Open Access Articles- Top Results for Caen
Journal of Clinical Research & BioethicsThe Rehabilitation Setting of Terminal Cancer Patients: Listening, Communication, and Trust
Journal of Biosensors & BioelectronicsInvestigation of the Toxicity of Amine-coated, Carboxyl-coated and Polyaniline-coated FeO Magnetic Nanoparticles in Caenorhabditis elegans
Journal of Aging ScienceMethionine Sulfoxide Reductase A Mediates Dietary Restriction-Induced Lifespan Extension in Caenorhabditis elegans
Journal of Environmental & Analytical ToxicologyCaenorhabditis elegans: An Emerging Model System for Pesticide Neurotoxicity
View of downtown Caen and the Abbey of St. Étienne|
View of downtown Caen and the Abbey of St. Étienne
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This page is a soft redirect. Climate data for Caen
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This page is a soft redirect.Source: Météo-France
The castle, Château de Caen, built circa 1060 by William the Conqueror, who successfully conquered England in 1066, is one of the largest medieval fortresses of Western Europe. It remained an essential feature of Norman strategy and policy. At Christmas 1182, a royal court celebration for Christmas in the aula of Caen Castle brought together Henry II and his sons, Richard the Lionheart and John Lackland, receiving more than a thousand knights. Caen Castle, along with all of Normandy, was handed over to the French Crown in 1204. The castle saw several engagements during the Hundred Years' War (1346, 1417, 1450) and was in use as a barracks as late as the Second World War. Bullet holes are visible on the walls of the castle where members of the French Resistance were shot during the Second World War. Today, the castle serves as a museum that houses the Musée des Beaux-Arts de Caen (Museum of Fine Arts of Caen) and Musée de Normandie (Museum of Normandy) along with many periodical exhibitions about arts and history. (See Timeline of Caen Castle at the Wayback Machine (archived February 13, 2006))
- Eglise St.-Etienne, formerly the Abbaye aux Hommes (Men's Abbey). It was completed in 1063 and is dedicated to St Stephen. The current Hôtel de Ville (town hall) of Caen is built onto the South Transept of the building.
- Eglise de la Ste.-Trinité, formerly the Abbaye aux Dames (Women's Abbey). It was completed in 1060 and is dedicated to the Holy Trinity. The current seat of the regional council (conseil régional) of Basse-Normandie is nearby.
- Jardin botanique de Caen, a historic botanical garden
- Church of Saint-Pierre
- Mémorial pour la Paix ("Memorial for Peace") built in 1988, charting the events leading up to and after D-Day. It is an emotional presentation inviting meditation on the thought of Elie Wiesel: "Peace is not a gift from God to man, but a gift from man to himself". The Memorial for Peace also includes an exhibit of Nobel Peace Prize winners and another one on Conflict Resolution in different cultures.
- Parc Festyland, an amusement park to the west of Caen in the nearby town of Carpiquet. The park receives 110,000 visitors every year.
- Mondeville 2 is a regional shopping centre in adjoining Mondeville.
Recent Mayors of Caen have included:
- 1959–1970: Jean-Marie Louvel, MRP & Centre démocrate
- 1970–2001: Jean-Marie Girault, Parti républicain UDF
- 2001–2008: Brigitte Le Brethon, RPR & UMP
- 2008–2014: Philippe Duron, PS
- 2014–present : Joël Bruneau, UMP
In 1952, the small commune of Venoix became part of Caen.
In 1990, the agglomeration of Caen was organized into a district, transformed in 2002 into a Communauté d'agglomération (Grand Caen (Greater Caen), renamed Caen la Mer in 2004), gathers 29 towns and villages, including Villons-les-Buissons, Lions-sur-mer, Hermanville-sur-mer, which joined the Communauté d'agglomération in 2004. The population of the "communauté d'agglomération" is around 220000 inhabitants.
In the former administrative organisation, Caen was a part of 9 cantons, of which it is the chief town. These cantons contain a total of 13 towns. Caen gives its name to a 10th canton, of which it is not part.
