet <center>27 April 1957 – 29 November 1957 <center>Minority <center>Agrarian League, Swedish People's Party Social Democratic Union of Workers and Smallholders, Finnish People's Party <center>79/200
<center>40. <center>Von Fieandt's cabinet <center>29 November 1957 – 26 April 1958 <center>caretaker government <center>– <center>–
<center>41. <center>Kuuskoski's cabinet <center>26 April 1958 – 29 September 1958 <center>caretaker government <center>– <center>–
<center>42. <center>Karl-August Fagerholm's third cabinet <center>29 September 1958 – 13 January 1959 <center>Majority <center>Social Democratic Party, Agrarian League, National Coalition Party, Finnish People's Party, Swedish People's Party <center>152/200
<center>43. <center>Sukselainen's second cabinet <center>13 January 1959 – 14 August 1961 <center>Minority <center>Agrarian League, Swedish People's Party <center>62/200
<center>44. <center>Miettunen's first cabinet <center>14 August 1961 – 13 April 1962 <center>Minority <center>Agrarian League <center>48/200
<center>45. <center>Karjalainen's first cabinet <center>13 April 1962 – 18 December 1963 <center>Majority <center>Agrarian League, Social Democratic Union of Workers and Smallholders, Swedish People's Party, National Coalition Party, Finnish People's Party <center>114/200
<center>46. <center>Lehto's cabinet <center>18 December 1963 – 12 October 1964 <center>caretaker government <center>– <center>–
<center>47. <center>Virolainen's Cabinet <center>12 October 1964 – 27 May 1966 <center>Majority <center>Centre Party, National Coalition Party, Swedish People's Party, Finnish People's Party <center>112/200
<center>48. <center>Paasio's first cabinet <center>27 May 1966 – 22 March 1968 <center>Majority <center>Finnish People's Democratic League, Social Democratic Party, Social Democratic Union of Workers and Smallholders, Centre Party <center>152/200
<center>49. <center>Koivisto's first cabinet <center>22 March 1968 – 14 May 1970 <center>Majority <center>Social Democratic Party, Social Democratic Union of Workers and Smallholders, Centre Party, Swedish People's Party, Finnish People's Democratic League <center>164/200
<center>50. <center>Aura's First cabinet <center>14 May 1970 – 15 August 1970 <center>caretaker government <center>– <center>–
<center>51. <center>Ahti Karjalainen's second cabinet <center>15 August 1970 – 29 October 1971 <center>Majority <center>Social Democratic Party, Centre Party, Swedish People's Party, Liberals <center>144/200
<center>52. <center>Aura's second cabinet <center>29 October 1971 – 23 February 1972 <center>caretaker government <center>– <center>–
<center>53. <center>Paasio's second cabinet <center>23 February 1972 – 4 October 1972 <center>Minority <center>Social Democratic Party <center>55/200
<center>54. <center>Sorsa's first cabinet <center>4 October 1972 – 13 June 1975 <center>Majority <center>Centre Party, Swedish People's Party, Liberals, Social Democratic Party <center>109/200
<center>55. <center>Liinamaa's cabinet <center>13 June 1975 – 30 November 1975 <center>caretaker government <center>– <center>–
<center>56. <center>Miettunen's second cabinet <center>30 November 1975 – 29 October 1976 <center>Majority <center>Finnish People's Democratic League, Centre Party, Swedish People's Party, Liberals, Social Democratic Party <center>152/200
<center>57. <center>Miettunen's third cabinet <center>29 October 1976 – 15 May 1977 <center>Minority <center>Centre Party, Swedish People's Party, Liberals <center>58/200
<center>58. <center>Sorsa's second cabinet <center>15 May 1977 – 26 May 1979 <center>Majority <center>Finnish People's Democratic League, Swedish People's Party, Liberals, Social Democratic Party, Centre Party <center>152/200
<center>59. <center>Koivisto's second cabinet <center>26 May 1979 – 19 February 1982 <center>Majority <center>Finnish People's Democratic League, Swedish People's Party, Social Democratic Party, Centre Party <center>133/200
<center>60. <center>Sorsa's third cabinet <center>19 February 1982 – 6 May 1983 <center>Majority <center>Finnish People's Democratic League, Swedish People's Party, Social Democratic Party, Centre Party <center>133/200 and 102/200
<center>61. <center>Sorsa's fourth cabinet <center>6 May 1983 – 30 April 1987 <center>Majority <center>Swedish People's Party, Social Democratic Party, Centre Party, Finnish Rural Party <center>123/200
<center>62. <center>Holkeri's cabinet <center>30 April 1987 – 26 April 1991 <center>Majority <center>National Coalition Party, Social Democratic Party, Swedish People's Party, Finnish Rural Party <center>131/200
<center>63. <center>Esko Aho's cabinet <center>26 April 1991 – 13 April 1995 <center>Majority <center>Centre Party, National Coalition Party, Swedish People's Party, Christian Democrats <center>115/200
<center>64. <center>Lipponen's first cabinet <center>13 April 1995 – 15 April 1999 <center>Majority <center>National Coalition Party, Social Democratic Party, Swedish People's Party, Left Alliance, Green League <center>145/200
<center>65. <center>Paavo Lipponen's second Cabinet <center>15 April 1999 – 17 April 2003 <center>Majority <center>National Coalition Party, Social Democratic Party, Swedish People's Party, Left Alliance, Green League (−2002) <center>140/200 and 129/200
<center>66. <center>Anneli Jäätteenmäki's Cabinet <center>17 April – 24 June 2003 <center>Majority <center>Centre Party, Social Democratic Party, Swedish People's Party <center>117/200
<center>67. <center>Matti Vanhanen's first cabinet <center>24 June 2003 – 19 April 2007 <center>Majority <center>Centre Party, Social Democratic Party, Swedish People's Party <center>117/200
<center>68. <center>Matti Vanhanen's second cabinet <center>19 April 2007 – 22 June 2010 <center>Majority <center> Centre Party, National Coalition Party, Green League, Swedish People's Party <center>126/200
<center>69. <center>Mari Kiviniemi's cabinet <center>22 June 2010 – 22 June 2011 <center>Majority <center> Centre Party, National Coalition Party, Green League, Swedish People's Party <center>126/200
<center>70. <center>Jyrki Katainen's cabinet <center>22 June 2011 — 24 June 2014 <center>Majority <center>National Coalition Party, Social Democratic Party, Left Alliance (−2014), Green League, Swedish People's Party, Christian Democrats <center>124/200 and 112/200
<center>71. <center>Alexander Stubb's cabinet <center>24 June 2014 — 29 May 2015 <center>Majority <center>National Coalition Party, Social Democratic Party, Green League (−2014), Swedish People's Party, Christian Democrats <center>112/200 and 102/200
<center>72. <center>Juha Sipilä's cabinet <center>29 May 2015 — <center>Majority <center>Centre Party, Finns Party, National Coalition Party <center>124/200

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 "Prime Minister Sipilä's Government". Government of Finland. 19 May 2015. Retrieved 29 May 2015. 

See also

External links