Caen has a recently built, controversial guided bus system—built by Bombardier Transportation and modelled on its Guided Light Transit technology—and a very efficient network of city buses, operated under the name Twisto. Faced with the residents' anger against the project, the municipality had to pursue the project with only 23% of the population in favour of the new form of transport. The road layout of the city centre was deeply transformed and the formerly traffic-jam-free centre's problems are still unresolved. The city is also connected to the rest of the Calvados département by the Bus Verts du Calvados bus network.
Caen - Carpiquet Airport is the biggest airport in Lower-Normandy considering the number of passengers that it serves every year. Most flights are operated by HOP! and Chalair Aviation and the French national airline Air France operates three daily flights to the French city of Lyon, while in the summer there are many charter flights to Spain, the United Kingdom, Germany, Tunisia, Morocco and Algeria.
Caen is served by the small port of Ouistreham, lying at the mouth of the Caen Canal where it meets the English Channel. A ferry service operates between Portsmouth, England, and Caen/Ouistreham running both standard roll-on-roll-off car ferries and supercat fast ferries, with the latter making crossing from March to November. The ferry terminal is Script error: No such module "convert". from Caen with a daytime shuttle bus service for foot passengers.
Caen is connected to the rest of France by motorways to Paris (A13), Brittany (A84) and soon to Le Mans (A88–A28). The A13 is a toll road while the A84 is a toll-free motorway. The city is encircled by the N814 ring-road that was completed in the late 1990s. The N13 connects Caen to Cherbourg and to Paris. A section of the former N13 (Caen-Paris) is now D613 (in Calvados) following road renumbering. The N814 ring-road includes an impressive viaduct called the Viaduc de Calix that goes over the canal and River Orne. The canal links the city to the sea to permit cargo ships and ferries to dock in the port of Caen. Ferries which have docked include the Quiberon and the Duc de Normandie.
Although a fraction of what it used to be remains, Caen once boasted an extensive rail and tram network. From 1895 until 1936, the Compagnie des Tramways Electriques de Caen (Electrical Tramway Company of Caen) operated all around the city. Caen also had several main and branch railway lines linking Caen railway station to all parts of Normandy with lines to Paris, Vire, Flers, Cabourg, Houlgate, Deauville, Saint-Lô, Bayeux and Cherbourg. Now only the electrified line of Paris-Cherbourg, Caen-Le Mans and Caen-Rennes subsist with minimal services.
- The University of Caen, Université de Caen, has around 25,000 students in three different campuses, all linked by a tramway. The University is divided into 11 colleges, called UFR (Unité fondamentale de Recherche), six institutes, one Engineering School, two IUP and five local campuses. The University is one of the oldest in France, having been founded by Henry VI, King of England in 1432.
- Caen also has a Fine Arts school (École des Beaux-Arts) and "grandes écoles" such as the École nationale supérieure d'ingénieurs de Caen.
Music and theatre
The Théâtre de Caen is the home of the Baroque musical ensemble Les Arts Florissants. The organization was founded by conductor William Christie in 1979 and derives its name from the 1685 opera by Marc-Antoine Charpentier.
Caen was the birthplace of:
- Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester (c. 1090–1147), illegitimate son of Henry I of England;
- Jean Bertaut (1552–1611), poet;
- François Le Métel de Boisrobert (1592–1662), poet;
- François de Malherbe (1555–1628), poet, critic and translator (Malherbe's birthplace has survived);
- Tanneguy Le Fèvre (1615–1672), classical scholar;
- Jean Renaud de Segrais (1624–1701), poet and novelist;
- Pierre Daniel Huet (1630–1721), churchman and scholar;
- René Auguste Constantin de Renneville (1650–1723), writer;
- Pierre Varignon (1654–1722), mathematician;
- Charlotte Corday (d. 1793), assassin of Marat;
- François Henri Turpin (1709–1799), man of literature;
- Jacques Clinchamps de Malfilâtre (1732-1767), poet;
- Jean de Crèvecoeur (1735–1813), French-American writer;
- Jean-Jacques Boisard (1744–1833), writer who specialized in fables;
- Gervais Delarue (1751–1835), historian;
- Louis Gustave le Doulcet, Comte de Pontécoulant (1764–1853), politician;
- Daniel Auber (1782–1871), composer;
- Jacques Amand Eudes-Deslongchamps (1794–1867), French naturalist and palaeontologist;
- Étienne Mélingue (1808–1875), actor and sculptor;
- Jules Danbé (1840–1905) opera conductor;
- André Danjon (1890–1967), astronomer;
- Marie-Pierre Koenig (1898–1970), general who commanded a Free French Brigade at the Battle of Bir Hakeim in 1942, Maréchal de France.
- Joël Thomas (1987– ), professional football player;
- Elliot Grandin (1987– ), professional football player.
Twin towns and sister cities
- Published in the 19th century
- "Caen", A handbook for travellers in France, London: John Murray, 1861
- C. B. Black (1876), "Caen", Guide to the north of France, Edinburgh: Adam and Charles Black
- "Caen", Northern France, Leipsic: Karl Baedeker, 1899, OCLC 2229516
- Published in the 20th century
- "Caen", The Encyclopaedia Britannica (11th ed.), New York: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1910, OCLC 14782424
- Published in the 21st century
- Joseph Decaëns and Adrien Dubois (ed.), Caen Castle. A ten Centuries Old Fortress within the Town, Publications du CRAHM, 2010, ISBN 978-2-902685-75-2, Publications du CRAHM
- Stade Malherbe de Caen, Caen's football team
- Caen Stone
- Operation Charnwood
- Operation Overlord
- Communes of the Calvados department
- Cabinet du maire de Caen
- French motto and heraldry site
- Royal Chant, Pierre Gringoire (1475–1539)
- "Mémorial des victimes civiles 1944 en Basse-Normandie". Crhq.cnrs.fr. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- Marie Fauroux, Recueil des actes des ducs de Normandie (911–1066), Mémoires de la Société des antiquaires de Normandie XXXVI, Caen, 1961, p. 122, n° 32.
- Ibid., p. 130, n° 34.
- Villam que dicitur Cathim super fluvium Olne: the town called Cathim on the Orne river, ibid., p. 182, n° 58.
- "Manuscript A: The Parker Chronicle". Asc.jebbo.co.uk. 15 August 2007. Retrieved 7 July 2009.
- Her Landfranc se þe wæs abbod an Kadum com to Ængla lande: Here Lanfranc who was abbot at Caen came to England.
- René Lepelley, Dictionnaire étymologique des noms de communes de Normandie, P.U.C., Corlet, Caen, Condé-sur-Noireau, 1996)
- Brut, l. 13,936
- "National Commission for Decentralised cooperation". Délégation pour l’Action Extérieure des Collectivités Territoriales (Ministère des Affaires étrangères) (in French). Retrieved 26 December 2013.
- Mairie de Caen. "Caen, terre d'échanges". Retrieved 28 September 2009.
- "Sister Cities of Nashville". SCNashville.org. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
- Griffin, Mary (2 August 2011). "Coventry's twin towns". Coventry Telegraph. Retrieved 6 August 2013.
- "Coventry - Twin towns and cities". Coventry City Council. Archived from the original on 14 April 2013. Retrieved 6 August 2013.
- "British towns twinned with French towns". Archant Community Media Ltd. Retrieved 11 July 2013.
- (6 June 1987)"Twin Towns in Hampshire". www3.hants.gov.uk. Retrieved 6 November 2009.
- Caen dans le Tour de France depuis 1947
|40x40px||Wikimedia Commons has media related to Caen.|
|40x40px||Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Caen.|
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- Caen Borough Council at the Wayback Machine (archived December 12, 2007) Invalid language code.
- Encyclopaedia Britannica Caen
- Mémorial pour la Paix museum
- Caen town guide
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